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Magic Rules Changes

Aether Revolt to Amonkhet

General

Aether RevoltAmonkhet
104.2b.104.2b.

An effect may state that a player wins the game. (In multiplayer games, this may not cause the game to end; see rule 104.3h.)

An effect may state that a player wins the game.

104.3h.104.3h.

In a multiplayer game, an effect that states that a player wins the game instead causes all of that player's opponents to lose the game. (This may not cause the game to end if the limited range of influence option is being used; see rule 801.)

In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801), an effect that states that a player wins the game instead causes all of that player's opponents within the player's range of influence to lose the game. This may not cause the game to end.

108.2.108.2.

When a rule or text on a card refers to a "card," it means only a Magic card. Most Magic games use only traditional Magic cards, which measure approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 cm) by 3.5 inches (8.8 cm). Certain formats also use nontraditional Magic cards, oversized cards that may have different backs. Tokens aren't considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn't considered a card for rules purposes.

When a rule or text on a card refers to a "card," it means only a Magic card or an object represented by a Magic card.

108.2a.108.2a.

In the text of spells or abilities, the term "card" is usually used to refer to a card that's not on the battlefield or on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. The term "card" can also refer to a card in any zone that's moving "from anywhere." On rare occasions, the text of a spell or ability may refer to a nontoken permanent as a "card . . . on the battlefield." For more information, see section 4, "Zones."

Most Magic games use only traditional Magic cards, which measure approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 cm) by 3.5 inches (8.8 cm). Certain formats also use nontraditional Magic cards, oversized cards that may have different backs.

108.2b.

Tokens aren't considered cards—even a card-sized game supplement that represents a token isn't considered a card for rules purposes.

112.6h.112.6h.

An object's ability that states counters can't be placed on that object functions as that object is entering the battlefield in addition to functioning while that object is on the battlefield.

An object's ability that states counters can't be put on that object functions as that object is entering the battlefield in addition to functioning while that object is on the battlefield.

115.2.115.2.

There are seven special actions:

There are eight special actions:

115.2c.115.2c.

Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time, usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority, but only if the ability or effect allows it.

Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time, usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority, unless that effect specifies another timing restriction, for as long as the effect allows it.

115.2e.

One card (Circling Vultures) has the ability "You may discard Circling Vultures any time you could cast an instant." Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority.

115.2e.115.2f.

A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may exile that card. This is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority, but only if he or she could begin to cast that card by putting it onto the stack. See rule 702.61, "Suspend."

A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may exile that card. This is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority, but only if he or she could begin to cast that card by putting it onto the stack. See rule 702.61, "Suspend."

115.2f.115.2g.

In a Planechase game, rolling the planar die is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. Note that this number won't be equal to the number of times the player has rolled the planar die that turn if an effect has caused the player to roll the planar die that turn. See rule 901, "Planechase."

In a Planechase game, rolling the planar die is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. Note that this number won't be equal to the number of times the player has rolled the planar die that turn if an effect has caused the player to roll the planar die that turn. See rule 901, "Planechase."

115.2g.115.2h.

In a Conspiracy Draft game, turning a face-down conspiracy card in the command zone face up is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority. See rule 905.4a.

In a Conspiracy Draft game, turning a face-down conspiracy card in the command zone face up is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority. See rule 905.4a.

119.3b.119.3b.

Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect causes that player to get that many poison counters.

Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect causes that source's controller to give the player that many poison counters.

119.3d.119.3d.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither and/or infect causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither and/or infect causes that source's controller to put that many -1/-1 counters on that creature.

121.6.121.6.

Some spells and abilities refer to counters being "placed" on an object. This refers to putting counters on that object while it's on the battlefield and also to an object that's given counters as it enters the battlefield.

Some spells and abilities refer to counters being put on an object. This refers to putting counters on that object while it's on the battlefield and also to an object that's given counters as it enters the battlefield.

121.6a.

If an object enters the battlefield with counters on it, the effect causing the object to be given counters may specify which player puts those counters on it. If the effect doesn't specify a player, the object's controller puts those counters on it.

201.3.201.3.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card, the player must choose the name of a card that is legal in the format of the game the player is playing. (See rule 100.6.) A player may not choose the name of a token unless it's also the name of a card.

If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name, the player must choose the name of a card that is legal in the format of the game the player is playing. (See rule 100.6.) A player may not choose the name of a token unless it's also the name of a card.

201.3a.

If a player is instructed to choose a card name with certain characteristics, the player must choose the name of a card whose Oracle text matches those characteristics. (See rule 108.1.)

Example: Dispossess reads, in part, "Choose an artifact card name." The player can choose the name of any artifact card that's legal in the format of the current game. The player can't choose Island, even if an Island on the battlefield has been turned into artifact by some effect.

201.3a.201.3b.

If a player wants to name a split card, the player must choose the name of one of its halves, but not both. (See rule 708.)

If a player wants to choose the name of a split card, the player must choose the name of one of its halves, but not both. (See rule 708.) If a player is instructed to choose a card name with certain characteristics, use the only that half's characteristics to determine if this name can be chosen.

201.3b.201.3c.

If a player wants to name a flip card's alternative name, the player may do so. (See rule 709.)

If a player wants to choose a flip card's alternative name, the player may do so. (See rule 709.) If a player is instructed to choose a card name with certain characteristics, use the card's characteristics as modified by its alternative characteristics to determine if this name can be chosen.

201.3c.201.3d.

If a player wants to name the back face of a double-faced card, the player may do so. (See rule 711.)

If a player wants to choose the name of the back face of a double-faced card, the player may do so. (See rule 711.) If a player is instructed to choose a card name with certain characteristics, use only the characteristics of the back face to determine if this name can be chosen.

201.3d.201.3e.

If a player wants to name the combined back face of a meld pair, the player may do so. (See rule 712.)

If a player wants to choose the name of the combined back face of a meld pair, the player may do so. (See rule 712.) If a player is instructed to choose a card name with certain characteristics, use only the characteristics of the combined back face to determine if this name can be chosen.

205.3h.205.3h.

Enchantments have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called enchantment types. The enchantment types are Aura (see rule 303.4), Curse, and Shrine.

Enchantments have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called enchantment types. The enchantment types are Aura (see rule 303.4), Cartouche, Curse, and Shrine.

205.3m.205.3m.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Aetherborn, Ally, Angel, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Elder, Eldrazi, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Germ, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, God, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Hippogriff, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lamia, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Mole, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monkey, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Naga, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Nymph, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pilot, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Praetor, Prism, Processor, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Sable, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scion, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Servo, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Werewolf, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Aetherborn, Ally, Angel, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Elder, Eldrazi, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Germ, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, God, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Hippogriff, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lamia, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Mole, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monkey, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Naga, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Nymph, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pilot, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Praetor, Prism, Processor, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Sable, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scion, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Servo, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Werewolf, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

206.3.206.3.

Previously, a spell or ability that affected cards from a particular set checked for that set's expansion symbol. These cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say they affect cards "originally printed" in a particular set. See rule 700.6 for details.

Previously, a spell or ability that affected cards from a particular set checked for that set's expansion symbol. These cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say they affect cards "with a name originally printed" in a particular set. See rule 700.6 for details.

400.7.400.7.

An object that moves from one zone to another becomes a new object with no memory of, or relation to, its previous existence. There are eight exceptions to this rule:

An object that moves from one zone to another becomes a new object with no memory of, or relation to, its previous existence. There are nine exceptions to this rule:

400.7i.

After resolving a madness triggered ability (see rule 702.34), if the exiled card wasn't cast and was moved to a public zone, effects referencing the discarded card can find that object.

508.1g.

If there are any optional costs to attack with the chosen creatures (expressed as costs a player may pay "as" a creature attacks), the active player chooses which, if any, he or she will pay.

508.1g.508.1h.

If any of the chosen creatures require paying costs to attack, the active player determines the total cost to attack. Costs may include paying mana, tapping permanents, sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. Once the total cost is determined, it becomes "locked in." If effects would change the total cost after this time, ignore this change.

If any of the chosen creatures require paying costs to attack, or if any optional costs to attack were chosen, the active player determines the total cost to attack. Costs may include paying mana, tapping permanents, sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. Once the total cost is determined, it becomes "locked in." If effects would change the total cost after this time, ignore this change.

508.1h.508.1i.

If any of the costs require mana, the active player then has a chance to activate mana abilities (see rule 605, "Mana Abilities").

If any of the costs require mana, the active player then has a chance to activate mana abilities (see rule 605, "Mana Abilities").

508.1i.508.1j.

Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool, he or she pays all costs in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.

Once the player has enough mana in his or her mana pool, he or she pays all costs in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.

508.1j.508.1k.

Each chosen creature still controlled by the active player becomes an attacking creature. It remains an attacking creature until it's removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 506.4.

Each chosen creature still controlled by the active player becomes an attacking creature. It remains an attacking creature until it's removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 506.4.

508.1k.508.1m.

Any abilities that trigger on attackers being declared trigger.

Any abilities that trigger on attackers being declared trigger.

603.12.

A resolving spell or ability may allow a player to take an action and create a triggered ability that triggers "when [a player] [does or doesn't]" take that action. These reflexive triggered abilities follow the rules for delayed triggered abilities (see rule 603.7), except that they're checked immediately after being created and trigger based on whether the trigger event occurred earlier during the resolution of the spell or ability that created them.

Example: Heart-Piercer Manticore has an ability that reads "When Heart-Piercer Manticore enters the battlefield, you may sacrifice another creature. When you do, Heart-Piercer Manticore deals damage equal to that creature's power to target creature or player." The reflexive triggered ability triggers only when you sacrifice another creature due to the original triggered ability, and not if you sacrifice a creature for any other reason.

607.2d.607.2d.

If an object has an ability printed on it that causes a player to "choose a [value]" or "name a card" and an ability printed on it that refers to "the chosen [value]," "the last chosen [value]," or "the named card," those abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to a choice made as a result of the first ability.

If an object has an ability printed on it that causes a player to "choose a [value]" and an ability printed on it that refers to "the chosen [value]," "the last chosen [value]," or similar, those abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to a choice made as a result of the first ability.

614.16.

Some effects state that something can't happen. These effects aren't replacement effects, but follow similar rules.

614.16a.

"Can't" effects must exist before the appropriate event occurs—they can't "go back in time" and change something that's already happened.

614.16b.

If an event can't happen, a player can't choose to pay a cost that includes that event.

614.16c.

If an event can't happen, it can only be replaced by a self-replacement effect (see rule 614.15). Other replacement and/or prevention effects can't modify or replace it.

614.16d.

Some "can't" effects modify how a permanent enters the battlefield or whether it can enter the battlefield. Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. To determine which "can't" effects apply, check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist on the battlefield, taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it enters the battlefield (see rule 616.1), continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent's characteristics on the stack (see rule 400.7a), and continuous effects from the permanent's own static abilities, but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.

616.1f.

While following the steps in 616.1a-d, one replacement or prevention effect may apply to an event, and another may apply to an event contained within the first event. In this case, the second effect can't be chosen until after the first effect has been chosen.

Example: A player is instructed to create a token that's a copy of Voice of All, which has the ability "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color." Doubling Season has an ability that reads "If an effect would create one or more tokens under your control, it creates twice that many of those tokens instead." Because entering the battlefield is an event contained within the event of creating a token, the effect of Doubling Season must be applied first, and then the effects of the two Voice of All tokens may be applied in either order.

700.6.700.6.

Some cards refer to cards originally printed in a particular set.

Some cards refer to cards with a name originally printed in a particular set.

700.6a.700.6a.

One card (City in a Bottle) refers to permanents and cards with the same name as a card originally printed in the Arabian Nights (tm) expansion. Those cards are Abu Ja'far, Aladdin, Aladdin's Lamp, Aladdin's Ring, Ali Baba, Ali from Cairo, Army of Allah, Bazaar of Baghdad, Bird Maiden, Bottle of Suleiman, Brass Man, Camel, City in a Bottle, City of Brass, Cuombajj Witches, Cyclone, Dancing Scimitar, Dandan, Desert, Desert Nomads, Desert Twister, Diamond Valley, Drop of Honey, Ebony Horse, Elephant Graveyard, El-Hajjaj, Erg Raiders, Erhnam Djinn, Eye for an Eye, Fishliver Oil, Flying Carpet, Flying Men, Ghazban Ogre, Giant Tortoise, Guardian Beast, Hasran Ogress, Hurr Jackal, Ifh-Biff Efreet, Island Fish Jasconius, Island of Wak-Wak, Jandor's Ring, Jandor's Saddlebags, Jeweled Bird, Jihad, Junun Efreet, Juzam Djinn, Khabal Ghoul, King Suleiman, Kird Ape, Library of Alexandria, Magnetic Mountain, Merchant Ship, Metamorphosis, Mijae Djinn, Moorish Cavalry, Nafs Asp, Oasis, Old Man of the Sea, Oubliette, Piety, Pyramids, Repentant Blacksmith, Ring of Ma'ruf, Rukh Egg, Sandals of Abdallah, Sandstorm, Serendib Djinn, Serendib Efreet, Shahrazad, Sindbad, Singing Tree, Sorceress Queen, Stone-Throwing Devils, Unstable Mutation, War Elephant, Wyluli Wolf, and Ydwen Efreet.

One card (City in a Bottle) refers to permanents and cards with a name originally printed in the Arabian Nights (tm) expansion. Those names are Abu Ja'far, Aladdin, Aladdin's Lamp, Aladdin's Ring, Ali Baba, Ali from Cairo, Army of Allah, Bazaar of Baghdad, Bird Maiden, Bottle of Suleiman, Brass Man, Camel, City in a Bottle, City of Brass, Cuombajj Witches, Cyclone, Dancing Scimitar, Dandan, Desert, Desert Nomads, Desert Twister, Diamond Valley, Drop of Honey, Ebony Horse, Elephant Graveyard, El-Hajjaj, Erg Raiders, Erhnam Djinn, Eye for an Eye, Fishliver Oil, Flying Carpet, Flying Men, Ghazban Ogre, Giant Tortoise, Guardian Beast, Hasran Ogress, Hurr Jackal, Ifh-Biff Efreet, Island Fish Jasconius, Island of Wak-Wak, Jandor's Ring, Jandor's Saddlebags, Jeweled Bird, Jihad, Junun Efreet, Juzam Djinn, Khabal Ghoul, King Suleiman, Kird Ape, Library of Alexandria, Magnetic Mountain, Merchant Ship, Metamorphosis, Mijae Djinn, Moorish Cavalry, Nafs Asp, Oasis, Old Man of the Sea, Oubliette, Piety, Pyramids, Repentant Blacksmith, Ring of Ma'ruf, Rukh Egg, Sandals of Abdallah, Sandstorm, Serendib Djinn, Serendib Efreet, Shahrazad, Sindbad, Singing Tree, Sorceress Queen, Stone-Throwing Devils, Unstable Mutation, War Elephant, Wyluli Wolf, and Ydwen Efreet.

700.6b.700.6b.

One card (Golgothian Sylex) refers to permanents with the same name as a card originally printed in the Antiquities (tm) expansion. Those cards are Amulet of Kroog, Argivian Archaeologist, Argivian Blacksmith, Argothian Pixies, Argothian Treefolk, Armageddon Clock, Artifact Blast, Artifact Possession, Artifact Ward, Ashnod's Altar, Ashnod's Battle Gear, Ashnod's Transmogrant, Atog, Battering Ram, Bronze Tablet, Candelabra of Tawnos, Circle of Protection: Artifacts, Citanul Druid, Clay Statue, Clockwork Avian, Colossus of Sardia, Coral Helm, Crumble, Cursed Rack, Damping Field, Detonate, Drafna's Restoration, Dragon Engine, Dwarven Weaponsmith, Energy Flux, Feldon's Cane, Gaea's Avenger, Gate to Phyrexia, Goblin Artisans, Golgothian Sylex, Grapeshot Catapult, Haunting Wind, Hurkyl's Recall, Ivory Tower, Jalum Tome, Martyrs of Korlis, Mightstone, Millstone, Mishra's Factory, Mishra's War Machine, Mishra's Workshop, Obelisk of Undoing, Onulet, Orcish Mechanics, Ornithopter, Phyrexian Gremlins, Power Artifact, Powerleech, Priest of Yawgmoth, Primal Clay, The Rack, Rakalite, Reconstruction, Reverse Polarity, Rocket Launcher, Sage of Lat-Nam, Shapeshifter, Shatterstorm, Staff of Zegon, Strip Mine, Su-Chi, Tablet of Epityr, Tawnos's Coffin, Tawnos's Wand, Tawnos's Weaponry, Tetravus, Titania's Song, Transmute Artifact, Triskelion, Urza's Avenger, Urza's Chalice, Urza's Mine, Urza's Miter, Urza's Power Plant, Urza's Tower, Wall of Spears, Weakstone, Xenic Poltergeist, Yawgmoth Demon, and Yotian Soldier.

One card (Golgothian Sylex) refers to permanents a name originally printed in the Antiquities (tm) expansion. Those names are Amulet of Kroog, Argivian Archaeologist, Argivian Blacksmith, Argothian Pixies, Argothian Treefolk, Armageddon Clock, Artifact Blast, Artifact Possession, Artifact Ward, Ashnod's Altar, Ashnod's Battle Gear, Ashnod's Transmogrant, Atog, Battering Ram, Bronze Tablet, Candelabra of Tawnos, Circle of Protection: Artifacts, Citanul Druid, Clay Statue, Clockwork Avian, Colossus of Sardia, Coral Helm, Crumble, Cursed Rack, Damping Field, Detonate, Drafna's Restoration, Dragon Engine, Dwarven Weaponsmith, Energy Flux, Feldon's Cane, Gaea's Avenger, Gate to Phyrexia, Goblin Artisans, Golgothian Sylex, Grapeshot Catapult, Haunting Wind, Hurkyl's Recall, Ivory Tower, Jalum Tome, Martyrs of Korlis, Mightstone, Millstone, Mishra's Factory, Mishra's War Machine, Mishra's Workshop, Obelisk of Undoing, Onulet, Orcish Mechanics, Ornithopter, Phyrexian Gremlins, Power Artifact, Powerleech, Priest of Yawgmoth, Primal Clay, The Rack, Rakalite, Reconstruction, Reverse Polarity, Rocket Launcher, Sage of Lat-Nam, Shapeshifter, Shatterstorm, Staff of Zegon, Strip Mine, Su-Chi, Tablet of Epityr, Tawnos's Coffin, Tawnos's Wand, Tawnos's Weaponry, Tetravus, Titania's Song, Transmute Artifact, Triskelion, Urza's Avenger, Urza's Chalice, Urza's Mine, Urza's Miter, Urza's Power Plant, Urza's Tower, Wall of Spears, Weakstone, Xenic Poltergeist, Yawgmoth Demon, and Yotian Soldier.

700.6c.700.6c.

One card (Apocalypse Chime) refers to permanents with the same name as a card originally printed in the Homelands (tm) expansion. Those cards are Abbey Gargoyles; Abbey Matron; Aether Storm; Aliban's Tower; Ambush; Ambush Party; Anaba Ancestor; Anaba Bodyguard; Anaba Shaman; Anaba Spirit Crafter; An-Havva Constable; An-Havva Inn; An-Havva Township; An-Zerrin Ruins; Apocalypse Chime; Autumn Willow; Aysen Abbey; Aysen Bureaucrats; Aysen Crusader; Aysen Highway; Baki's Curse; Baron Sengir; Beast Walkers; Black Carriage; Broken Visage; Carapace; Castle Sengir; Cemetery Gate; Chain Stasis; Chandler; Clockwork Gnomes; Clockwork Steed; Clockwork Swarm; Coral Reef; Dark Maze; Daughter of Autumn; Death Speakers; Didgeridoo; Drudge Spell; Dry Spell; Dwarven Pony; Dwarven Sea Clan; Dwarven Trader; Ebony Rhino; Eron the Relentless; Evaporate; Faerie Noble; Feast of the Unicorn; Feroz's Ban; Folk of An-Havva; Forget; Funeral March; Ghost Hounds; Giant Albatross; Giant Oyster; Grandmother Sengir; Greater Werewolf; Hazduhr the Abbot; Headstone; Heart Wolf; Hungry Mist; Ihsan's Shade; Irini Sengir; Ironclaw Curse; Jinx; Joven; Joven's Ferrets; Joven's Tools; Koskun Falls; Koskun Keep; Labyrinth Minotaur; Leaping Lizard; Leeches; Mammoth Harness; Marjhan; Memory Lapse; Merchant Scroll; Mesa Falcon; Mystic Decree; Narwhal; Orcish Mine; Primal Order; Prophecy; Rashka the Slayer; Reef Pirates; Renewal; Retribution; Reveka, Wizard Savant; Root Spider; Roots; Roterothopter; Rysorian Badger; Samite Alchemist; Sea Sprite; Sea Troll; Sengir Autocrat; Sengir Bats; Serra Aviary; Serra Bestiary; Serra Inquisitors; Serra Paladin; Serrated Arrows; Shrink; Soraya the Falconer; Spectral Bears; Timmerian Fiends; Torture; Trade Caravan; Truce; Veldrane of Sengir; Wall of Kelp; Willow Faerie; Willow Priestess; Winter Sky; and Wizards' School.

One card (Apocalypse Chime) refers to permanents with a name originally printed in the Homelands (tm) expansion. Those names are Abbey Gargoyles; Abbey Matron; Aether Storm; Aliban's Tower; Ambush; Ambush Party; Anaba Ancestor; Anaba Bodyguard; Anaba Shaman; Anaba Spirit Crafter; An-Havva Constable; An-Havva Inn; An-Havva Township; An-Zerrin Ruins; Apocalypse Chime; Autumn Willow; Aysen Abbey; Aysen Bureaucrats; Aysen Crusader; Aysen Highway; Baki's Curse; Baron Sengir; Beast Walkers; Black Carriage; Broken Visage; Carapace; Castle Sengir; Cemetery Gate; Chain Stasis; Chandler; Clockwork Gnomes; Clockwork Steed; Clockwork Swarm; Coral Reef; Dark Maze; Daughter of Autumn; Death Speakers; Didgeridoo; Drudge Spell; Dry Spell; Dwarven Pony; Dwarven Sea Clan; Dwarven Trader; Ebony Rhino; Eron the Relentless; Evaporate; Faerie Noble; Feast of the Unicorn; Feroz's Ban; Folk of An-Havva; Forget; Funeral March; Ghost Hounds; Giant Albatross; Giant Oyster; Grandmother Sengir; Greater Werewolf; Hazduhr the Abbot; Headstone; Heart Wolf; Hungry Mist; Ihsan's Shade; Irini Sengir; Ironclaw Curse; Jinx; Joven; Joven's Ferrets; Joven's Tools; Koskun Falls; Koskun Keep; Labyrinth Minotaur; Leaping Lizard; Leeches; Mammoth Harness; Marjhan; Memory Lapse; Merchant Scroll; Mesa Falcon; Mystic Decree; Narwhal; Orcish Mine; Primal Order; Prophecy; Rashka the Slayer; Reef Pirates; Renewal; Retribution; Reveka, Wizard Savant; Root Spider; Roots; Roterothopter; Rysorian Badger; Samite Alchemist; Sea Sprite; Sea Troll; Sengir Autocrat; Sengir Bats; Serra Aviary; Serra Bestiary; Serra Inquisitors; Serra Paladin; Serrated Arrows; Shrink; Soraya the Falconer; Spectral Bears; Timmerian Fiends; Torture; Trade Caravan; Truce; Veldrane of Sengir; Wall of Kelp; Willow Faerie; Willow Priestess; Winter Sky; and Wizards' School.

701.37.

Exert

701.37a.

To exert a permanent, you choose to have it not untap during your next untap step.

701.37b.

A permanent can be exerted even if it's not tapped or has already been exerted in a turn. If you exert a permanent more than once before your next untap step, each effect causing it not to untap expires during the same untap step.

701.37c.

An object that isn't on the battlefield can't be exerted.

701.37d.

"You may exert [this creature] as it attacks" is an optional cost to attack (see rule 508.1g). Some objects with this static ability have a triggered ability that triggers "when you do" printed in the same paragraph. These abilities are linked. (See rule 607.2g.)

702.1b.

An effect that grants an object a keyword ability may define a variable in that ability based on characteristics of that object or other information about the game state. For these abilities, the value of that variable is constantly reevaluated.

Example: Volcano Hellion has the ability "Volcano Hellion has echo {X}, where X is your life total." If your life total is 10 when Volcano Hellion's echo ability triggers but 5 when it resolves, the echo cost to pay is {5}.

Example: Fire//Ice is a split card whose halves have the associated mana costs {1}{R} and {1}{U}. Past in Flames reads "Each instant and sorcery card in your graveyard gains flashback until end of turn. The flashback cost is equal to its mana cost." Fire//Ice has "Flashback {2}{U}{R}" while it is in your graveyard, but if you choose to cast Fire, the resulting spell has "Flashback {1}{R}."

702.28c.702.28c.

Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they're cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost." These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it's cycled.

Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they're cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay an activation cost of a cycling ability." These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it's cycled.

702.28d.

Some cards have abilities that trigger whenever a player "cycles or discards" a card. These abilities trigger only once when a card is cycled.

702.28d.702.28e.

Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. "[Type]cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." This type is usually a subtype (as in "mountaincycling") but can be any card type, subtype, supertype, or combination thereof (as in "basic landcycling").

Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. "[Type]cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." This type is usually a subtype (as in "mountaincycling") but can be any card type, subtype, supertype, or combination thereof (as in "basic landcycling").

702.28e.702.28f.

Typecycling abilities are cycling abilities, and typecycling costs are cycling costs. Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards' typecycling abilities. Any effect that increases or reduces a cycling cost will increase or reduce a typecycling cost.

Typecycling abilities are cycling abilities, and typecycling costs are cycling costs. Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay an activation cost of a typecycling ability. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards' typecycling abilities. Any effect that increases or reduces a cycling cost will increase or reduce a typecycling cost. Any effect that looks for a card with cycling will find a card with typecycling.

702.34c.

After resolving a madness triggered ability, if the exiled card wasn't cast and was moved to a public zone, effects referencing the discarded card can find that card. See rule 400.7i.

702.79a.702.79a.

Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 119.3.

Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that source's controller to put that many -1/-1 counters on that creature. See rule 119.3.

702.89b.702.89b.

Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect doesn't cause that player to lose life. Rather, it causes the player to get that many poison counters. See rule 119.3.

Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect doesn't cause that player to lose life. Rather, it causes that source's controller to give the player that many poison counters. See rule 119.3.

702.89c.702.89c.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with infect isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 119.3.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with infect isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that source's controller to put that many -1/-1 counters on that creature. See rule 119.3.

702.101a.702.101a.

Fuse is a static ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, "Split Cards") that applies while the card with fuse is in a player's hand. If a player casts a split card with fuse from his or her hand, the player may choose to cast both halves of that split card. This choice is made before putting the split card with fuse onto the stack. The resulting spell is a fused split spell.

Fuse is a static ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, "Split Cards") that applies while the card with fuse is in a player's hand. If a player casts a split card with fuse from his or her hand, the player may choose to cast both halves of that split card rather than choose one half. This choice is made before putting the split card with fuse onto the stack. The resulting spell is a fused split spell.

702.101b.702.101b.

A fused split spell has two sets of characteristics and one converted mana cost. The converted mana cost of the spell is a number equal to the total amount of mana in its two mana costs, regardless of color.

A fused split spell has the combined characteristics of its two halves. (See rule 708.4.)

702.101c.702.101c.

The total cost of a fused split spell includes the mana cost of each half. (See rule 601.2f.)

The total cost of a fused split spell includes the mana cost of each half.

702.103a.702.103a.

Tribute is a static ability that functions as the creature with tribute is entering the battlefield. "Tribute N" means "As this creature enters the battlefield, choose an opponent. That player may have this creature enter the battlefield with an additional N +1/+1 counters on it."

Tribute is a static ability that functions as the creature with tribute is entering the battlefield. "Tribute N" means "As this creature enters the battlefield, choose an opponent. That player may put an additional N +1/+1 counters on it as it enters the battlefield."

702.105a.702.105a.

Hidden agenda is a static ability that functions as a conspiracy card with hidden agenda is put into the command zone. "Hidden agenda" means "As you put this conspiracy card into the command zone, turn it face down and secretly name a card."

Hidden agenda is a static ability that functions as a conspiracy card with hidden agenda is put into the command zone. "Hidden agenda" means "As you put this conspiracy card into the command zone, turn it face down and secretly choose a card name."

702.105b.702.105b.

To secretly name a card, note that name on a piece of paper kept with the face-down conspiracy card.

To secretly choose a card name, note that name on a piece of paper kept with the face-down conspiracy card.

702.105c.702.105c.

Any time you have priority, you may turn a face-down conspiracy card you control in the command zone face up. This is a special action. Doing so will reveal the chosen name. See rule 115.2g.

Any time you have priority, you may turn a face-down conspiracy card you control in the command zone face up. This is a special action. Doing so will reveal the chosen name. See rule 115.2h.

702.105f.702.105f.

Double agenda is a variant of the hidden agenda ability. As you put a conspiracy card with double agenda into the command zone, you secretly name two different cards rather than one. You don't reveal the number of cards secretly named until you reveal the chosen names.

Double agenda is a variant of the hidden agenda ability. As you put a conspiracy card with double agenda into the command zone, you secretly name two different cards rather than one. You don't reveal that more than one name was secretly chosen until you reveal the chosen names.

702.126.

Aftermath

702.126a.

Aftermath is an ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, "Split Cards"). It represents three static abilities. "Aftermath" means "You may cast this half of this split card from your graveyard," "This half of this split card can't be cast from any zone other than a graveyard," and "If this spell was cast from a graveyard, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack."

702.127.

Embalm

702.127a.

Embalm is an activated ability that functions while the card with embalm is in a graveyard. "Embalm [cost]" means "[Cost], Exile this card from your graveyard: Create a token that's a copy of this card, except it's white, it has no mana cost, and it's a Zombie in addition to its other types. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.127b.

A token is "embalmed" if it's created by a resolving embalm ability.

706.7a.706.7a.

If an ability causes a player to "choose a [value]" or "name a card," and a second, linked ability refers to that choice, the second ability is the only ability that can refer to that choice. An object doesn't "remember" that choice and use it for other abilities it may copy later. If an object copies an ability that refers to a choice, but either (a) doesn't copy that ability's linked ability or (b) does copy the linked ability but no choice is made for it, then the choice is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability won't do anything.

Example: Voice of All enters the battlefield and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. Voice of All reads, in part, "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color." and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." Unstable Shapeshifter never had a chance for a color to be chosen for it, because it didn't enter the battlefield as a Voice of All card, so the protection ability doesn't protect it from anything at all.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger enters the battlefield as a copy of Voice of All, and the Doppelganger's controller chooses blue. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves, which has the ability, "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." Even though a color was chosen for the Doppelganger, it wasn't chosen for the ability linked to the mana ability copied from the Elves. If that mana ability of the Doppelganger is activated, it will not produce mana.

If an ability causes a player to "choose a [value]" and a second, linked ability refers to that choice, the second ability is the only ability that can refer to that choice. An object doesn't "remember" that choice and use it for other abilities it may copy later. If an object copies an ability that refers to a choice, but either (a) doesn't copy that ability's linked ability or (b) does copy the linked ability but no choice is made for it, then the choice is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability won't do anything.

Example: Voice of All enters the battlefield and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. Voice of All reads, in part, "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color." and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." Unstable Shapeshifter never had a chance for a color to be chosen for it, because it didn't enter the battlefield as a Voice of All card, so the protection ability doesn't protect it from anything at all.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger enters the battlefield as a copy of Voice of All, and the Doppelganger's controller chooses blue. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves, which has the ability, "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." Even though a color was chosen for the Doppelganger, it wasn't chosen for the ability linked to the mana ability copied from the Elves. If that mana ability of the Doppelganger is activated, it will not produce mana.

708.2.

In every zone except the stack, split cards have two sets of characteristics and two converted mana costs. As long as a split card is a spell on the stack and wasn't cast using fuse (see rule 702.101, "Fuse"), only the characteristics of the half being cast exist. The other half's characteristics are treated as though they didn't exist. A split card that's a spell on the stack and was cast using fuse has two sets of characteristics and one converted mana cost. Its converted mana cost is equal to the total amount of mana in its two mana costs, regardless of color.

708.4.708.2.

Although split cards have two castable halves, each split card is only one card. For example, a player who has drawn or discarded a split card has drawn or discarded one card, not two.

Although split cards have two castable halves, each split card is only one card. For example, a player who has drawn or discarded a split card has drawn or discarded one card, not two.

708.2b.

If a player casts a split card with fuse from his or her hand, in addition to choosing either half as described above, the player may choose to cast both halves, resulting in a fused split spell with the combined characteristics of both halves. Only the fused split spell is evaluated to see if it can be cast.

708.3.

Each split card that consists of two halves with different colored mana symbols in their mana costs is a multicolored card while it's not a spell on the stack. While it's a spell on the stack, it's only the color or colors of the half or halves being cast.

708.2a.708.3.

If a player casts a split card without using fuse, that player chooses which half of that split card he or she is casting before putting it onto the stack. Only that half is evaluated to see if it can be cast. Only that half is considered to be put onto the stack.

A player chooses which half of a split card he or she is casting before putting it onto the stack.

708.3a.

Only the chosen half is evaluated to see if it can be cast. Only that half is considered to be put onto the stack.

708.3b.

While on the stack, only the characteristics of the half being cast exist. The other half's characteristics are treated as though they didn't exist.

708.3c.

An effect may create a copy of a split card and allow a player to cast the copy. That copy retains the characteristics of the two halves separated into the same two halves as the original card. (See rule 706.12.)

708.4.

In every zone except the stack, the characteristics of a split card are those of its two halves combined. This is a change from previous rules.

708.7.708.4a.

Each split card has two names. If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a split card, the player must name one of those names and not both. An object has the chosen name if one of its names is the chosen name.

Each split card has two names. If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name and the player wants to choose a split card's name, the player must choose one of those names and not both. An object has the chosen name if one of its names is the chosen name.

708.4b.

The mana cost of a split card is the combined mana costs of its two halves. A split card's colors and converted mana cost are determined from its combined mana cost.

Example: Assault/Battery's mana cost is {3}{R}{G}. It's a red and green card with a converted mana cost of 5. If you cast Assault, the resulting spell is a red spell with a converted mana cost of 1.

708.4c.

A split card has each card type specified on either of its halves and each ability in the text box of each half.

708.4d.

The characteristics of a fused split spell on the stack are also those of its two halves combined (see rule 702.101, "Fuse").

708.5.

Anything that asks for a particular characteristic of a split card while it's in a zone other than the stack gets two answers (one for each of the split card's two halves). Anything that asks for a particular characteristic of a fused split spell gets two answers. Anything that asks for a particular characteristic of a split card while it's a spell on the stack or that asks for the converted mana cost of a fused split spell gets one answer.

Example: Spell Blast says "Counter target spell with converted mana cost X." If a player wants to cast Spell Blast and choose the fused split spell Breaking/Entering, which has mana costs {U}{B} and {4}{B}{R}, as the target, that player must choose 8 as the value of X.

708.5a.

If a spell or ability uses the converted mana cost of a split card not on the stack to determine part of its effect, but it doesn't perform a comparison using those values, it uses the sum of the two converted mana costs.

Example: Infernal Genesis has an ability that reads, "At the beginning of each player's upkeep, that player puts the top card of his or her library into his or her graveyard. Then he or she creates X 1/1 black Minion creature tokens, where X is that card's converted mana cost." If the top card of your library is Assault/Battery, which has converted mana costs of 1 and 4, when this ability resolves, you create five creature tokens.

Example: Living Lore has an ability that exiles an instant or sorcery card and another ability that reads, "Living Lore's power and toughness are each equal to the exiled card's converted mana cost." If Assault/Battery is exiled with the first ability, Living Lore's power and toughness are 5/5.

708.6.

Some effects perform comparisons involving one or more split cards in a zone other than the stack or involving one or more fused split spells.

708.6a.

Anything that performs a positive comparison (such as asking if a card is red) or a relative comparison (such as asking if a card's converted mana cost is 3 or less) involving one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack or involving one or more fused split spells gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of each split card in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually.

Example: Void reads, "Choose a number. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number." If a player casts Void and chooses 1, his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because its converted mana costs are 1 and 4. The same is true if the player chooses 4. If the player chooses 5, however, Assault/Battery would be unaffected.

708.6b.

Anything that performs a negative comparison (such as asking if cards have different names) involving one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack or involving one or more fused split spells also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer.

708.6c.

If anything performs a comparison involving multiple characteristics or values of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack or involving multiple characteristics or values of one or more fused split spells, each characteristic or value is compared separately. If each of the individual comparisons would return a "yes" answer, the whole comparison returns a "yes" answer. The individual comparisons may involve different halves of the same split card.

Example: Sunforger has an ability that reads, "{R}{W},Unattach Sunforger: Search your library for a red or white instant card with converted mana cost 4 or less and cast that card without paying its mana cost. Then shuffle your library." This ability can be used to cast either half of Research/Development, as Research has converted mana cost 2 (even though Development has converted mana cost 5) and Development is red (even though Research is neither red nor white).

709.5.709.5.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a flip card's alternative name, the player may do so.

If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name and the player wants to choose a flip card's alternative name, the player may do so.

711.13.711.13.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card, the player may name either face of a double-faced card but not both.

If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name, the player may name either face of a double-faced card but not both.

712.11.712.11.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card, the player may name the front face of a meld card or the combined back face of a meld pair.

If an effect instructs a player to choose a card name, the player may choose the name of a front face of a meld card or the combined back face of a meld pair.

715.1.715.1.

Three cards (Time Stop, Sundial of the Infinite, and Day's Undoing) end the turn. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities").

Some cards end the turn. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities").

800.7.

In a multiplayer game not using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801), if an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents lose the game instead.

810.7b.810.7b.

Any one-shot effect that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect chooses which one the spell or ability refers to at the time the effect is applied. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." Any characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the ability refers to at the time the nonactive players become defending players. All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

Any one-shot effect that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect chooses which one the spell or ability refers to at the time the effect is applied. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." Any characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the ability refers to at the time the nonactive players become defending players. If that time has already occurred, that player makes that choice as the object enters the battlefield or gains the ability. All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

901.9.901.9.

Any time the active player has priority and the stack is empty, but only during a main phase of his or her turn, that player may roll the planar die. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. This is a special action and doesn't use the stack. Note that this number won't be equal to the number of times the player has rolled the planar die that turn if an effect has caused the player to roll the planar die that turn. (See rule 115.2f.)

Any time the active player has priority and the stack is empty, but only during a main phase of his or her turn, that player may roll the planar die. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. This is a special action and doesn't use the stack. Note that this number won't be equal to the number of times the player has rolled the planar die that turn if an effect has caused the player to roll the planar die that turn. (See rule 115.2g.)

Aftermath

A keyword ability that lets a player cast one half of a split card only from his or her graveyard. See rule 702.126, "Aftermath."

Embalm

A keyword ability that lets a player exile a creature card from his or her graveyard to create a mummified token version of that card. See rule 702.127, "Embalm."

Exert

A keyword action that stops a permanent from untapping during the next uptap step of the player who exerted it. See rule 701.36, "Exert."

PlacedPlaced

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being "placed" on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's on the battlefield, or that permanent entering the battlefield with a counter on it. See rule 121, "Counters."

(Obsolete) Some spells and abilities previously referred to a counter being "placed" on a permanent. These cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference to use the term "put" instead. Due to a rules change, these cards continue to function as they did before. See rule 121, "Counters."

Reflexive Triggered Ability

An ability that triggers based on actions taken earlier during a spell or ability's resolution. See rule 603.12.