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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Conflux to Alara Reborn

General changes

Old rule (Conflux) New rule (Alara Reborn)

104.1b.

Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player's life total to a specific value, sets a creature's power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature's power or toughness.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It deals no damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says "{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner's power." An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool.

104.1b.

Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player's life total to a specific value, sets a creature's power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature's power or toughness.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0 damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says "{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner's power." An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are five exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects from spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Abilities of Auras that trigger when the enchanted permanent leaves play can find that permanent in the zone it moved to and can also find the Aura in its owner's graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. (4) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (5) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another becomes a new object with no memory of, or relation to, its previous existence. There are seven exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects from spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack continue to apply to the permanent that spell becomes. (2) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (3) Abilities of a permanent that require information about choices made when that permanent was played use information about the spell that became that permanent. (4) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the new object that it became in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (5) Abilities of Auras that trigger when the enchanted permanent leaves play can find the new object that permanent became in the zone it moved to; they can also find the new object the Aura became in its owner's graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. (6) If an effect grants a nonland card an ability that allows it to be played, that ability will continue to apply to the new object that card became after it moved to the stack as a result of being played this way. (7) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

217.1f.

If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game, it doesn't change zones, but it is treated as a new object that has just been removed from the game.

217.1f.

If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game, it doesn't change zones, but it becomes a new object that has just been removed from the game.

217.2g.

If an effect causes a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed, and that particular card stops being revealed for any length of time before being revealed again, it is treated as a new object.

217.2g.

If an effect causes a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed, and that particular card stops being revealed for any length of time before being revealed again, it becomes a new object.

217.7e.

If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game, it doesn't change zones, but it is treated as a new object that has just been removed from the game.

217.7e.

If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game, it doesn't change zones, but it becomes a new object that has just been removed from the game.

217.9c.

A few cards have the text "Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you're not playing for ante." These are the only cards that can add or remove cards from a player's ante zone or change a card's owner.

217.9c.

A few cards have the text "Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you're not playing for ante." These are the only cards that can add or remove cards from the ante zone or change a card's owner.

310.2a.

Each attacking creature and each blocking creature will assign combat damage equal to its power. Creatures that would assign 0 or less damage this way don't assign combat damage at all.

310.2a.

Each attacking creature and each blocking creature will assign combat damage equal to its power. Creatures with power less than 0 assign 0 combat damage.

310.2e.

An effect that states a creature deals its combat damage in a different manner than normal affects the assignment of combat damage.

409.1d.

If the spell or ability targets one or more targets only if an alternative, additional, or special cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost) is paid for it, or if a particular mode is chosen for it, its controller chooses those targets only if he or she announced the intention to pay that cost or chose that mode. Otherwise, the spell or ability is played as though it did not have those targets.

409.1c.

The player checks whether the spell or ability targets one or more targets only if an alternative, additional, or special cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost) is paid for it, or if a particular mode is chosen for it. Its controller will need to choose those targets only if he or she announced the intention to pay that cost or chose that mode; otherwise, the spell or ability is played as though it did not have those targets. All of a spell or ability's targets are chosen at the same time.

409.1c.

If the spell or ability requires any targets, the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets), then announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each of those targets. A spell or ability can't be played unless the required number of legal targets are chosen for it. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).

Example: If an ability reads "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the ability requires two different legal targets. An ability that reads "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

409.1d.

If the spell or ability requires any targets, the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets), then announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each of those targets. The chosen players, objects, and/or zones each become a target of that spell or ability. A spell or ability can't be played unless the required number of legal targets are chosen for it. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).

Example: If an ability reads "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the ability requires two different legal targets. An ability that reads "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

409.1e.

If the spell or ability requires the player to divide or distribute an effect (such as damage or counters) among one or more targets, or any number of untargeted objects or players, the player announces the division. Each of these targets, objects, or players must receive at least one of whatever is being divided.

409.1e.

If the spell or ability requires the player to divide or distribute an effect (such as damage or counters) among one or more targets, the player announces the division. Each of these targets must receive at least one of whatever is being divided.

410.10c.

Leaves-play abilities trigger when a permanent leaves the in-play zone. These are written as, but aren't limited to, "When [this object] leaves play, . . ." or "Whenever [something] is put into a graveyard from play, . . . ." An ability that attempts to do something to the card that left play checks for it only in the first zone that it went to.

410.10c.

Leaves-play abilities trigger when a permanent leaves the in-play zone. These are written as, but aren't limited to, "When [this object] leaves play, . . ." or "Whenever [something] is put into a graveyard from play, . . . ." An ability that attempts to do something to the card that left play checks for it only in the first zone that it went to. An ability that triggers when a card is put into a certain zone "from anywhere" is never treated as a leaves-play ability, even if an object is put into that zone from play.

410.10d.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be in play, may have moved to a hand or library, or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Abilities that trigger specifically when an object leaves play, when an object is put into a hand or library from a public zone, or when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

410.10d.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be in play, may have moved to a hand or library, or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Leaves-play abilities, abilities that trigger when an object that all players can see is put into a hand or library, abilities that trigger specifically when an object becomes unattached, and abilities that trigger when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

410.10f.

Some Auras have triggered abilities that trigger on the enchanted permanent leaving play. These triggered abilities can find that permanent in the zone it moved to and can also find the Aura in its owner's graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. See rule 217.1c.

410.10f.

Some Auras have triggered abilities that trigger on the enchanted permanent leaving play. These triggered abilities can find the new object that permanent card became in the zone it moved to; they can also find the new object the Aura card became in its owner's graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. See rule 217.1c.

418.3c.

If a resolving spell or ability that creates a continuous effect contains a variable, the value of that variable is determined only once, on resolution. See rule 413.2f.

418.3c.

If a resolving spell or ability that creates a continuous effect contains a variable such as X, the value of that variable is determined only once, on resolution. See rule 413.2f.

420.5q.

If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards.

420.5q.

If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "planeswalker uniqueness rule."

502.7g.

"Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]" and "protection from [quality B]"; it behaves as two separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B].

502.7h.

"Protection from all [characteristic]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]," "protection from [quality B]," and so on for each possible quality the listed characteristic could have; it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B], [quality C], and so on.

502.7g.

Protection from everything is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object's characteristic values. Such a permanent can't be targeted by spells or abilities, enchanted by Auras, equipped by Equipment, fortified by Fortifications, or blocked by creatures, and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented.

502.7i.

"Protection from everything" is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object's characteristic values. Such a permanent can't be targeted by spells or abilities, enchanted by Auras, equipped by Equipment, fortified by Fortifications, or blocked by creatures, and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented.

502.7h.

Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.

502.7j.

Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.

502.18c.

Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they're cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost." These abilities trigger from the graveyard.

502.18c.

Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they're cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost." These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it's cycled.

502.21d.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if a kicker cost was paid, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if he or she declared the intention to pay that kicker cost. Otherwise, the spell is played as if it did not have those targets. See rule 409.1d.

502.21d.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if a kicker cost was paid, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if he or she declared the intention to pay that kicker cost. Otherwise, the spell is played as if it did not have those targets. See rule 409.1c.

502.37a.

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature, it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn't coming into play as a creature, it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost."

502.37a.

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature, it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn't coming into play as a creature, it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it."

502.37b.

Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was paid for its costs. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies.

502.37b.

Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies.

502.37c.

Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. If the keyword is used in this way, it doesn't matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell.

Example: The ability "Modular-Sunburst" means "This permanent comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

502.37c.

Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. If the keyword is used in this way, it doesn't matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell.

Example: The ability "Modular-Sunburst" means "This permanent comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

502.40d.

Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409.1c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.

502.40d.

Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409.1d). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.

502.75a.

Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent comes into play tapped" and "When this permanent comes into play, look at the top four cards of your library. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. As long as that card remains removed from the game, it may be looked at by any player who has controlled this permanent."

502.75a.

Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent comes into play tapped" and "When this permanent comes into play, look at the top four cards of your library. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. The removed card gains 'Any player who has controlled the permanent that removed this card from the game may look at this card in the removed-from-the-game zone.'"

502.85.

Cascade

502.85a.

Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack. "Cascade" means "When you play this spell, remove cards from the top of your library from the game until you remove a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell's converted mana cost. You may play that card without paying its mana cost. Then put all cards removed from the game this way that weren't played on the bottom of your library in a random order."

502.85b.

If a spell has multiple instances of cascade, each triggers separately.

600.4g.

When a player leaves the game, objects that player owns in the ante zone do not leave the game. This is an exception to rule 600.4a. See rule 217.9, "Ante."

601.14.

The "planeswalker uniqueness rule" (see rule 420.5q) applies to a planeswalker only if other planeswalkers with the same planeswalker type are within its controller's range of influence.

601.14.

Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 419, "Replacement and Prevention Effects."

601.15.

Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 419, "Replacement and Prevention Effects."

601.14a.

If a replacement effect tries to cause a spell or ability to affect an object or player outside its controller's range of influence, that portion of the event does nothing.

Example: Alex plays Lava Axe ("Lava Axe deals 5 damage to target player") targeting Rob. In response, Rob plays Captain's Maneuver ("The next X damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn is dealt to another target creature or player instead.") with X = 3, targeting Carissa. Carissa isn't in Alex's range of influence. When Lava Axe resolves, it deals only 2 damage to Rob and no damage to Carissa.

601.15a.

If a replacement effect tries to cause a spell or ability to affect an object or player outside its controller's range of influence, that portion of the event does nothing.

Example: Alex plays Lava Axe ("Lava Axe deals 5 damage to target player") targeting Rob. In response, Rob plays Captain's Maneuver ("The next X damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn is dealt to another target creature or player instead.") with X = 3, targeting Carissa. Carissa isn't in Alex's range of influence. When Lava Axe resolves, it deals only 2 damage to Rob and no damage to Carissa.

601.14b.

If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Alex controls an enchantment that says, "Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures." Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa plays Lightning Blast ("Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player") targeting Rob. In response, Alex plays Mending Hands ("Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn.") targeting Rob. The damage to Rob is prevented.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature, and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex plays Holy Day ("Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.") Carissa and Rob's creatures deal combat damage to each other.

601.15b.

If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Alex controls an enchantment that says, "Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures." Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa plays Lightning Blast ("Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player") targeting Rob. In response, Alex plays Mending Hands ("Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn.") targeting Rob. The damage to Rob is prevented.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature, and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex plays Holy Day ("Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.") Carissa and Rob's creatures deal combat damage to each other.

601.15.

If an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead.

601.16.

If an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead.

605.4.

Free-for-All games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102), as modified by rule 601.15.

605.4.

Free-for-All games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102), as modified by rule 601.16.

607.5.

The Emperor variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102), as modified by rule 601.15, and with the following addition.

607.5.

The Emperor variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102), as modified by rule 601.16, and with the following addition.

608.6.

The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102), as modified by rule 601.15.

608.6.

The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102), as modified by rule 601.16.

609.5.

Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102), as modified by rule 601.15.

609.5.

Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102), as modified by rule 601.16.

Ability Word

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The list of ability words, updated through the Conflux (tm) set, is as follows: channel, chroma, domain, grandeur, hellbent, kinship, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

Ability Word

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The list of ability words, updated through the Alara Reborn (tm) set, is as follows: channel, chroma, domain, grandeur, hellbent, kinship, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

Ante (Obsolete)

Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing "for keeps." Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game, and it is allowed only where it's not forbidden by law or by other rules. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under DCI tournament rules. When using the ante rule, each player puts one random card from his or her deck into his or her ante zone at the beginning of the game. At the end of the game, the winner becomes the owner of the cards in each player's ante zone. See rule 217.9, "Ante."

Ante (Obsolete)

Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing "for keeps." Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game, and it is allowed only where it's not forbidden by law or by other rules. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under DCI tournament rules. When using the ante rule, each player puts one random card from his or her deck into the ante zone at the beginning of the game. At the end of the game, the winner becomes the owner of all cards in the ante zone. See rule 217.9, "Ante."

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Conflux set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Alara Reborn set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Cascade

Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack. "Cascade" means "When you play this spell, remove cards from the top of your library from the game until you remove a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell's converted mana cost. You may play that card without paying its mana cost. Then put all cards removed from the game this way that weren't played on the bottom of your library in a random order." See rule 502.85, "Cascade."

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Conflux set, is as follows: Advisor, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Alara Reborn set, is as follows: Advisor, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Conflux set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Alara Reborn set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Hideaway

Hideaway is a keyword ability that represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent comes into play tapped" and "When this permanent comes into play, look at the top four cards of your library. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. As long as that card remains removed from the game, it may be looked at by any player who has controlled this permanent." See rule 502.75, "Hideaway."

Hideaway

Hideaway is a keyword ability that represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent comes into play tapped" and "When this permanent comes into play, look at the top four cards of your library. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. The removed card gains 'Any player who has controlled the permanent that removed this card from the game may look at this card in the removed-from-the-game zone.'" See rule 502.75, "Hideaway."

Kicker

Kicker is a keyword ability with a cost and an effect. Paying a spell's kicker cost causes the spell to have an additional or alternative effect. See rule 502.21, "Kicker." "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell." You declare whether you intend to pay a spell's kicker cost at the same time you would choose the spell's mode (see rule 409.1b), and you actually pay the cost when you pay the rest of the spell's costs (see rule 409.1f-h). Paying a kicker cost is always optional. A spell's controller chooses targets (see rule 409.1d) for a kicker effect only if he or she declared the intention to pay the kicker cost for that effect. If the spell's controller declared that he or she wouldn't pay a particular kicker cost, he or she doesn't choose the targets for the effect associated with that kicker cost.

Kicker

Kicker is a keyword ability with a cost and an effect. Paying a spell's kicker cost causes the spell to have an additional or alternative effect. See rule 502.21, "Kicker." "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell." You declare whether you intend to pay a spell's kicker cost at the same time you would choose the spell's mode (see rule 409.1b), and you actually pay the cost when you pay the rest of the spell's costs (see rule 409.1f-h). Paying a kicker cost is always optional. A spell's controller chooses targets (see rule 409.1c) for a kicker effect only if he or she declared the intention to pay the kicker cost for that effect. If the spell's controller declared that he or she wouldn't pay a particular kicker cost, he or she doesn't choose the targets for the effect associated with that kicker cost.

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Conflux set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Alara Reborn set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Leaves Play

A permanent leaves play when it moves from the in-play zone to any other zone (see rule 410.10c) or when its owner leaves the game (see rule 600.4a). If a token leaves play, it ceases to exist. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a permanent leaves play and later returns to play, it's treated as an entirely new permanent with no "memory" of anything from its former existence. (Phasing is an exception to this; see rule 502.15, "Phasing." Permanents that phase out also don't trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities.)

Leaves Play

A permanent leaves play when it moves from the in-play zone to any other zone (see rule 410.10c) or when its owner leaves the game (see rule 600.4a). If a token leaves play, it ceases to exist. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a permanent leaves play and later returns to play, it becomes an entirely new permanent with no "memory" of anything from its former existence. (Phasing is an exception to this; see rule 502.15, "Phasing." Permanents that phase out also don't trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities.)

Number

The Magic game uses only integers. You can't choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, gain fractional life, and so on. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. See rule 104, "Numbers and Symbols." Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a creature's power or toughness, changes a creature's power or toughness, or sets a player's life total.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It deals no damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Number

The Magic game uses only integers. You can't choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, gain fractional life, and so on. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. See rule 104, "Numbers and Symbols." Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a creature's power or toughness, changes a creature's power or toughness, or sets a player's life total.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0 damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Conflux set, is as follows: Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Elspeth, Garruk, Jace, Liliana, Sarkhan, Tezzeret.

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Alara Reborn set, is as follows: Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Elspeth, Garruk, Jace, Liliana, Sarkhan, Tezzeret.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Conflux set, is as follows: Arcane.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Alara Reborn set, is as follows: Arcane.

Splice

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409.1c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it's countered, it's removed from the game, or it resolves).

Splice

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409.1d). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it's countered, it's removed from the game, or it resolves).

Sunburst

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature, it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn't coming into play as a creature, it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost." See rule 502.37, "Sunburst."

Sunburst

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature, it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn't coming into play as a creature, it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to play it." See rule 502.37, "Sunburst."

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Conflux set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Alara Reborn set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Total Cost

The total cost of a spell or activated ability is the mana cost, activation cost, or alternative cost, plus all cost increases and minus all cost reductions. See rule 409.1f

Total Cost

The total cost of a spell or activated ability is the mana cost, activation cost, or alternative cost, plus all cost increases and minus all cost reductions. See rule 409.1f.

Tournament

A tournament is an organized event where players compete against other players to win prizes. Use the Magic Locator at http://www.wizards.com/magic/TCG/Default.aspx to find tournaments in your area; just select "Events" and type in the name of your city.

Tournament

A tournament is an organized event where players compete against other players to win prizes. Use the Magic Locator at http://locator.wizards.com to find tournaments in your area; just select "Events" and type in the name of your city.