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Magic Rules Changes

Dragon's Maze to Magic 2014

General

Dragon's MazeMagic 2014
100.4a.100.4a.

In constructed play, sideboards are optional, but must contain exactly fifteen cards if used. The four-card limit (see rule 100.2a) applies to the combined deck and sideboard.

In constructed play, a sideboard may contain no more than fifteen cards. The four-card limit (see rule 100.2a) applies to the combined deck and sideboard.

100.6.100.6.

Most Magic tournaments (organized play activities where players compete against other players to win prizes) have additional rules covered in the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules (found at www.wizards.com/wpn/Events/Rules.aspx). These rules may limit the use of some cards, including barring all cards from some older sets.

Most Magic tournaments (organized play activities where players compete against other players to win prizes) have additional rules covered in the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules (found at Wizards.com/WPN/Events/Rules.aspx). These rules may limit the use of some cards, including barring all cards from some older sets.

100.6b.100.6b.

Players can use the Magic Store & Event Locator at www.wizards.com/locator to find tournaments in their area.

Players can use the Magic Store & Event Locator at Wizards.com/Locator to find tournaments in their area.

103.3.103.3.

Once the starting player has been determined, each player sets his or her life total to 20 and draws a hand of seven cards.

Each player begins the game with a starting life total of 20. Some variant games have different starting life totals.

103.3a.103.3a.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team starts with a shared life total of 30 instead.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team's starting life total is 30.

103.3b.103.3b.

In a Vanguard game, each player sets his or her life total to 20, as modified by the life modifier of his or her vanguard card, and draws a hand of seven cards, as modified by the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.

In a Vanguard game, each player's starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of his or her vanguard card.

103.3c.103.3c.

In a Commander game, each player sets his or her life total to 40.

In a Commander game, each player's starting life total is 40.

103.3d.103.3d.

In an Archenemy game, the archenemy sets his or her life total to 40.

In an Archenemy game, the archenemy's starting life total is 40.

103.4.103.4.

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may take a mulligan. First, the starting player declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then each other player in turn order does the same. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her library, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than he or she had before. If a player kept his or her hand of cards, those cards become the player's opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player's hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.)

Each player draws a number of cards equal to his or her starting hand size, which is normally seven. (Some effects can modify a player's starting hand size.) A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may take a mulligan. First, the starting player declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then each other player in turn order does the same. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her library, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than he or she had before. If a player kept his or her hand of cards, those cards become the player's opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player's hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.)

103.4a.

In a Vanguard game, each player's starting hand size is seven plus or minus the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.

103.4a.103.4b.

If an effect allows a player to perform an action "any time [that player] could mulligan," the player may perform that action at a time he or she would declare whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. This need not be in the first round of mulligans. Other players may have already made their mulligan declarations by the time the player has the option to perform this action. If the player performs the action, he or she then declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan.

If an effect allows a player to perform an action "any time [that player] could mulligan," the player may perform that action at a time he or she would declare whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. This need not be in the first round of mulligans. Other players may have already made their mulligan declarations by the time the player has the option to perform this action. If the player performs the action, he or she then declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan.

103.4b.103.4c.

In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of as many cards as he or she had before. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.

In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of as many cards as he or she had before. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.

103.4c.103.4d.

In a multiplayer game using the shared team turns option, first each player on the starting team declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan, then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand.

In a multiplayer game using the shared team turns option, first each player on the starting team declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan, then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand.

103.4d.103.4e.

The Commander casual variant uses an alternate mulligan rule. Each time a player takes a mulligan, rather than shuffling his or her entire hand of cards into his or her library, that player exiles any number of cards from his or her hand face down. Then the player draws a number of cards equal to one less than the number of cards he or she exiled this way. Once a player keeps an opening hand, that player shuffles all cards he or she exiled this way into his or her library.

The Commander casual variant uses an alternate mulligan rule. Each time a player takes a mulligan, rather than shuffling his or her entire hand of cards into his or her library, that player exiles any number of cards from his or her hand face down. Then the player draws a number of cards equal to one less than the number of cards he or she exiled this way. Once a player keeps an opening hand, that player shuffles all cards he or she exiled this way into his or her library.

108.1.108.1.

Use the Oracle (tm) card reference when determining a card's wording. A card's Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer.wizards.com.

Use the Oracle (tm) card reference when determining a card's wording. A card's Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at Gatherer.Wizards.com.

109.3.109.3.

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, color indicator, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, toughness, loyalty, hand modifier, and life modifier. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn't a characteristic. For example, characteristics don't include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell's target, an object's owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, color indicator, card type, subtype, supertype, rules text, abilities, power, toughness, loyalty, hand modifier, and life modifier. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn't a characteristic. For example, characteristics don't include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell's target, an object's owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

110.5b.110.5b.

The spell or ability that creates a token may define the values of any number of characteristics for the token. This becomes the token's "text." The characteristic values defined this way are functionally equivalent to the characteristic values that are printed on a card; for example, they define the token's copiable values. A token doesn't have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it.

Example: Jade Mage has the ability "{2}{G}: Put a 1/1 green Saproling creature token onto the battlefield." The resulting token has no mana cost, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, or abilities.

The spell or ability that creates a token may define the values of any number of characteristics for the token. This becomes the token's "text." The characteristic values defined this way are functionally equivalent to the characteristic values that are printed on a card; for example, they define the token's copiable values. A token doesn't have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it.

Example: Jade Mage has the ability "{2}{G}: Put a 1/1 green Saproling creature token onto the battlefield." The resulting token has no mana cost, supertype, rules text, or abilities.

112.6j.112.6j.

A trigger condition that can't trigger from the battlefield functions in all zones it can trigger from. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull enters the battlefield or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition functions from the battlefield and the second trigger condition functions from the exile zone. (See rule 702.53, "Haunt.")

A trigger condition that can't trigger from the battlefield functions in all zones it can trigger from. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull enters the battlefield or the creature it haunts dies, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition functions from the battlefield and the second trigger condition functions from the exile zone. (See rule 702.54, "Haunt.")

112.6m.112.6m.

An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules, but also the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format. However, such an ability can't affect the format legality of a card, including whether it's banned or restricted. The current Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules can be found at www.wizards.com/wpn/Events/Rules.aspx.

An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules, but also the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format. However, such an ability can't affect the format legality of a card, including whether it's banned or restricted. The current Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules can be found at Wizards.com/WPN/Events/Rules.aspx.

112.11.112.11.

An effect that sets an object's characteristic, or simply states a quality of that object, is different from an ability granted by an effect. When an object "gains" or "has" an ability, that ability can be removed by another effect. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object ("[permanent] is [characteristic value]"), it's not granting an ability. (See rule 604.3.) Similarly, if an effect states a quality of that object ("[permanent]" is indestructible" or "[creature] is unblockable," for example), it's neither granting an ability nor setting a characteristic. (See rules 700.4 and 700.5.)

Example: Muraganda Petroglyphs reads, "Creatures with no abilities get +2/+2." A Runeclaw Bear (a creature with no abilities) enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature has flying" would not get +2/+2. A Runeclaw Bear enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature is red" or "Enchanted creature is indestructible" would get +2/+2.

An effect that sets an object's characteristic, or simply states a quality of that object, is different from an ability granted by an effect. When an object "gains" or "has" an ability, that ability can be removed by another effect. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object ("[permanent] is [characteristic value]"), it's not granting an ability. (See rule 604.3.) Similarly, if an effect states a quality of that object ("[creature] can't be blocked," for example), it's neither granting an ability nor setting a characteristic.

Example: Muraganda Petroglyphs reads, "Creatures with no abilities get +2/+2." A Runeclaw Bear (a creature with no abilities) enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature has flying" would not get +2/+2. A Runeclaw Bear enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature is red" or "Enchanted creature can't be blocked" would get +2/+2.

113.3.113.3.

An emblem has no characteristics other than the abilities defined by the effect that created it. In particular, an emblem has no name, no types, no mana cost, no color, and no expansion symbol.

An emblem has no characteristics other than the abilities defined by the effect that created it. In particular, an emblem has no name, no types, no mana cost, and no color.

115.2a.115.2a.

Playing a land is a special action. To play a land, a player puts that land onto the battlefield from the zone it was in (usually that player's hand). A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if he or she hasn't yet played a land that turn. See rule 305, "Lands."

Playing a land is a special action. To play a land, a player puts that land onto the battlefield from the zone it was in (usually that player's hand). By default, a player can take this action only once during each of his or her turns. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn. See rule 305, "Lands."

115.2e.115.2e.

A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may exile that card. This is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority, but only if he or she could begin to cast that card by putting it onto the stack. See rule 702.60, "Suspend."

A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may exile that card. This is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority, but only if he or she could begin to cast that card by putting it onto the stack. See rule 702.61, "Suspend."

117.8c.

If an effect instructs a player to cast a spell "if able," and that spell has a mandatory additional cost that includes actions involving cards with a stated quality in a hidden zone, the player isn't required to cast that spell, even if those cards are present in that zone.

117.8c.117.8d.

Additional costs don't change a spell's mana cost, only what its controller has to pay to cast it. Spells and abilities that ask for that spell's mana cost still see the original value.

Additional costs don't change a spell's mana cost, only what its controller has to pay to cast it. Spells and abilities that ask for that spell's mana cost still see the original value.

117.8d.117.8e.

Some effects increase the cost to cast a spell or activate an ability without using the word "additional." Those are not additional costs, and are not considered until determining the total cost of a spell or ability as described in rule 601.2e.

Some effects increase the cost to cast a spell or activate an ability without using the word "additional." Those are not additional costs, and are not considered until determining the total cost of a spell or ability as described in rule 601.2e.

118.1.118.1.

Each player begins the game with a life total of 20.

Each player begins the game with a starting life total of 20. Some variant games have different starting life totals.

118.1a.118.1a.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead; see rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team's starting life total of 30. See rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

118.1b.118.1b.

In a Vanguard game, each player begins the game with a starting life total of 20, as modified by his or her vanguard card's life modifier. See rule 902, "Vanguard."

In a Vanguard game, each player's starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of his or her vanguard card. See rule 902, "Vanguard."

118.1c.118.1c.

In a Commander game, each player begins the game with a starting life total of 40 instead; see rule 903, "Commander."

In a Commander game, each player's starting life total is 40. See rule 903, "Commander."

118.1d.118.1d.

In an Archenemy game, the archenemy begins the game with a starting life total of 40 instead; see rule 904, "Archenemy."

In an Archenemy game, the archenemy's starting life total is 40. See rule 904, "Archenemy."

201.4c.201.4c.

Text printed on some legendary cards refers to that card by a shortened version of its name. This occurs only on a second reference or later; first references always use the card's full name. Instances of a card's shortened name used in this manner are treated as though they used the card's full name.

Text printed on some legendary cards refers to that card by a shortened version of its name. Instances of a card's shortened name used in this manner are treated as though they used the card's full name.

205.3j.205.3j.

Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types. The planeswalker types are Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Domri, Elspeth, Garruk, Gideon, Jace, Karn, Koth, Liliana, Nissa, Ral, Sarkhan, Sorin, Tamiyo, Tezzeret, Tibalt, Venser, and Vraska. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based action. See rule 704.

Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types. The planeswalker types are Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Domri, Elspeth, Garruk, Gideon, Jace, Karn, Koth, Liliana, Nissa, Ral, Sarkhan, Sorin, Tamiyo, Tezzeret, Tibalt, Venser, and Vraska. If a player controls two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type, that player chooses one of them, and the rest are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based action. See rule 704.

206.1.206.1.

The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It's a small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration.

The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It's a small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration. It has no effect on game play.

206.3.206.3.

A spell or ability that affects cards from a particular set checks only for that set's expansion symbol. A card reprinted in the core set or another expansion receives that set's expansion symbol. Any reprinted version of the card no longer counts as part of its original set unless it was reprinted with that set's expansion symbol.

Previously, a spell or ability that affected cards from a particular set checked for that set's expansion symbol. These cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say they affect cards "originally printed" in a particular set. See rule 700.5 for details.

206.4.206.4.

Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or those cards are specifically allowed by the Magic Tournament Rules). See the Magic Tournament Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (www.wizards.com/wpn/Events/Rules.aspx).

Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or those cards are specifically allowed by the Magic Tournament Rules). See the Magic Tournament Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (Wizards.com/WPN/Events/Rules.aspx).

206.5.206.5.

The full list of expansions and expansion symbols can be found in the Magic Products section of the Wizards of the Coast website (www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Article.aspx?x=mtg/tcg/products/allproducts).

The full list of expansions and expansion symbols can be found in the Magic Products section of the Wizards of the Coast website (Wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Article.aspx?x=mtg/tcg/products/allproducts).

210.1.210.1.

Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the maximum hand size of the vanguard card's owner (normally seven) to determine both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and his or her maximum hand size.

Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied as the starting hand size and the maximum hand size of the vanguard card's owner are determined. See rule 103.4.

211.1.211.1.

Each vanguard card has a life modifier printed in its lower right corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting life total of the vanguard card's owner (normally 20) to determine how much life that player begins the game with.

Each vanguard card has a life modifier printed in its lower right corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied as the starting life total of the vanguard card's owner is determined. See rule 103.3.

301.6.301.6.

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. Rules 301.5a-d apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures, with one clarification relating to rule 301.5c: a Fortification that's also a creature (not a land) can't fortify a land. (See rule 702.65, "Fortify.")

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. Rules 301.5a-d apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures, with one clarification relating to rule 301.5c: a Fortification that's also a creature (not a land) can't fortify a land. (See rule 702.66, "Fortify.")

303.4h.

If an effect attempts to put a non-Aura permanent onto the battlefield attached to a creature, that permanent enters the battlefield unattached.

303.4h.303.4i.

If an effect attempts to attach an Aura on the battlefield to an object or player, that object or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the object or player can't be, the Aura doesn't move.

If an effect attempts to attach an Aura on the battlefield to an object or player, that object or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the object or player can't be, the Aura doesn't move.

303.4i.303.4j.

If a non-Aura permanent has an ability that refers to the "enchanted [object or player]," that phrase doesn't refer to any object or player.

If a non-Aura permanent has an ability that refers to the "enchanted [object or player]," that phrase doesn't refer to any object or player.

305.2.305.2.

A player may normally play only one land during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number. If any such effects exist, the player announces which effect, or this rule, applies to each land play as it happens.

A player can normally play one land during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number.

305.2a.

To determine whether a player can play a land, compare the number of lands the player can play this turn with the number of lands he or she has already played this turn (including lands played as special actions and lands played during the resolution of spells and abilities). If the number of lands the player can play is greater, the play is legal.

305.2b.

A player can't play a land, for any reason, if number of lands the player can play this turn is equal to or less than the number of lands he or she has already played this turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so.

305.3.305.3.

A player can't play a land, for any reason, if it isn't his or her turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so. Similarly, a player can't play a land, for any reason, if that player has used all of his or her land plays for that turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so.

A player can't play a land, for any reason, if it isn't his or her turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so.

305.4.305.4.

Effects may also allow players to "put" lands onto the battlefield. This isn't the same as "playing a land" and doesn't count as a player's one land played during his or her turn.

Effects may also allow players to "put" lands onto the battlefield. This isn't the same as "playing a land" and doesn't count as a land played during the current turn.

306.4.306.4.

If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based action. This is called the "planeswalker uniqueness rule." See rule 704.

If a player controls two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type, that player chooses one of them, and the rest are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "planeswalker uniqueness rule." See rule 704.

311.6.311.6.

Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the maximum hand size of the vanguard card's owner (normally seven) to determine both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and his or her maximum hand size.

Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting hand size and maximum hand size of the vanguard card's owner (normally seven). The resulting number is both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and his or her maximum hand size.

311.7.311.7.

Each vanguard card has a life modifier printed in its lower right corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting life total of the vanguard card's owner (normally 20) to determine how much life that player begins the game with.

Each vanguard card has a life modifier printed in its lower right corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied as the starting life total of the vanguard card's owner (normally 20) to is determined. See rule 103.3.

402.1.402.1.

The hand is where a player holds cards that have been drawn. Cards can be put into a player's hand by other effects as well. At the beginning of the game, each player draws a hand of seven cards. (See rule 103, "Starting the Game.")

The hand is where a player holds cards that have been drawn. Cards can be put into a player's hand by other effects as well. At the beginning of the game, each player draws a number of cards equal to that player's starting hand size, normally seven. (See rule 103, "Starting the Game.")

407.1.407.1.

Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing "for keeps." Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game, and it's allowed only where it's not forbidden by law or by other rules. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules (www.wizards.com/WPN/Events/Rules.aspx).

Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing "for keeps." Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game, and it's allowed only where it's not forbidden by law or by other rules. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules (Wizards.com/WPN/Events/Rules.aspx).

502.1.502.1.

First, all phased-in permanents with phasing that the active player controls phase out, and all phased-out permanents that the active player controlled when they phased out phase in. This all happens simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. See rule 702.24, "Phasing."

First, all phased-in permanents with phasing that the active player controls phase out, and all phased-out permanents that the active player controlled when they phased out phase in. This all happens simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. See rule 702.25, "Phasing."

505.5b.505.5b.

During either main phase, the active player may play one land card from his or her hand if the stack is empty, if the player has priority, and if he or she hasn't yet taken this special action this turn. (See rule 305, "Lands.") This action doesn't use the stack. Neither the land nor the action of playing the land is a spell or ability, so it can't be countered, and players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

During either main phase, the active player may play one land card from his or her hand if the stack is empty, if the player has priority, and if he or she hasn't played a land this turn (unless an effect states the player may play additional lands). This action doesn't use the stack. Neither the land nor the action of playing the land is a spell or ability, so it can't be countered, and players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities. (See rule 305, "Lands.")

508.1e.508.1e.

If any of the chosen creatures have banding or a "bands with other" ability, the active player announces which creatures, if any, are banded with which. (See rule 702.20, "Banding.")

If any of the chosen creatures have banding or a "bands with other" ability, the active player announces which creatures, if any, are banded with which. (See rule 702.21, "Banding.")

601.2b.601.2b.

If the spell is modal the player announces the mode choice (see rule 700.2). If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 702.45), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell has alternative or additional costs that will be paid as it's being cast such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs (see rules 117.8 and 117.9), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 601.2e). A player can't apply two alternative methods of casting or two alternative costs to a single spell. If the spell has a variable cost that will be paid as it's being cast (such as an {X} in its mana cost; see rule 107.3), the player announces the value of that variable. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes hybrid mana symbols, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes Phyrexian mana symbols, the player announces whether he or she intends to pay 2 life or the corresponding colored mana cost for each of those symbols. Previously made choices (such as choosing to cast a spell with flashback from a graveyard or choosing to cast a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

If the spell is modal the player announces the mode choice (see rule 700.2). If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 702.46), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell has alternative or additional costs that will be paid as it's being cast such as buyback or kicker costs (see rules 117.8 and 117.9), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 601.2e). A player can't apply two alternative methods of casting or two alternative costs to a single spell. If the spell has a variable cost that will be paid as it's being cast (such as an {X} in its mana cost; see rule 107.3), the player announces the value of that variable. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes hybrid mana symbols, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes Phyrexian mana symbols, the player announces whether he or she intends to pay 2 life or the corresponding colored mana cost for each of those symbols. Previously made choices (such as choosing to cast a spell with flashback from a graveyard or choosing to cast a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

607.2h.607.2h.

If an object has a kicker ability printed on it and an ability printed on it that refers to whether that object was kicked, those abilities are linked. The second refers only to whether the intent to pay the kicker cost listed in the first was declared as the object was cast as a spell. If a kicker ability lists multiple costs, it will have multiple abilities linked to it. Each of those abilities will specify which kicker cost it refers to. See rule 702.31, "Kicker."

If an object has a kicker ability printed on it and an ability printed on it that refers to whether that object was kicked, those abilities are linked. The second refers only to whether the intent to pay the kicker cost listed in the first was declared as the object was cast as a spell. If a kicker ability lists multiple costs, it will have multiple abilities linked to it. Each of those abilities will specify which kicker cost it refers to. See rule 702.32, "Kicker."

607.2j.607.2j.

The two abilities represented by the champion keyword are linked abilities. See rule 702.70, "Champion."

The two abilities represented by the champion keyword are linked abilities. See rule 702.71, "Champion."

607.3.

If, within a pair of linked abilities, one ability refers to a single object as "the exiled card," "a card exiled with [this card]," or a similar phrase, and the other ability has exiled multiple cards (usually because it was copied), the ability refers to each of the exiled cards. If that ability asks for any information about the exiled card, such as a characteristic or converted mana cost, it gets multiple answers. If these answers are used to determine the value of a variable, the sum of the answers is used. If that ability performs any actions on the exiled card, it performs that action on each exiled card.

607.3.607.4.

An ability may be part of more than one pair of linked abilities.

Example: Paradise Plume has the following three abilities: "As Paradise Plume enters the battlefield, choose a color," "Whenever a player casts a spell of the chosen color, you may gain 1 life," and "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." The first and second abilities are linked. The first and third abilities are linked.

An ability may be part of more than one pair of linked abilities.

Example: Paradise Plume has the following three abilities: "As Paradise Plume enters the battlefield, choose a color," "Whenever a player casts a spell of the chosen color, you may gain 1 life," and "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." The first and second abilities are linked. The first and third abilities are linked.

607.4.607.5.

If an object acquires a pair of linked abilities as part of the same effect, the abilities will be similarly linked to one another on that object even though they weren't printed on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}, Exile the top ten cards of your library: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Exile target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card exiled with Sisters of Stone Death onto the battlefield under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, activates it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, activates the exile ability, and then activates the return-to-the-battlefield ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental exiled with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to the battlefield. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental exiled with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

If an object acquires a pair of linked abilities as part of the same effect, the abilities will be similarly linked to one another on that object even though they weren't printed on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}, Exile the top ten cards of your library: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Exile target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card exiled with Sisters of Stone Death onto the battlefield under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, activates it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, activates the exile ability, and then activates the return-to-the-battlefield ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental exiled with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to the battlefield. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental exiled with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

610.3.

Some one-shot effects cause an object to change zones "until" a specified event occurs. A second one-shot effect is created immediately after the specified event. This second one-shot effect returns the object to its previous zone.

610.3a.

If the specified event has already occurred when the initial one-shot effect would cause the object to change zones, the object doesn't move.

610.3b.

An object returned to the battlefield this way returns under its owner's control unless otherwise specified.

612.5.612.5.

One card (Volrath's Shapeshifter) states that an object has the "full text" of another object. This changes not just the text that appears in the object's text box and type line, but also changes the text that represents its name, mana cost, color indicator, expansion symbol, power, and toughness.

One card (Volrath's Shapeshifter) states that an object has the "full text" of another object. This changes not just the text that appears in the object's text box and type line, but also changes the text that represents its name, mana cost, color indicator, power, and toughness.

613.10.613.10.

Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size, or say that a creature is indestructible. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 601.2e. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 613.6 and 613.7).

Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size, or say that a creature must attack this turn if able. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 601.2e. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 613.6 and 613.7).

700.4.

If a permanent is indestructible, rules and effects can't destroy it. (See rule 701.6, "Destroy.") Such permanents are not destroyed by lethal damage, and they ignore the lethal-damage state-based action (see rule 704.5g). Rules or effects may cause an indestructible permanent to be sacrificed, put into a graveyard, or exiled.

700.6.700.4.

The term dies means "is put into a graveyard from the battlefield."

The term dies means "is put into a graveyard from the battlefield."

700.4a.

Although the text "[This permanent] is indestructible" is an ability, actually being indestructible is neither an ability nor a characteristic. It's just something that's true about a permanent.

700.5.700.5.

If an attacking creature is unblockable, no creature can legally block it. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.") Spells or abilities may still cause it to become blocked.

Some cards refer to cards "originally printed" in a particular set.

700.5a.700.5a.

Although the text "[This permanent] is unblockable" is an ability, actually being unblockable is neither an ability nor a characteristic. It's just something that's true about a creature.

One card (City in a Bottle) refers to permanents and cards with the same name as a card originally printed in the Arabian Nights (tm) expansion. Those cards are Abu Ja'far, Aladdin, Aladdin's Lamp, Aladdin's Ring, Ali Baba, Ali from Cairo, Army of Allah, Bazaar of Baghdad, Bird Maiden, Bottle of Suleiman, Brass Man, Camel, City in a Bottle, City of Brass, Cuombajj Witches, Cyclone, Dancing Scimitar, Dandan, Desert, Desert Nomads, Desert Twister, Diamond Valley, Drop of Honey, Ebony Horse, Elephant Graveyard, El-Hajjaj, Erg Raiders, Erhnam Djinn, Eye for an Eye, Fishliver Oil, Flying Carpet, Flying Men, Ghazban Ogre, Giant Tortoise, Guardian Beast, Hasran Ogress, Hurr Jackal, Ifh-Biff Efreet, Island Fish Jasconius, Island of Wak-Wak, Jandor's Ring, Jandor's Saddlebags, Jeweled Bird, Jihad, Junun Efreet, Juzam Djinn, Khabal Ghoul, King Suleiman, Kird Ape, Library of Alexandria, Magnetic Mountain, Merchant Ship, Metamorphosis, Mijae Djinn, Moorish Cavalry, Nafs Asp, Oasis, Old Man of the Sea, Oubliette, Piety, Pyramids, Repentant Blacksmith, Ring of Ma'ruf, Rukh Egg, Sandals of Abdallah, Sandstorm, Serendib Djinn, Serendib Efreet, Shahrazad, Sindbad, Singing Tree, Sorceress Queen, Stone-Throwing Devils, Unstable Mutation, War Elephant, Wyluli Wolf, and Ydwen Efreet.

700.5b.

One card (Golgothian Sylex) refers to permanents with the same name as a card originally printed in the Antiquities (tm) expansion. Those cards are Amulet of Kroog, Argivian Archaeologist, Argivian Blacksmith, Argothian Pixies, Argothian Treefolk, Armageddon Clock, Artifact Blast, Artifact Possession, Artifact Ward, Ashnod's Altar, Ashnod's Battle Gear, Ashnod's Transmogrant, Atog, Battering Ram, Bronze Tablet, Candelabra of Tawnos, Circle of Protection: Artifacts, Citanul Druid, Clay Statue, Clockwork Avian, Colossus of Sardia, Coral Helm, Crumble, Cursed Rack, Damping Field, Detonate, Drafna's Restoration, Dragon Engine, Dwarven Weaponsmith, Energy Flux, Feldon's Cane, Gaea's Avenger, Gate to Phyrexia, Goblin Artisans, Golgothian Sylex, Grapeshot Catapult, Haunting Wind, Hurkyl's Recall, Ivory Tower, Jalum Tome, Martyrs of Korlis, Mightstone, Millstone, Mishra's Factory, Mishra's War Machine, Mishra's Workshop, Obelisk of Undoing, Onulet, Orcish Mechanics, Ornithopter, Phyrexian Gremlins, Power Artifact, Powerleech, Priest of Yawgmoth, Primal Clay, The Rack, Rakalite, Reconstruction, Reverse Polarity, Rocket Launcher, Sage of Lat-Nam, Shapeshifter, Shatterstorm, Staff of Zegon, Strip Mine, Su-Chi, Tablet of Epityr, Tawnos's Coffin, Tawnos's Wand, Tawnos's Weaponry, Tetravus, Titania's Song, Transmute Artifact, Triskelion, Urza's Avenger, Urza's Chalice, Urza's Mine, Urza's Miter, Urza's Power Plant, Urza's Tower, Wall of Spears, Weakstone, Xenic Poltergeist, Yawgmoth Demon, and Yotian Soldier.

700.5c.

One card (Apocalypse Chime) refers to permanents with the same name as a card originally printed in the Homelands (tm) expansion. Those cards are Abbey Gargoyles; Abbey Matron; AEther Storm; Aliban's Tower; Ambush; Ambush Party; Anaba Ancestor; Anaba Bodyguard; Anaba Shaman; Anaba Spirit Crafter; An-Havva Constable; An-Havva Inn; An-Havva Township; An-Zerrin Ruins; Apocalypse Chime; Autumn Willow; Aysen Abbey; Aysen Bureaucrats; Aysen Crusader; Aysen Highway; Baki's Curse; Baron Sengir; Beast Walkers; Black Carriage; Broken Visage; Carapace; Castle Sengir; Cemetery Gate; Chain Stasis; Chandler; Clockwork Gnomes; Clockwork Steed; Clockwork Swarm; Coral Reef; Dark Maze; Daughter of Autumn; Death Speakers; Didgeridoo; Drudge Spell; Dry Spell; Dwarven Pony; Dwarven Sea Clan; Dwarven Trader; Ebony Rhino; Eron the Relentless; Evaporate; Faerie Noble; Feast of the Unicorn; Feroz's Ban; Folk of An-Havva; Forget; Funeral March; Ghost Hounds; Giant Albatross; Giant Oyster; Grandmother Sengir; Greater Werewolf; Hazduhr the Abbot; Headstone; Heart Wolf; Hungry Mist; Ihsan's Shade; Irini Sengir; Ironclaw Curse; Jinx; Joven; Joven's Ferrets; Joven's Tools; Koskun Falls; Koskun Keep; Labyrinth Minotaur; Leaping Lizard; Leeches; Mammoth Harness; Marjhan; Memory Lapse; Merchant Scroll; Mesa Falcon; Mystic Decree; Narwhal; Orcish Mine; Primal Order; Prophecy; Rashka the Slayer; Reef Pirates; Renewal; Retribution; Reveka, Wizard Savant; Root Spider; Roots; Roterothopter; Rysorian Badger; Samite Alchemist; Sea Sprite; Sea Troll; Sengir Autocrat; Sengir Bats; Serra Aviary; Serra Bestiary; Serra Inquisitors; Serra Paladin; Serrated Arrows; Shrink; Soraya the Falconer; Spectral Bears; Timmerian Fiends; Torture; Trade Caravan; Truce; Veldrane of Sengir; Wall of Kelp; Willow Faerie; Willow Priestess; Winter Sky; and Wizards' School.

701.11a.701.11a.

To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it's in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if he or she has priority, it's the main phase of his or her turn, the stack is empty, and he or she hasn't yet played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 115), so it doesn't use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn't the same as playing a land. See rule 305, "Lands."

To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it's in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if he or she has priority, it's the main phase of his or her turn, the stack is empty, and he or she hasn't played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 115), so it doesn't use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn't the same as playing a land. See rule 305, "Lands."

702.9b.702.9b.

A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step," and rule 702.16, "Reach.")

A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step," and rule 702.17, "Reach.")

702.12.

Indestructible

702.12a.

Indestructible is a static ability.

702.12b.

A permanent with indestructible can't be destroyed. Such permanents aren't destroyed by lethal damage, and they ignore the state-based action that checks for lethal damage (see rule 704.5g).

702.12c.

Multiple instances of indestructible on the same permanent are redundant.

702.12.702.13.

Intimidate

Intimidate

702.12a.702.13a.

Intimidate is an evasion ability.

Intimidate is an evasion ability.

702.12b.702.13b.

A creature with intimidate can't be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or creatures that share a color with it. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

A creature with intimidate can't be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or creatures that share a color with it. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.12c.702.13c.

Multiple instances of intimidate on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of intimidate on the same creature are redundant.

702.13.702.14.

Landwalk

Landwalk

702.13a.702.14a.

Landwalk is a generic term that appears within an object's rules text as "[type]walk," where [type] is usually a subtype, but can be the card type land, any land type, any supertype, or any combination thereof.

Landwalk is a generic term that appears within an object's rules text as "[type]walk," where [type] is usually a subtype, but can be the card type land, any land type, any supertype, or any combination thereof.

702.13b.702.14b.

Landwalk is an evasion ability.

Landwalk is an evasion ability.

702.13c.702.14c.

A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one land with the specified subtype (as in "islandwalk"), with the specified supertype (as in "legendary landwalk"), without the specified supertype (as in "nonbasic landwalk"), or with both the specified supertype and the specified subtype (as in "snow swampwalk"). (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

A creature with landwalk can't be blocked as long as the defending player controls at least one land with the specified subtype (as in "islandwalk"), with the specified supertype (as in "legendary landwalk"), without the specified supertype (as in "nonbasic landwalk"), or with both the specified supertype and the specified subtype (as in "snow swampwalk"). (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.13d.702.14d.

Landwalk abilities don't "cancel" one another.

Example: If a player controls a snow Forest, that player can't block an attacking creature with snow forestwalk even if he or she also controls a creature with snow forestwalk.

Landwalk abilities don't "cancel" one another.

Example: If a player controls a snow Forest, that player can't block an attacking creature with snow forestwalk even if he or she also controls a creature with snow forestwalk.

702.13e.702.14e.

Multiple instances of the same kind of landwalk on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of the same kind of landwalk on the same creature are redundant.

702.14.702.15.

Lifelink

Lifelink

702.14a.702.15a.

Lifelink is a static ability.

Lifelink is a static ability.

702.14b.702.15b.

Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that source's controller, or its owner if it has no controller, to gain that much life (in addition to any other results that damage causes). See rule 119.3.

Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that source's controller, or its owner if it has no controller, to gain that much life (in addition to any other results that damage causes). See rule 119.3.

702.14c.702.15c.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had lifelink.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had lifelink.

702.14d.702.15d.

The lifelink rules function no matter what zone an object with lifelink deals damage from.

The lifelink rules function no matter what zone an object with lifelink deals damage from.

702.14e.702.15e.

Multiple instances of lifelink on the same object are redundant.

Multiple instances of lifelink on the same object are redundant.

702.15.702.16.

Protection

Protection

702.15a.702.16a.

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." This quality is usually a color (as in "protection from black") but can be any characteristic value. If the quality happens to be a card name, it is treated as such only if the protection ability specifies that the quality is a name. If the quality is a card type, subtype, or supertype, the ability applies to sources that are permanents with that card type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not on the battlefield that are of that card type, subtype, or supertype. This is an exception to rule 109.2.

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." This quality is usually a color (as in "protection from black") but can be any characteristic value. If the quality happens to be a card name, it is treated as such only if the protection ability specifies that the quality is a name. If the quality is a card type, subtype, or supertype, the ability applies to sources that are permanents with that card type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not on the battlefield that are of that card type, subtype, or supertype. This is an exception to rule 109.2.

702.15b.702.16b.

A permanent or player with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality.

A permanent or player with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality.

702.15c.702.16c.

A permanent or player with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based action. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

A permanent or player with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based action. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

702.15d.702.16d.

A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent as a state-based action, but remain on the battlefield. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent as a state-based action, but remain on the battlefield. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

702.15e.702.16e.

Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player with protection is prevented.

Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player with protection is prevented.

702.15f.702.16f.

Attacking creatures with protection can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Attacking creatures with protection can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

702.15g.702.16g.

"Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]" and "protection from [quality B]"; it behaves as two separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B].

"Protection from [quality A] and from [quality B]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]" and "protection from [quality B]"; it behaves as two separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B].

702.15h.702.16h.

"Protection from all [characteristic]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]," "protection from [quality B]," and so on for each possible quality the listed characteristic could have; it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B], [quality C], and so on.

"Protection from all [characteristic]" is shorthand for "protection from [quality A]," "protection from [quality B]," and so on for each possible quality the listed characteristic could have; it behaves as multiple separate protection abilities. If an effect causes an object with such an ability to lose protection from [quality A], for example, that object would still have protection from [quality B], [quality C], and so on.

702.15i.702.16i.

"Protection from everything" is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object's characteristic values. Such a permanent can't be targeted by spells or abilities, enchanted by Auras, equipped by Equipment, fortified by Fortifications, or blocked by creatures, and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented.

"Protection from everything" is a variant of the protection ability. A permanent with protection from everything has protection from each object regardless of that object's characteristic values. Such a permanent can't be targeted by spells or abilities, enchanted by Auras, equipped by Equipment, fortified by Fortifications, or blocked by creatures, and all damage that would be dealt to it is prevented.

702.15j.702.16j.

Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.

Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.

702.16.702.17.

Reach

Reach

702.16a.702.17a.

Reach is a static ability.

Reach is a static ability.

702.16b.702.17b.

A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step," and rule 702.9, "Flying.")

A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step," and rule 702.9, "Flying.")

702.16c.702.17c.

Multiple instances of reach on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of reach on the same creature are redundant.

702.17.702.18.

Shroud

Shroud

702.17a.702.18a.

Shroud is a static ability. "Shroud" means "This permanent or player can't be the target of spells or abilities."

Shroud is a static ability. "Shroud" means "This permanent or player can't be the target of spells or abilities."

702.17b.702.18b.

Multiple instances of shroud on the same permanent or player are redundant.

Multiple instances of shroud on the same permanent or player are redundant.

702.18.702.19.

Trample

Trample

702.18a.702.19a.

Trample is a static ability that modifies the rules for assigning an attacking creature's combat damage. The ability has no effect when a creature with trample is blocking or is dealing noncombat damage. (See rule 510, "Combat Damage Step.")

Trample is a static ability that modifies the rules for assigning an attacking creature's combat damage. The ability has no effect when a creature with trample is blocking or is dealing noncombat damage. (See rule 510, "Combat Damage Step.")

702.18b.702.19b.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. Once all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. The attacking creature's controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

Example: A 2/2 creature that can block an additional creature blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no abilities and a 3/3 with trample. The active player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature, and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample.

Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. The attacking creature's controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker, even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker's protection ability. The attacking creature's controller can divide the rest of the damage as he or she chooses between the blocking creature and the defending player.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. Once all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. The attacking creature's controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

Example: A 2/2 creature that can block an additional creature blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no abilities and a 3/3 with trample. The active player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature, and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample.

Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. The attacking creature's controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker, even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker's protection ability. The attacking creature's controller can divide the rest of the damage as he or she chooses between the blocking creature and the defending player.

702.18c.702.19c.

If an attacking creature with trample is blocked, but there are no creatures blocking it when damage is assigned, all its damage is assigned to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

If an attacking creature with trample is blocked, but there are no creatures blocking it when damage is assigned, all its damage is assigned to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

702.18d.702.19d.

If a creature with trample is attacking a planeswalker, none of its combat damage can be assigned to the defending player, even if that planeswalker has been removed from combat or the damage the attacking creature could assign is greater than the planeswalker's loyalty.

If a creature with trample is attacking a planeswalker, none of its combat damage can be assigned to the defending player, even if that planeswalker has been removed from combat or the damage the attacking creature could assign is greater than the planeswalker's loyalty.

702.18e.702.19e.

Multiple instances of trample on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of trample on the same creature are redundant.

702.19.702.20.

Vigilance

Vigilance

702.19a.702.20a.

Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step.

Vigilance is a static ability that modifies the rules for the declare attackers step.

702.19b.702.20b.

Attacking doesn't cause creatures with vigilance to tap. (See rule 508, "Declare Attackers Step.")

Attacking doesn't cause creatures with vigilance to tap. (See rule 508, "Declare Attackers Step.")

702.19c.702.20c.

Multiple instances of vigilance on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of vigilance on the same creature are redundant.

702.20.702.21.

Banding

Banding

702.20a.702.21a.

Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for combat.

Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for combat.

702.20b.702.21b.

"Bands with other" is a special form of banding. If an effect causes a permanent to lose banding, the permanent loses all "bands with other" abilities as well.

"Bands with other" is a special form of banding. If an effect causes a permanent to lose banding, the permanent loses all "bands with other" abilities as well.

702.20c.702.21c.

As a player declares attackers, he or she may declare that one or more attacking creatures with banding and up to one attacking creature without banding (even if it has "bands with other") are all in a "band." He or she may also declare that one or more attacking [quality] creatures with "bands with other [quality]" and any number of other attacking [quality] creatures are all in a band. A player may declare as many attacking bands as he or she wants, but each creature may be a member of only one of them. (Defending players can't declare bands but may use banding in a different way; see rule 702.20j.)

As a player declares attackers, he or she may declare that one or more attacking creatures with banding and up to one attacking creature without banding (even if it has "bands with other") are all in a "band." He or she may also declare that one or more attacking [quality] creatures with "bands with other [quality]" and any number of other attacking [quality] creatures are all in a band. A player may declare as many attacking bands as he or she wants, but each creature may be a member of only one of them. (Defending players can't declare bands but may use banding in a different way; see rule 702.21j.)

702.20d.702.21d.

All creatures in an attacking band must attack the same player or planeswalker.

All creatures in an attacking band must attack the same player or planeswalker.

702.20e.702.21e.

Once an attacking band has been announced, it lasts for the rest of combat, even if something later removes banding or "bands with other" from one or more of the creatures in the band.

Once an attacking band has been announced, it lasts for the rest of combat, even if something later removes banding or "bands with other" from one or more of the creatures in the band.

702.20f.702.21f.

An attacking creature that's removed from combat is also removed from the band it was in.

An attacking creature that's removed from combat is also removed from the band it was in.

702.20g.702.21g.

Banding doesn't cause attacking creatures to share abilities, nor does it remove any abilities. The attacking creatures in a band are separate permanents.

Banding doesn't cause attacking creatures to share abilities, nor does it remove any abilities. The attacking creatures in a band are separate permanents.

702.20h.702.21h.

If an attacking creature becomes blocked by a creature, each other creature in the same band as the attacking creature becomes blocked by that same blocking creature.

Example: A player attacks with a band consisting of a creature with flying and a creature with swampwalk. The defending player, who controls a Swamp, can block the flying creature if able. If he or she does, then the creature with swampwalk will also become blocked by the blocking creature(s).

If an attacking creature becomes blocked by a creature, each other creature in the same band as the attacking creature becomes blocked by that same blocking creature.

Example: A player attacks with a band consisting of a creature with flying and a creature with swampwalk. The defending player, who controls a Swamp, can block the flying creature if able. If he or she does, then the creature with swampwalk will also become blocked by the blocking creature(s).

702.20i.702.21i.

If one member of a band would become blocked due to an effect, the entire band becomes blocked.

If one member of a band would become blocked due to an effect, the entire band becomes blocked.

702.20j.702.21j.

During the combat damage step, if an attacking creature is being blocked by a creature with banding, or by both a [quality] creature with "bands with other [quality]" and another [quality] creature, the defending player (rather than the active player) chooses how the attacking creature's damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature's combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures blocking it. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1c.

During the combat damage step, if an attacking creature is being blocked by a creature with banding, or by both a [quality] creature with "bands with other [quality]" and another [quality] creature, the defending player (rather than the active player) chooses how the attacking creature's damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature's combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures blocking it. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1c.

702.20k.702.21k.

During the combat damage step, if a blocking creature is blocking a creature with banding, or both a [quality] creature with "bands with other [quality]" and another [quality] creature, the active player (rather than the defending player) chooses how the blocking creature's damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature's combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures it's blocking. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1d.

During the combat damage step, if a blocking creature is blocking a creature with banding, or both a [quality] creature with "bands with other [quality]" and another [quality] creature, the active player (rather than the defending player) chooses how the blocking creature's damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature's combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures it's blocking. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1d.

702.20m.702.21m.

Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant. Multiple instances of "bands with other" of the same kind on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant. Multiple instances of "bands with other" of the same kind on the same creature are redundant.

702.21.702.22.

Rampage

Rampage

702.21a.702.22a.

Rampage is a triggered ability. "Rampage N" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first." (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

Rampage is a triggered ability. "Rampage N" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first." (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.21b.702.22b.

The rampage bonus is calculated only once per combat, when the triggered ability resolves. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won't change the bonus.

The rampage bonus is calculated only once per combat, when the triggered ability resolves. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won't change the bonus.

702.21c.702.22c.

If a creature has multiple instances of rampage, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of rampage, each triggers separately.

702.22.702.23.

Cumulative Upkeep

Cumulative Upkeep

702.22a.702.23a.

Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. "Cumulative upkeep [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent is on the battlefield, put an age counter on this permanent. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. If you don't, sacrifice it." If [cost] has choices associated with it, each choice is made separately for each age counter, then either the entire set of costs is paid, or none of them is paid. Partial payments aren't allowed.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep {W} or {U}" and two age counters on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, the creature's controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay {W}{W}{W}, {W}{W}{U}, {W}{U}{U}, or {U}{U}{U} to keep the creature on the battlefield.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep—Sacrifice a creature" and one age counter on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, its controller can't choose the same creature to sacrifice twice. Either two different creatures must be sacrificed, or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed.

Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. "Cumulative upkeep [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent is on the battlefield, put an age counter on this permanent. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. If you don't, sacrifice it." If [cost] has choices associated with it, each choice is made separately for each age counter, then either the entire set of costs is paid, or none of them is paid. Partial payments aren't allowed.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep {W} or {U}" and two age counters on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, the creature's controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay {W}{W}{W}, {W}{W}{U}, {W}{U}{U}, or {U}{U}{U} to keep the creature on the battlefield.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep—Sacrifice a creature" and one age counter on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, its controller can't choose the same creature to sacrifice twice. Either two different creatures must be sacrificed, or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed.

702.22b.702.23b.

If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not connected to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

Example: A creature has two instances of "Cumulative upkeep—Pay 1 life." The creature has no age counters, and both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. When the first ability resolves, the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. When the second ability resolves, the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.

If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not connected to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

Example: A creature has two instances of "Cumulative upkeep—Pay 1 life." The creature has no age counters, and both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. When the first ability resolves, the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. When the second ability resolves, the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.

702.23.702.24.

Flanking

Flanking

702.23a.702.24a.

Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.") "Flanking" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking, the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn."

Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.") "Flanking" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking, the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn."

702.23b.702.24b.

If a creature has multiple instances of flanking, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of flanking, each triggers separately.

702.24.702.25.

Phasing

Phasing

702.24a.702.25a.

Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step. During each player's untap step, before the active player untaps his or her permanents, all phased-in permanents with phasing that player controls "phase out." Simultaneously, all phased-out permanents that had phased out under that player's control "phase in."

Phasing is a static ability that modifies the rules of the untap step. During each player's untap step, before the active player untaps his or her permanents, all phased-in permanents with phasing that player controls "phase out." Simultaneously, all phased-out permanents that had phased out under that player's control "phase in."

702.24b.702.25b.

If a permanent phases out, its status changes to "phased out." Except for rules and effects that specifically mention phased-out permanents, a phased-out permanent is treated as though it does not exist. It can't affect or be affected by anything else in the game.

Example: You control three creatures, one of which is phased out. You cast a spell that says "Draw a card for each creature you control." You draw two cards.

Example: You control a phased-out creature. You cast a spell that says "Destroy all creatures." The phased-out creature is not destroyed.

If a permanent phases out, its status changes to "phased out." Except for rules and effects that specifically mention phased-out permanents, a phased-out permanent is treated as though it does not exist. It can't affect or be affected by anything else in the game.

Example: You control three creatures, one of which is phased out. You cast a spell that says "Draw a card for each creature you control." You draw two cards.

Example: You control a phased-out creature. You cast a spell that says "Destroy all creatures." The phased-out creature is not destroyed.

702.24c.702.25c.

If a permanent phases in, its status changes to "phased in." The game once again treats it as though it exists.

If a permanent phases in, its status changes to "phased in." The game once again treats it as though it exists.

702.24d.702.25d.

The phasing event doesn't actually cause a permanent to change zones or control, even though it's treated as though it's not on the battlefield and not under its controller's control while it's phased out. Zone-change triggers don't trigger when a permanent phases in or out. Counters remain on a permanent while it's phased out. Effects that check a phased-in permanent's history won't treat the phasing event as having caused the permanent to leave or enter the battlefield or its controller's control.

The phasing event doesn't actually cause a permanent to change zones or control, even though it's treated as though it's not on the battlefield and not under its controller's control while it's phased out. Zone-change triggers don't trigger when a permanent phases in or out. Counters remain on a permanent while it's phased out. Effects that check a phased-in permanent's history won't treat the phasing event as having caused the permanent to leave or enter the battlefield or its controller's control.

702.24e.702.25e.

Continuous effects that affect a phased-out permanent may expire while that permanent is phased out. If so, they will no longer affect that permanent once it's phased in. In particular, effects with "for as long as" durations that track that permanent (see rule 611.2b) end when that permanent phases out because they can no longer see it.

Continuous effects that affect a phased-out permanent may expire while that permanent is phased out. If so, they will no longer affect that permanent once it's phased in. In particular, effects with "for as long as" durations that track that permanent (see rule 611.2b) end when that permanent phases out because they can no longer see it.

702.24f.702.25f.

When a permanent phases out, any Auras, Equipment, or Fortifications attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out "indirectly." An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out indirectly won't phase in by itself, but instead phases in along with the permanent it's attached to.

When a permanent phases out, any Auras, Equipment, or Fortifications attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out "indirectly." An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out indirectly won't phase in by itself, but instead phases in along with the permanent it's attached to.

702.24g.702.25g.

If an object would simultaneously phase out directly and indirectly, it just phases out indirectly.

If an object would simultaneously phase out directly and indirectly, it just phases out indirectly.

702.24h.702.25h.

An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out directly will phase in attached to the object or player it was attached to when it phased out, if that object is still in the same zone or that player is still in the game. If not, that Aura, Equipment, or Fortification phases in unattached. State-based actions apply as appropriate. (See rules 704.5n and 704.5p.)

An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out directly will phase in attached to the object or player it was attached to when it phased out, if that object is still in the same zone or that player is still in the game. If not, that Aura, Equipment, or Fortification phases in unattached. State-based actions apply as appropriate. (See rules 704.5n and 704.5p.)

702.24i.702.25i.

Abilities that trigger when a permanent becomes attached or unattached from an object or player don't trigger when that permanent phases in or out.

Abilities that trigger when a permanent becomes attached or unattached from an object or player don't trigger when that permanent phases in or out.

702.24j.702.25j.

Phased-out permanents owned by a player who leaves the game also leave the game. This doesn't trigger zone-change triggers. See rule 800.4.

Phased-out permanents owned by a player who leaves the game also leave the game. This doesn't trigger zone-change triggers. See rule 800.4.

702.24k.702.25k.

Phased-out tokens cease to exist as a state-based action. See rule 704.5d.

Phased-out tokens cease to exist as a state-based action. See rule 704.5d.

702.24m.702.25m.

If an effect causes a player to skip his or her untap step, the phasing event simply doesn't occur that turn.

If an effect causes a player to skip his or her untap step, the phasing event simply doesn't occur that turn.

702.24n.702.25n.

Multiple instances of phasing on the same permanent are redundant.

Multiple instances of phasing on the same permanent are redundant.

702.25.702.26.

Buyback

Buyback

702.25a.702.26a.

Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell" and "If the buyback cost was paid, put this spell into its owner's hand instead of into that player's graveyard as it resolves." Paying a spell's buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell" and "If the buyback cost was paid, put this spell into its owner's hand instead of into that player's graveyard as it resolves." Paying a spell's buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.26.702.27.

Shadow

Shadow

702.26a.702.27a.

Shadow is an evasion ability.

Shadow is an evasion ability.

702.26b.702.27b.

A creature with shadow can't be blocked by creatures without shadow, and a creature without shadow can't be blocked by creatures with shadow. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

A creature with shadow can't be blocked by creatures without shadow, and a creature without shadow can't be blocked by creatures with shadow. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.26c.702.27c.

Multiple instances of shadow on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of shadow on the same creature are redundant.

702.27.702.28.

Cycling

Cycling

702.27a.702.28a.

Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player's hand. "Cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Draw a card."

Cycling is an activated ability that functions only while the card with cycling is in a player's hand. "Cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Draw a card."

702.27b.702.28b.

Although the cycling ability can be activated only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with cycling will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

Although the cycling ability can be activated only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with cycling will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

702.27c.702.28c.

Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they're cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost." These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it's cycled.

Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they're cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost." These abilities trigger from whatever zone the card winds up in after it's cycled.

702.27d.702.28d.

Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. "[Type]cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." This type is usually a subtype (as in "mountaincycling") but can be any card type, subtype, supertype, or combination thereof (as in "basic landcycling").

Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. "[Type]cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [type] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." This type is usually a subtype (as in "mountaincycling") but can be any card type, subtype, supertype, or combination thereof (as in "basic landcycling").

702.27e.702.28e.

Typecycling abilities are cycling abilities, and typecycling costs are cycling costs. Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards' typecycling abilities. Any effect that increases or reduces a cycling cost will increase or reduce a typecycling cost.

Typecycling abilities are cycling abilities, and typecycling costs are cycling costs. Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards' typecycling abilities. Any effect that increases or reduces a cycling cost will increase or reduce a typecycling cost.

702.28.702.29.

Echo

Echo

702.28a.702.29a.

Echo is a triggered ability. "Echo [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay [cost]."

Echo is a triggered ability. "Echo [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay [cost]."

702.28b.702.29b.

Urza block cards with the echo ability were printed without an echo cost. These cards have been given errata in the Oracle card reference; each one now has an echo cost equal to its mana cost.

Urza block cards with the echo ability were printed without an echo cost. These cards have been given errata in the Oracle card reference; each one now has an echo cost equal to its mana cost.

702.29.702.30.

Horsemanship

Horsemanship

702.29a.702.30a.

Horsemanship is an evasion ability.

Horsemanship is an evasion ability.

702.29b.702.30b.

A creature with horsemanship can't be blocked by creatures without horsemanship. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

A creature with horsemanship can't be blocked by creatures without horsemanship. A creature with horsemanship can block a creature with or without horsemanship. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.29c.702.30c.

Multiple instances of horsemanship on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of horsemanship on the same creature are redundant.

702.30.702.31.

Fading

Fading

702.30a.702.31a.

Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. "Fading N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N fade counters on it" and "At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from this permanent. If you can't, sacrifice the permanent."

Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. "Fading N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N fade counters on it" and "At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from this permanent. If you can't, sacrifice the permanent."

702.31.702.32.

Kicker

Kicker

702.31a.702.32a.

Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell with kicker is on the stack. "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell." Paying a spell's kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell with kicker is on the stack. "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell." Paying a spell's kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.31b.702.32b.

The phrase "Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]" means the same thing as "Kicker [cost 1], kicker [cost 2]."

The phrase "Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]" means the same thing as "Kicker [cost 1], kicker [cost 2]."

702.31c.702.32c.

Multikicker is a variant of the kicker ability. "Multikicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] any number of times as you cast this spell." A multikicker cost is a kicker cost.

Multikicker is a variant of the kicker ability. "Multikicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] any number of times as you cast this spell." A multikicker cost is a kicker cost.

702.31d.702.32d.

If a spell's controller declares the intention to pay any of that spell's kicker costs, that spell has been "kicked." If a spell has two kicker costs or has multikicker, it may be kicked multiple times. See rule 601.2b.

If a spell's controller declares the intention to pay any of that spell's kicker costs, that spell has been "kicked." If a spell has two kicker costs or has multikicker, it may be kicked multiple times. See rule 601.2b.

702.31e.702.32e.

Objects with kicker or multikicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if they are kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker or multikicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker or multikicker abilities. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

Objects with kicker or multikicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if they are kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker or multikicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker or multikicker abilities. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

702.31f.702.32f.

Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if it was kicked with its [A] kicker" and "if it was kicked with its [B] kicker," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. Each of those abilities is linked to the appropriate kicker ability.

Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if it was kicked with its [A] kicker" and "if it was kicked with its [B] kicker," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. Each of those abilities is linked to the appropriate kicker ability.

702.31g.702.32g.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if that spell was kicked, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if that spell was kicked. Otherwise, the spell is cast as if it did not have those targets. See rule 601.2c.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if that spell was kicked, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if that spell was kicked. Otherwise, the spell is cast as if it did not have those targets. See rule 601.2c.

702.32.702.33.

Flashback

Flashback

702.32a.702.33a.

Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities: one that functions while the card is in a player's graveyard and another that functions while the card is on the stack. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may cast this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "If the flashback cost was paid, exile this card instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack." Casting a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities: one that functions while the card is in a player's graveyard and another that functions while the card is on the stack. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may cast this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "If the flashback cost was paid, exile this card instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack." Casting a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.33.702.34.

Madness

Madness

702.33a.702.34a.

Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player's hand. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. "Madness [cost]" means "If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but may exile it instead of putting it into his or her graveyard" and "When this card is exiled this way, its owner may cast it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesn't, he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard."

Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player's hand. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. "Madness [cost]" means "If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but may exile it instead of putting it into his or her graveyard" and "When this card is exiled this way, its owner may cast it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesn't, he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard."

702.33b.702.34b.

Casting a spell using its madness ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Casting a spell using its madness ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.34.702.35.

Fear

Fear

702.34a.702.35a.

Fear is an evasion ability.

Fear is an evasion ability.

702.34b.702.35b.

A creature with fear can't be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

A creature with fear can't be blocked except by artifact creatures and/or black creatures. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.34c.702.35c.

Multiple instances of fear on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of fear on the same creature are redundant.

702.35.702.36.

Morph

Morph

702.35a.702.36a.

Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may cast this card as a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than paying its mana cost." (See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents.")

Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may cast this card as a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than paying its mana cost." (See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents.")

702.35b.702.36b.

To cast a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card's characteristics) are applied to casting this card. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 706, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use morph to cast a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it enters the battlefield with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

To cast a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card's characteristics) are applied to casting this card. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 706, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use morph to cast a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it enters the battlefield with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

702.35c.702.36c.

You can't cast a card face down if it doesn't have morph.

You can't cast a card face down if it doesn't have morph.

702.35d.702.36d.

If you have priority, you may turn a face-down permanent you control face up. This is a special action; it doesn't use the stack (see rule 115). To do this, show all players what the permanent's morph cost would be if it were face up, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. (If the permanent wouldn't have a morph cost if it were face up, it can't be turned face up this way.) The morph effect on it ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. Any abilities relating to the permanent entering the battlefield don't trigger when it's turned face up and don't have any effect, because the permanent has already entered the battlefield.

If you have priority, you may turn a face-down permanent you control face up. This is a special action; it doesn't use the stack (see rule 115). To do this, show all players what the permanent's morph cost would be if it were face up, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. (If the permanent wouldn't have a morph cost if it were face up, it can't be turned face up this way.) The morph effect on it ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. Any abilities relating to the permanent entering the battlefield don't trigger when it's turned face up and don't have any effect, because the permanent has already entered the battlefield.

702.35e.702.36e.

See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," for more information on how to cast cards with morph.

See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," for more information on how to cast cards with morph.

702.36.702.37.

Amplify

Amplify

702.36a.702.37a.

Amplify is a static ability. "Amplify N" means "As this object enters the battlefield, reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. You can't reveal this card or any other cards that are entering the battlefield at the same time as this card."

Amplify is a static ability. "Amplify N" means "As this object enters the battlefield, reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. You can't reveal this card or any other cards that are entering the battlefield at the same time as this card."

702.36b.702.37b.

If a creature has multiple instances of amplify, each one works separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of amplify, each one works separately.

702.37.702.38.

Provoke

Provoke

702.37a.702.38a.

Provoke is a triggered ability. "Provoke" means "Whenever this creature attacks, you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able. If you do, untap that creature."

Provoke is a triggered ability. "Provoke" means "Whenever this creature attacks, you may choose to have target creature defending player controls block this creature this combat if able. If you do, untap that creature."

702.37b.702.38b.

If a creature has multiple instances of provoke, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of provoke, each triggers separately.

702.38.702.39.

Storm

Storm

702.38a.702.39a.

Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Storm" means "When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was cast before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies."

Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Storm" means "When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was cast before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies."

702.38b.702.39b.

If a spell has multiple instances of storm, each triggers separately.

If a spell has multiple instances of storm, each triggers separately.

702.39.702.40.

Affinity

Affinity

702.39a.702.40a.

Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Affinity for [text]" means "This spell costs you {1} less to cast for each [text] you control."

Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Affinity for [text]" means "This spell costs you {1} less to cast for each [text] you control."

702.39b.702.40b.

The affinity ability reduces only the amount of generic mana a spell's controller has to pay; it doesn't reduce how much colored mana that player has to pay.

The affinity ability reduces only the amount of generic mana a spell's controller has to pay; it doesn't reduce how much colored mana that player has to pay.

702.39c.702.40c.

If a spell has multiple instances of affinity, each of them applies.

If a spell has multiple instances of affinity, each of them applies.

702.40.702.41.

Entwine

Entwine

702.40a.702.41a.

Entwine is a static ability of modal spells (see rule 700.2) that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Entwine [cost]" means "You may choose all modes of this spell instead of just one. If you do, you pay an additional [cost]." Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Entwine is a static ability of modal spells (see rule 700.2) that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Entwine [cost]" means "You may choose all modes of this spell instead of just one. If you do, you pay an additional [cost]." Using the entwine ability follows the rules for choosing modes and paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.40b.702.41b.

If the entwine cost was paid, follow the text of each of the modes in the order written on the card when the spell resolves.

If the entwine cost was paid, follow the text of each of the modes in the order written on the card when the spell resolves.

702.41.702.42.

Modular

Modular

702.41a.702.42a.

Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Modular N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Modular N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

702.41b.702.42b.

If a creature has multiple instances of modular, each one works separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of modular, each one works separately.

702.42.702.43.

Sunburst

Sunburst

702.42a.702.43a.

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is entering the battlefield from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is entering the battlefield from the stack as a creature, it enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it. If this object is entering the battlefield from the stack and isn't entering the battlefield as a creature, it enters the battlefield with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it."

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is entering the battlefield from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is entering the battlefield from the stack as a creature, it enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it. If this object is entering the battlefield from the stack and isn't entering the battlefield as a creature, it enters the battlefield with a charge counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it."

702.42b.702.43b.

Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies.

Sunburst applies only as the spell is resolving and only if one or more colored mana was spent on its costs. Mana paid for additional or alternative costs applies.

702.42c.702.43c.

Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. If the keyword is used in this way, it doesn't matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell.

Example: The ability "Modular—Sunburst" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

Sunburst can also be used to set a variable number for another ability. If the keyword is used in this way, it doesn't matter whether the ability is on a creature spell or on a noncreature spell.

Example: The ability "Modular—Sunburst" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana spent to cast it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

702.42d.702.43d.

If an object has multiple instances of sunburst, each one works separately.

If an object has multiple instances of sunburst, each one works separately.

702.43.702.44.

Bushido

Bushido

702.43a.702.44a.

Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido N" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn." (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido N" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn." (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.43b.702.44b.

If a creature has multiple instances of bushido, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of bushido, each triggers separately.

702.44.702.45.

Soulshift

Soulshift

702.44a.702.45a.

Soulshift is a triggered ability. "Soulshift N" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand."

Soulshift is a triggered ability. "Soulshift N" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand."

702.44b.702.45b.

If a permanent has multiple instances of soulshift, each triggers separately.

If a permanent has multiple instances of soulshift, each triggers separately.

702.45.702.46.

Splice

Splice

702.45a.702.46a.

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you cast a [subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to cast that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Example: Since the card with splice remains in the player's hand, it can later be cast normally or spliced onto another spell. It can even be discarded to pay a "discard a card" cost of the spell it's spliced onto.

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you cast a [subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to cast that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Example: Since the card with splice remains in the player's hand, it can later be cast normally or spliced onto another spell. It can even be discarded to pay a "discard a card" cost of the spell it's spliced onto.

702.45b.702.46b.

You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first.

You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first.

702.45c.702.46c.

The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied.

Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads, "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists, a blue spell. The spell is still blue, and Reach Through Mists deals the damage. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature.

The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied.

Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads, "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists, a blue spell. The spell is still blue, and Reach Through Mists deals the damage. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature.

702.45d.702.46d.

Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 601.2c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.

Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 601.2c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution.

702.45e.702.46e.

The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it's countered, it's exiled, or it resolves).

The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it's countered, it's exiled, or it resolves).

702.46.702.47.

Offering

Offering

702.46a.702.47a.

Offering is a static ability of a card that functions in any zone from which the card can be cast. "[Subtype] offering" means "You may cast this card any time you could cast an instant by sacrificing a [subtype] permanent. If you do, the total cost to cast this card is reduced by the sacrificed permanent's mana cost."

Offering is a static ability of a card that functions in any zone from which the card can be cast. "[Subtype] offering" means "You may cast this card any time you could cast an instant by sacrificing a [subtype] permanent. If you do, the total cost to cast this card is reduced by the sacrificed permanent's mana cost."

702.46b.702.47b.

The permanent is sacrificed at the same time the spell is announced (see rule 601.2a). The total cost of the spell is reduced by the sacrificed permanent's mana cost (see rule 601.2e).

The permanent is sacrificed at the same time the spell is announced (see rule 601.2a). The total cost of the spell is reduced by the sacrificed permanent's mana cost (see rule 601.2e).

702.46c.702.47c.

Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent's mana cost reduces generic mana in the total cost to cast the card with offering. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent's mana cost reduces mana of the same color in the total cost to cast the card with offering. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent's mana cost that doesn't match colored mana in the colored mana cost of the card with offering, or is in excess of the card's colored mana cost, reduces that much generic mana in the total cost.

Generic mana in the sacrificed permanent's mana cost reduces generic mana in the total cost to cast the card with offering. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent's mana cost reduces mana of the same color in the total cost to cast the card with offering. Colored mana in the sacrificed permanent's mana cost that doesn't match colored mana in the colored mana cost of the card with offering, or is in excess of the card's colored mana cost, reduces that much generic mana in the total cost.

702.47.702.48.

Ninjutsu

Ninjutsu

702.47a.702.48a.

Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player's hand. "Ninjutsu [cost]" means "[Cost], Reveal this card from your hand, Return an unblocked attacking creature you control to its owner's hand: Put this card onto the battlefield from your hand tapped and attacking."

Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player's hand. "Ninjutsu [cost]" means "[Cost], Reveal this card from your hand, Return an unblocked attacking creature you control to its owner's hand: Put this card onto the battlefield from your hand tapped and attacking."

702.47b.702.48b.

The card with ninjutsu remains revealed from the time the ability is announced until the ability leaves the stack.

The card with ninjutsu remains revealed from the time the ability is announced until the ability leaves the stack.

702.47c.702.48c.

A ninjutsu ability may be activated only while a creature on the battlefield is unblocked (see rule 509.1h). The creature with ninjutsu is put onto the battlefield unblocked. It will be attacking the same player or planeswalker as the creature that was returned to its owner's hand.

A ninjutsu ability may be activated only while a creature on the battlefield is unblocked (see rule 509.1h). The creature with ninjutsu is put onto the battlefield unblocked. It will be attacking the same player or planeswalker as the creature that was returned to its owner's hand.

702.48.702.49.

Epic

Epic

702.48a.702.49a.

Epic represents two spell abilities, one of which creates a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you can't cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.10.

Epic represents two spell abilities, one of which creates a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you can't cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.10.

702.48b.702.49b.

A player can't cast spells once a spell with epic he or she controls resolves, but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack.

A player can't cast spells once a spell with epic he or she controls resolves, but effects (such as the epic ability itself) can still put copies of spells onto the stack.

702.49.702.50.

Convoke

Convoke

702.49a.702.50a.

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell with convoke is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to cast this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Example: You cast Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi, a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}. You announce that you're going to tap a colorless creature, a red creature, and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell's cost by {1}. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell's cost by {1}, {G}, or {W}. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi's cost.

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell with convoke is on the stack. "Convoke" means "For each colored mana in this spell's total cost, you may tap an untapped creature of that color you control rather than pay that mana. For each generic mana in this spell's total cost, you may tap an untapped creature you control rather than pay that mana." The convoke ability isn't an additional or alternative cost and applies only after the total cost of the spell with convoke is determined.

Example: Heartless Summoning says, in part, "Creature spells you cast cost {2} less to cast. You control Heartless Summoning and cast Siege Wurm, a spell with convoke that costs {5}{G}{G}. The total cost to cast Siege Wurm is {3}{G}{G}. After activating mana abilities, you pay that total cost. You may tap up to two green creatures and up to three creatures of any color to pay that cost, and the remainder is paid with mana.

702.49b.702.50b.

Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant.

Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant.

702.50.702.51.

Dredge

Dredge

702.50a.702.51a.

Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player's graveyard. "Dredge N" means "As long as you have at least N cards in your library, if you would draw a card, you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand."

Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player's graveyard. "Dredge N" means "As long as you have at least N cards in your library, if you would draw a card, you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand."

702.50b.702.51b.

A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can't put any of them into his or her graveyard this way.

A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can't put any of them into his or her graveyard this way.

702.51.702.52.

Transmute

Transmute

702.51a.702.52a.

Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player's hand. "Transmute [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card, reveal that card, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player's hand. "Transmute [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card, reveal that card, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.51b.702.52b.

Although the transmute ability can be activated only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with transmute will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

Although the transmute ability can be activated only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with transmute will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

702.52.702.53.

Bloodthirst

Bloodthirst

702.52a.702.53a.

Bloodthirst is a static ability. "Bloodthirst N" means "If an opponent was dealt damage this turn, this permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it."

Bloodthirst is a static ability. "Bloodthirst N" means "If an opponent was dealt damage this turn, this permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it."

702.52b.702.53b.

"Bloodthirst X" is a special form of bloodthirst. "Bloodthirst X" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with X +1/+1 counters on it, where X is the total damage your opponents have been dealt this turn."

"Bloodthirst X" is a special form of bloodthirst. "Bloodthirst X" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with X +1/+1 counters on it, where X is the total damage your opponents have been dealt this turn."

702.52c.702.53c.

If an object has multiple instances of bloodthirst, each applies separately.

If an object has multiple instances of bloodthirst, each applies separately.

702.53.702.54.

Haunt

Haunt

702.53a.702.54a.

Haunt is a triggered ability. "Haunt" on a permanent means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, exile it haunting target creature." "Haunt" on an instant or sorcery spell means "When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution, exile it haunting target creature."

Haunt is a triggered ability. "Haunt" on a permanent means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, exile it haunting target creature." "Haunt" on an instant or sorcery spell means "When this spell is put into a graveyard during its resolution, exile it haunting target creature."

702.53b.702.54b.

Cards that are in the exile zone as the result of a haunt ability "haunt" the creature targeted by that ability. The phrase "creature it haunts" refers to the object targeted by the haunt ability, regardless of whether or not that object is still a creature.

Cards that are in the exile zone as the result of a haunt ability "haunt" the creature targeted by that ability. The phrase "creature it haunts" refers to the object targeted by the haunt ability, regardless of whether or not that object is still a creature.

702.53c.702.54c.

Triggered abilities of cards with haunt that refer to the haunted creature can trigger in the exile zone.

Triggered abilities of cards with haunt that refer to the haunted creature can trigger in the exile zone.

702.54.702.55.

Replicate

Replicate

702.54a.702.55a.

Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. "Replicate [cost]" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may pay [cost] any number of times" and "When you cast this spell, if a replicate cost was paid for it, copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies." Paying a spell's replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. "Replicate [cost]" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may pay [cost] any number of times" and "When you cast this spell, if a replicate cost was paid for it, copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies." Paying a spell's replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.54b.702.55b.

If a spell has multiple instances of replicate, each is paid separately and triggers based on the payments made for it, not any other instance of replicate.

If a spell has multiple instances of replicate, each is paid separately and triggers based on the payments made for it, not any other instance of replicate.

702.55.702.56.

Forecast

Forecast

702.55a.702.56a.

A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be activated only from a player's hand. It's written "Forecast — [Activated ability]."

A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be activated only from a player's hand. It's written "Forecast — [Activated ability]."

702.55b.702.56b.

A forecast ability may be activated only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is activated. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player's hand or until a step or phase that isn't an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.

A forecast ability may be activated only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is activated. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player's hand or until a step or phase that isn't an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.

702.56.702.57.

Graft

Graft

702.56a.702.57a.

Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature enters the battlefield, if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature."

Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature enters the battlefield, if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature."

702.56b.702.57b.

If a creature has multiple instances of graft, each one works separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of graft, each one works separately.

702.57.702.58.

Recover

Recover

702.57a.702.58a.

Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player's graveyard. "Recover [cost]" means "When a creature is put into your graveyard from the battlefield, you may pay [cost]. If you do, return this card from your graveyard to your hand. Otherwise, exile this card."

Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player's graveyard. "Recover [cost]" means "When a creature is put into your graveyard from the battlefield, you may pay [cost]. If you do, return this card from your graveyard to your hand. Otherwise, exile this card."

702.58.702.59.

Ripple

Ripple

702.58a.702.59a.

Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. "Ripple N" means "When you cast this spell, you may reveal the top N cards of your library, or, if there are fewer than N cards in your library, you may reveal all the cards in your library. If you reveal cards from your library this way, you may cast any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs, then put all revealed cards not cast this way on the bottom of your library in any order."

Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. "Ripple N" means "When you cast this spell, you may reveal the top N cards of your library, or, if there are fewer than N cards in your library, you may reveal all the cards in your library. If you reveal cards from your library this way, you may cast any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs, then put all revealed cards not cast this way on the bottom of your library in any order."

702.58b.702.59b.

If a spell has multiple instances of ripple, each triggers separately.

If a spell has multiple instances of ripple, each triggers separately.

702.59.702.60.

Split Second

Split Second

702.59a.702.60a.

Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. "Split second" means "As long as this spell is on the stack, players can't cast other spells or activate abilities that aren't mana abilities."

Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. "Split second" means "As long as this spell is on the stack, players can't cast other spells or activate abilities that aren't mana abilities."

702.59b.702.60b.

Players may activate mana abilities and take special actions while a spell with split second is on the stack. Triggered abilities trigger and are put on the stack as normal while a spell with split second is on the stack.

Players may activate mana abilities and take special actions while a spell with split second is on the stack. Triggered abilities trigger and are put on the stack as normal while a spell with split second is on the stack.

702.59c.702.60c.

Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant.

Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant.

702.60.702.61.

Suspend

Suspend

702.60a.702.61a.

Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player's hand. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the exile zone. "Suspend N—[cost]" means "If you could begin to cast this card by putting it onto the stack from your hand, you may pay [cost] and exile it with N time counters on it. This action doesn't use the stack," and "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this card is suspended, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this card, if it's exiled, play it without paying its mana cost if able. If you can't, it remains exiled. If you cast a creature spell this way, it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes."

Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player's hand. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the exile zone. "Suspend N—[cost]" means "If you could begin to cast this card by putting it onto the stack from your hand, you may pay [cost] and exile it with N time counters on it. This action doesn't use the stack," and "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this card is suspended, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this card, if it's exiled, play it without paying its mana cost if able. If you can't, it remains exiled. If you cast a creature spell this way, it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes."

702.60b.702.61b.

A card is "suspended" if it's in the exile zone, has suspend, and has a time counter on it.

A card is "suspended" if it's in the exile zone, has suspend, and has a time counter on it.

702.60c.702.61c.

Casting a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Casting a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.61.702.62.

Vanishing

Vanishing

702.61a.702.62a.

Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. "Vanishing N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N time counters on it," "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it."

Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. "Vanishing N" means "This permanent enters the battlefield with N time counters on it," "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it."

702.61b.702.62b.

Vanishing without a number means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it" and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it."

Vanishing without a number means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it" and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it."

702.61c.702.62c.

If a permanent has multiple instances of vanishing, each works separately.

If a permanent has multiple instances of vanishing, each works separately.

702.62.702.63.

Absorb

Absorb

702.62a.702.63a.

Absorb is a static ability. "Absorb N" means "If a source would deal damage to this creature, prevent N of that damage."

Absorb is a static ability. "Absorb N" means "If a source would deal damage to this creature, prevent N of that damage."

702.62b.702.63b.

Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. It will apply separately to damage from other sources, or to damage dealt by the same source at a different time.

Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. It will apply separately to damage from other sources, or to damage dealt by the same source at a different time.

702.62c.702.63c.

If an object has multiple instances of absorb, each applies separately.

If an object has multiple instances of absorb, each applies separately.

702.63.702.64.

Aura Swap

Aura Swap

702.63a.702.64a.

Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. "Aura swap [cost]" means "[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand."

Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. "Aura swap [cost]" means "[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand."

702.63b.702.64b.

If either half of the exchange can't be completed, the ability has no effect.

Example: You activate the aura swap ability of an Aura. The only Aura card in your hand can't enchant the permanent that's enchanted by the Aura with aura swap. The ability has no effect.

Example: You activate the aura swap ability of an Aura that you control but you don't own. The ability has no effect.

If either half of the exchange can't be completed, the ability has no effect.

Example: You activate the aura swap ability of an Aura. The only Aura card in your hand can't enchant the permanent that's enchanted by the Aura with aura swap. The ability has no effect.

Example: You activate the aura swap ability of an Aura that you control but you don't own. The ability has no effect.

702.64.702.65.

Delve

Delve

702.64a.702.65a.

Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has delve is on the stack. "Delve" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may exile any number of cards from your graveyard. Each card exiled this way reduces the cost to cast this spell by {1}." Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell with delve is on the stack. "Delve" means "For each generic mana in this spell's total cost, you may exile a card from your graveyard rather than pay that mana." The delve ability isn't an additional or alternative cost and applies only after the total cost of the spell with delve is determined.

702.64b.702.65b.

Multiple instances of delve on the same spell are redundant.

Multiple instances of delve on the same spell are redundant.

702.65.702.66.

Fortify

Fortify

702.65a.702.66a.

Fortify is an activated ability of Fortification cards. "Fortify [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

Fortify is an activated ability of Fortification cards. "Fortify [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.65b.702.66b.

For more information about Fortifications, see rule 301, "Artifacts."

For more information about Fortifications, see rule 301, "Artifacts."

702.65c.702.66c.

If a Fortification has multiple instances of fortify, any of its fortify abilities may be used.

If a Fortification has multiple instances of fortify, any of its fortify abilities may be used.

702.66.702.67.

Frenzy

Frenzy

702.66a.702.67a.

Frenzy is a triggered ability. "Frenzy N" means "Whenever this creature attacks and isn't blocked, it gets +N/+0 until end of turn."

Frenzy is a triggered ability. "Frenzy N" means "Whenever this creature attacks and isn't blocked, it gets +N/+0 until end of turn."

702.66b.702.67b.

If a creature has multiple instances of frenzy, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of frenzy, each triggers separately.

702.67.702.68.

Gravestorm

Gravestorm

702.67a.702.68a.

Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Gravestorm" means "When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from the battlefield this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies."

Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Gravestorm" means "When you cast this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from the battlefield this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies."

702.67b.702.68b.

If a spell has multiple instances of gravestorm, each triggers separately.

If a spell has multiple instances of gravestorm, each triggers separately.

702.68.702.69.

Poisonous

Poisonous

702.68a.702.69a.

Poisonous is a triggered ability. "Poisonous N" means "Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player gets N poison counters." (For information about poison counters, see rule 104.3d.)

Poisonous is a triggered ability. "Poisonous N" means "Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player gets N poison counters." (For information about poison counters, see rule 104.3d.)

702.68b.702.69b.

If a creature has multiple instances of poisonous, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of poisonous, each triggers separately.

702.69.702.70.

Transfigure

Transfigure

702.69a.702.70a.

Transfigure is an activated ability. "Transfigure [cost]" means "[Cost], Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it onto the battlefield. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

Transfigure is an activated ability. "Transfigure [cost]" means "[Cost], Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it onto the battlefield. Then shuffle your library. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.70.702.71.

Champion

Champion

702.70a.702.71a.

Champion represents two triggered abilities. "Champion an [object]" means "When this permanent enters the battlefield, sacrifice it unless you exile another [object] you control" and "When this permanent leaves the battlefield, return the exiled card to the battlefield under its owner's control."

Champion represents two triggered abilities. "Champion an [object]" means "When this permanent enters the battlefield, sacrifice it unless you exile another [object] you control" and "When this permanent leaves the battlefield, return the exiled card to the battlefield under its owner's control."

702.70b.702.71b.

The two abilities represented by champion are linked. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

The two abilities represented by champion are linked. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

702.70c.702.71c.

A permanent is "championed" by another permanent if the latter exiles the former as the direct result of a champion ability.

A permanent is "championed" by another permanent if the latter exiles the former as the direct result of a champion ability.

702.71.702.72.

Changeling

Changeling

702.71a.702.72a.

Changeling is a characteristic-defining ability. "Changeling" means "This object is every creature type." This ability works everywhere, even outside the game. See rule 604.3.

Changeling is a characteristic-defining ability. "Changeling" means "This object is every creature type." This ability works everywhere, even outside the game. See rule 604.3.

702.71b.702.72b.

Multiple instances of changeling on the same object are redundant.

Multiple instances of changeling on the same object are redundant.

702.72.702.73.

Evoke

Evoke

702.72a.702.73a.

Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card with evoke can be cast and a triggered ability that functions on the battlefield. "Evoke [cost]" means "You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "When this permanent enters the battlefield, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it." Paying a card's evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card with evoke can be cast and a triggered ability that functions on the battlefield. "Evoke [cost]" means "You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "When this permanent enters the battlefield, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it." Paying a card's evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.73.702.74.

Hideaway

Hideaway

702.73a.702.74a.

Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent enters the battlefield tapped" and "When this permanent enters the battlefield, look at the top four cards of your library. Exile one of them face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. The exiled card gains 'Any player who has controlled the permanent that exiled this card may look at this card in the exile zone.'"

Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent enters the battlefield tapped" and "When this permanent enters the battlefield, look at the top four cards of your library. Exile one of them face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. The exiled card gains 'Any player who has controlled the permanent that exiled this card may look at this card in the exile zone.'"

702.74.702.75.

Prowl

Prowl

702.74a.702.75a.

Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. "Prowl [cost]" means "You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell's mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that, at the time it dealt that damage, was under your control and had any of this spell's creature types." Paying a spell's prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. "Prowl [cost]" means "You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell's mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that, at the time it dealt that damage, was under your control and had any of this spell's creature types." Paying a spell's prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.75.702.76.

Reinforce

Reinforce

702.75a.702.76a.

Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player's hand. "Reinforce N—[cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature."

Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player's hand. "Reinforce N—[cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature."

702.75b.702.76b.

Although the reinforce ability can be activated only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with reinforce will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

Although the reinforce ability can be activated only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is on the battlefield and in all other zones. Therefore objects with reinforce will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

702.76.702.77.

Conspire

Conspire

702.76a.702.77a.

Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. "Conspire" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it" and "When you cast this spell, if its conspire cost was paid, copy it. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." Paying a spell's conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. "Conspire" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it" and "When you cast this spell, if its conspire cost was paid, copy it. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." Paying a spell's conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.76b.702.77b.

If a spell has multiple instances of conspire, each is paid separately and triggers based on its own payment, not any other instance of conspire.

If a spell has multiple instances of conspire, each is paid separately and triggers based on its own payment, not any other instance of conspire.

702.77.702.78.

Persist

Persist

702.77a.702.78a.

Persist is a triggered ability. "Persist" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no -1/-1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owner's control with a -1/-1 counter on it."

Persist is a triggered ability. "Persist" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no -1/-1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owner's control with a -1/-1 counter on it."

702.78.702.79.

Wither

Wither

702.78a.702.79a.

Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 119.3.

Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 119.3.

702.78b.702.79b.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had wither.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had wither.

702.78c.702.79c.

The wither rules function no matter what zone an object with wither deals damage from.

The wither rules function no matter what zone an object with wither deals damage from.

702.78d.702.79d.

Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant.

Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant.

702.79.702.80.

Retrace

Retrace

702.79a.702.80a.

Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the card with retrace is in a player's graveyard. "Retrace" means "You may cast this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to cast it." Casting a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the card with retrace is in a player's graveyard. "Retrace" means "You may cast this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to cast it." Casting a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.80.702.81.

Devour

Devour

702.80a.702.81a.

Devour is a static ability. "Devour N" means "As this object enters the battlefield, you may sacrifice any number of creatures. This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way."

Devour is a static ability. "Devour N" means "As this object enters the battlefield, you may sacrifice any number of creatures. This permanent enters the battlefield with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way."

702.80b.702.81b.

Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. "It devoured" means "sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it entered the battlefield."

Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. "It devoured" means "sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it entered the battlefield."

702.81.702.82.

Exalted

Exalted

702.81a.702.82a.

Exalted is a triggered ability. "Exalted" means "Whenever a creature you control attacks alone, that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn."

Exalted is a triggered ability. "Exalted" means "Whenever a creature you control attacks alone, that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn."

702.81b.702.82b.

A creature "attacks alone" if it's the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase. See rule 506.5.

A creature "attacks alone" if it's the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase. See rule 506.5.

702.82.702.83.

Unearth

Unearth

702.82a.702.83a.

Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card with unearth is in a graveyard. "Unearth [cost]" means "[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to the battlefield. It gains haste. Exile it at the beginning of the next end step. If it would leave the battlefield, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card with unearth is in a graveyard. "Unearth [cost]" means "[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to the battlefield. It gains haste. Exile it at the beginning of the next end step. If it would leave the battlefield, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.83.702.84.

Cascade

Cascade

702.83a.702.84a.

Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack. "Cascade" means "When you cast this spell, exile cards from the top of your library until you exile a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell's converted mana cost. You may cast that card without paying its mana cost. Then put all cards exiled this way that weren't cast on the bottom of your library in a random order."

Cascade is a triggered ability that functions only while the spell with cascade is on the stack. "Cascade" means "When you cast this spell, exile cards from the top of your library until you exile a nonland card whose converted mana cost is less than this spell's converted mana cost. You may cast that card without paying its mana cost. Then put all cards exiled this way that weren't cast on the bottom of your library in a random order."

702.83b.702.84b.

If a spell has multiple instances of cascade, each triggers separately.

If a spell has multiple instances of cascade, each triggers separately.

702.84.702.85.

Annihilator

Annihilator

702.84a.702.85a.

Annihilator is a triggered ability. "Annihilator N" means "Whenever this creature attacks, defending player sacrifices N permanents."

Annihilator is a triggered ability. "Annihilator N" means "Whenever this creature attacks, defending player sacrifices N permanents."

702.84b.702.85b.

If a creature has multiple instances of annihilator, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of annihilator, each triggers separately.

702.85.702.86.

Level Up

Level Up

702.85a.702.86a.

Level up is an activated ability. "Level up [cost]" means "[Cost]: Put a level counter on this permanent. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

Level up is an activated ability. "Level up [cost]" means "[Cost]: Put a level counter on this permanent. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.85b.702.86b.

Each card printed with a level up ability is known as a leveler card. It has a nonstandard layout and includes two level symbols that are themselves keyword abilities. See rule 710, "Leveler Cards."

Each card printed with a level up ability is known as a leveler card. It has a nonstandard layout and includes two level symbols that are themselves keyword abilities. See rule 710, "Leveler Cards."

702.86.702.87.

Rebound

Rebound

702.86a.702.87a.

Rebound appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack and may create a delayed triggered ability. "Rebound" means "If this spell was cast from your hand, instead of putting it into your graveyard as it resolves, exile it and, at the beginning of your next upkeep, you may cast this card from exile without paying its mana cost."

Rebound appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack and may create a delayed triggered ability. "Rebound" means "If this spell was cast from your hand, instead of putting it into your graveyard as it resolves, exile it and, at the beginning of your next upkeep, you may cast this card from exile without paying its mana cost."

702.86b.702.87b.

Casting a card without paying its mana cost as the result of a rebound ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Casting a card without paying its mana cost as the result of a rebound ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.86c.702.87c.

Multiple instances of rebound on the same spell are redundant.

Multiple instances of rebound on the same spell are redundant.

702.87.702.88.

Totem Armor

Totem Armor

702.87a.702.88a.

Totem armor is a static ability that appears on some Auras. "Totem armor" means "If enchanted permanent would be destroyed, instead remove all damage marked on it and destroy this Aura."

Totem armor is a static ability that appears on some Auras. "Totem armor" means "If enchanted permanent would be destroyed, instead remove all damage marked on it and destroy this Aura."

702.88.702.89.

Infect

Infect

702.88a.702.89a.

Infect is a static ability.

Infect is a static ability.

702.88b.702.89b.

Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect doesn't cause that player to lose life. Rather, it causes the player to get that many poison counters. See rule 119.3.

Damage dealt to a player by a source with infect doesn't cause that player to lose life. Rather, it causes the player to get that many poison counters. See rule 119.3.

702.88c.702.89c.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with infect isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 119.3.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with infect isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 119.3.

702.88d.702.89d.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had infect.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had infect.

702.88e.702.89e.

The infect rules function no matter what zone an object with infect deals damage from.

The infect rules function no matter what zone an object with infect deals damage from.

702.88f.702.89f.

Multiple instances of infect on the same object are redundant.

Multiple instances of infect on the same object are redundant.

702.89.702.90.

Battle Cry

Battle Cry

702.89a.702.90a.

Battle cry is a triggered ability. "Battle cry" means "Whenever this creature attacks, each other attacking creature gets +1/+0 until end of turn."

Battle cry is a triggered ability. "Battle cry" means "Whenever this creature attacks, each other attacking creature gets +1/+0 until end of turn."

702.89b.702.90b.

If a creature has multiple instances of battle cry, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of battle cry, each triggers separately.

702.90.702.91.

Living Weapon

Living Weapon

702.90a.702.91a.

Living weapon is a triggered ability. "Living weapon" means "When this Equipment enters the battlefield, put a 0/0 black Germ creature token onto the battlefield, then attach this Equipment to it."

Living weapon is a triggered ability. "Living weapon" means "When this Equipment enters the battlefield, put a 0/0 black Germ creature token onto the battlefield, then attach this Equipment to it."

702.91.702.92.

Undying

Undying

702.91a.702.92a.

Undying is a triggered ability. "Undying" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no +1/+1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owner's control with a +1/+1 counter on it."

Undying is a triggered ability. "Undying" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, if it had no +1/+1 counters on it, return it to the battlefield under its owner's control with a +1/+1 counter on it."

702.92.702.93.

Miracle

Miracle

702.92a.702.93a.

Miracle is a static ability linked to a triggered ability (see rule 603.10). "Miracle [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you draw it if it's the first card you've drawn this turn. When you reveal this card this way, you may cast it by paying [cost] rather than its mana cost."

Miracle is a static ability linked to a triggered ability (see rule 603.10). "Miracle [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you draw it if it's the first card you've drawn this turn. When you reveal this card this way, you may cast it by paying [cost] rather than its mana cost."

702.92b.702.93b.

If a player chooses to reveal a card using its miracle ability, he or she plays with that card revealed until that card leaves his or her hand, that ability resolves, or that ability otherwise leaves the stack.

If a player chooses to reveal a card using its miracle ability, he or she plays with that card revealed until that card leaves his or her hand, that ability resolves, or that ability otherwise leaves the stack.

702.93.702.94.

Soulbond

Soulbond

702.93a.702.94a.

Soulbond is a keyword that represents two triggered abilities. "Soulbond" means "When this creature enters the battlefield, if you control both this creature and another creature and both are unpaired, you may pair this creature with another unpaired creature you control for as long as both remain creatures on the battlefield under your control" and "Whenever another creature enters the battlefield under your control, if you control both that creature and this one and both are unpaired, you may pair that creature with this creature for as long as both remain creatures on the battlefield under your control."

Soulbond is a keyword that represents two triggered abilities. "Soulbond" means "When this creature enters the battlefield, if you control both this creature and another creature and both are unpaired, you may pair this creature with another unpaired creature you control for as long as both remain creatures on the battlefield under your control" and "Whenever another creature enters the battlefield under your control, if you control both that creature and this one and both are unpaired, you may pair that creature with this creature for as long as both remain creatures on the battlefield under your control."

702.93b.702.94b.

A creature becomes "paired" with another as the result of a soulbond ability. Abilities may refer to a paired creature, the creature another creature is paired with, or whether a creature is paired. An "unpaired" creature is one that is not paired.

A creature becomes "paired" with another as the result of a soulbond ability. Abilities may refer to a paired creature, the creature another creature is paired with, or whether a creature is paired. An "unpaired" creature is one that is not paired.

702.93c.702.94c.

When the soulbond ability resolves, if either object that would be paired is no longer a creature, no longer on the battlefield, or no longer under the control of the player who controls the soulbond ability, neither object becomes paired.

When the soulbond ability resolves, if either object that would be paired is no longer a creature, no longer on the battlefield, or no longer under the control of the player who controls the soulbond ability, neither object becomes paired.

702.93d.702.94d.

A creature can be paired with only one other creature.

A creature can be paired with only one other creature.

702.93e.702.94e.

A paired creature becomes unpaired if any of the following occur: another player gains control of it or the creature it's paired with; it or the creature it's paired with stops being a creature; or it or the creature it's paired with leaves the battlefield.

A paired creature becomes unpaired if any of the following occur: another player gains control of it or the creature it's paired with; it or the creature it's paired with stops being a creature; or it or the creature it's paired with leaves the battlefield.

702.94.702.95.

Overload

Overload

702.94a.702.95a.

Overload is a keyword that represents two static abilities that function while the spell with overload is on the stack. Overload [cost] means "You may choose to pay [cost] rather than pay this spell's mana cost" and "If you chose to pay this spell's overload cost, change its text by replacing all instances of the word 'target' with the word 'each.'" Using the overload ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Overload is a keyword that represents two static abilities that function while the spell with overload is on the stack. Overload [cost] means "You may choose to pay [cost] rather than pay this spell's mana cost" and "If you chose to pay this spell's overload cost, change its text by replacing all instances of the word 'target' with the word 'each.'" Using the overload ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.94b.702.95b.

If a player chooses to pay the overload cost of a spell, that spell won't require any targets. It may affect objects that couldn't be chosen as legal targets if the spell were cast without its overload cost being paid.

If a player chooses to pay the overload cost of a spell, that spell won't require any targets. It may affect objects that couldn't be chosen as legal targets if the spell were cast without its overload cost being paid.

702.94c.702.95c.

Overload's second ability creates a text-changing effect. See rule 612, "Text-Changing Effects."

Overload's second ability creates a text-changing effect. See rule 612, "Text-Changing Effects."

702.95.702.96.

Scavenge

Scavenge

702.95a.702.96a.

Scavenge is an activated ability that functions only while the card with scavenge is in a graveyard. "Scavenge [cost]" means "[Cost], Exile this card from your graveyard: Put a number of +1/+1 counters equal to the power of the card you exiled on target creature. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

Scavenge is an activated ability that functions only while the card with scavenge is in a graveyard. "Scavenge [cost]" means "[Cost], Exile this card from your graveyard: Put a number of +1/+1 counters equal to the power of the card you exiled on target creature. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

702.96.702.97.

Unleash

Unleash

702.96a.702.97a.

Unleash is a keyword that represents two static abilities. "Unleash" means "You may have this permanent enter the battlefield with an additional +1/+1 counter on it" and "This permanent can't block as long as it has a +1/+1 counter on it."

Unleash is a keyword that represents two static abilities. "Unleash" means "You may have this permanent enter the battlefield with an additional +1/+1 counter on it" and "This permanent can't block as long as it has a +1/+1 counter on it."

702.97.702.98.

Cipher

Cipher

702.97a.702.98a.

Cipher appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two abilities. The first is a spell ability that functions while the spell with cipher is on the stack. The second is a static ability that functions while the card with cipher is in the exile zone. "Cipher" means "If this spell is represented by a card, you may exile this card encoded on a creature you control" and "As long as this card is encoded on that creature, that creature has 'Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, you may copy the encoded card and you may cast the copy without paying its mana cost.'"

Cipher appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two abilities. The first is a spell ability that functions while the spell with cipher is on the stack. The second is a static ability that functions while the card with cipher is in the exile zone. "Cipher" means "If this spell is represented by a card, you may exile this card encoded on a creature you control" and "For as long as this card is encoded on that creature, that creature has 'Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, you may copy the encoded card and you may cast the copy without paying its mana cost.'"

702.97b.702.98b.

The term "encoded" describes the relationship between the card with cipher while in the exile zone and the creature chosen when the spell represented by that card resolves.

The term "encoded" describes the relationship between the card with cipher while in the exile zone and the creature chosen when the spell represented by that card resolves.

702.97c.702.98c.

The card with cipher remains encoded on the chosen creature as long as the card with cipher remains exiled and the creature remains on the battlefield. The card remains encoded on that object even if it changes controller or stops being a creature, as long as it remains on the battlefield.

The card with cipher remains encoded on the chosen creature as long as the card with cipher remains exiled and the creature remains on the battlefield. The card remains encoded on that object even if it changes controller or stops being a creature, as long as it remains on the battlefield.

702.98.702.99.

Evolve

Evolve

702.98a.702.99a.

Evolve is a triggered ability. "Evolve" means "Whenever a creature enters the battlefield under your control, if that creature's power is greater than this creature's power and/or that creature's toughness is greater than this creature's toughness, put a +1/+1 counter on this creature."

Evolve is a triggered ability. "Evolve" means "Whenever a creature enters the battlefield under your control, if that creature's power is greater than this creature's power and/or that creature's toughness is greater than this creature's toughness, put a +1/+1 counter on this creature."

702.98b.702.99b.

A creature "evolves" when one or more +1/+1 counters are put on it as a result of its evolve ability resolving.

A creature "evolves" when one or more +1/+1 counters are put on it as a result of its evolve ability resolving.

702.98c.702.99c.

A creature can't have a greater power or toughness than a noncreature permanent.

A creature can't have a greater power or toughness than a noncreature permanent.

702.98d.702.99d.

If a creature has multiple instances of evolve, each triggers separately.

If a creature has multiple instances of evolve, each triggers separately.

702.99.702.100.

Extort

Extort

702.99a.702.100a.

Extort is a triggered ability. "Extort" means "Whenever you cast a spell, you may pay {W/B}. If you do, each opponent loses 1 life and you gain life equal to the total life lost this way."

Extort is a triggered ability. "Extort" means "Whenever you cast a spell, you may pay {W/B}. If you do, each opponent loses 1 life and you gain life equal to the total life lost this way."

702.99b.702.100b.

If a permanent has multiple instances if extort, each triggers separately.

If a permanent has multiple instances if extort, each triggers separately.

702.100.702.101.

Fuse

Fuse

702.100a.702.101a.

Fuse is a static ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, "Split Cards") that applies while the card with fuse is in a player's hand. If a player casts a split card with fuse from his or her hand, the player may choose to cast both halves of that split card. This choice is made before putting the split card with fuse onto the stack. The resulting spell is a fused split spell.

Fuse is a static ability found on some split cards (see rule 708, "Split Cards") that applies while the card with fuse is in a player's hand. If a player casts a split card with fuse from his or her hand, the player may choose to cast both halves of that split card. This choice is made before putting the split card with fuse onto the stack. The resulting spell is a fused split spell.

702.100b.702.101b.

A fused split spell has two sets of characteristics and one converted mana cost. The converted mana cost of the spell is a number equal to the total amount of mana in its two mana costs, regardless of color.

A fused split spell has two sets of characteristics and one converted mana cost. The converted mana cost of the spell is a number equal to the total amount of mana in its two mana costs, regardless of color.

702.100c.702.101c.

The total cost of a fused split spell includes the mana cost of each half. (See rule 601.2e.)

The total cost of a fused split spell includes the mana cost of each half. (See rule 601.2e.)

702.100d.702.101d.

As a fused split spell resolves, the controller of the spell follows the instructions of the left half and then follows the instructions of the right half.

As a fused split spell resolves, the controller of the spell follows the instructions of the left half and then follows the instructions of the right half.

704.5j.704.5j.

If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "planeswalker uniqueness rule."

If a player controls two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type, that player chooses one of them, and the rest are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "planeswalker uniqueness rule."

704.5k.704.5k.

If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "legend rule." If only one of those permanents is legendary, this rule doesn't apply.

If a player controls two or more legendary permanents with the same name, that player chooses one of them, and the rest are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "legend rule."

704.5m.704.5m.

If two or more permanents have the supertype world, all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype on the battlefield for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners' graveyards. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "world rule."

If two or more permanents have the supertype world, all except the one that has had the world supertype for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners' graveyards. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "world rule."

706.2.706.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics and, for an object on the stack, choices made when casting or activating it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether it was kicked, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values derived from the text printed on the object (that text being name, mana cost, color indicator, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, toughness, and/or loyalty), as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . enters the battlefield" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics and, for an object on the stack, choices made when casting or activating it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether it was kicked, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values derived from the text printed on the object (that text being name, mana cost, color indicator, card type, subtype, supertype, rules text, power, toughness, and/or loyalty), as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . enters the battlefield" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

707.1.707.1.

Two cards (Illusionary Mask and Ixidron) and the morph ability (see rule 702.35) allow spells and permanents to be face down.

Two cards (Illusionary Mask and Ixidron) and the morph ability (see rule 702.36) allow spells and permanents to be face down.

707.2a.707.2a.

If a face-up permanent is turned face down by a spell or ability, it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics.

If a face-up permanent is turned face down by a spell or ability, it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature with no text, no name, no subtypes, and no mana cost. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics.

708.2.708.2.

In every zone except the stack, split cards have two sets of characteristics and two converted mana costs. As long as a split card is a spell on the stack and wasn't cast using fuse (see rule 702.100, "Fuse"), only the characteristics of the half being cast exist. The other half's characteristics are treated as though they didn't exist. A split card that's a spell on the stack and was cast using fuse has two sets of characteristics and one converted mana cost. Its converted mana cost is equal to the total amount of mana in its two mana costs, regardless of color.

In every zone except the stack, split cards have two sets of characteristics and two converted mana costs. As long as a split card is a spell on the stack and wasn't cast using fuse (see rule 702.101, "Fuse"), only the characteristics of the half being cast exist. The other half's characteristics are treated as though they didn't exist. A split card that's a spell on the stack and was cast using fuse has two sets of characteristics and one converted mana cost. Its converted mana cost is equal to the total amount of mana in its two mana costs, regardless of color.

709.1c.709.1c.

A flip card's color, mana cost, and expansion symbol don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply.

A flip card's color and mana cost don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply.

710.4.710.4.

Any ability a leveler card has that isn't preceded by a level symbol is treated normally. In particular, each leveler permanent has its level up ability (see rule 702.85) at all times; it may be activated regardless of how many level counters are on that permanent.

Any ability a leveler card has that isn't preceded by a level symbol is treated normally. In particular, each leveler permanent has its level up ability (see rule 702.86) at all times; it may be activated regardless of how many level counters are on that permanent.

800.3.800.3.

Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here, including rules for deck construction. See the most current Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules for more information. They can be found at www.wizards.com/WPN/Events/Rules.aspx.

Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here, including rules for deck construction. See the most current Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules for more information. They can be found at Wizards.com/WPN/Events/Rules.aspx.

800.4d.800.4d.

If an object that would be owned by a player who has left the game would be created in any zone, it isn't created. If a triggered ability that would be controlled by a player who has left the game would be put onto the stack, it isn't put on the stack.

Example: Astral Slide is an enchantment that reads, "Whenever a player cycles a card, you may exile target creature. If you do, return that creature to the battlefield under its owner's control at the beginning of the next end step." During Alex's turn, Bianca uses Astral Slide's ability to exile Alex's Hypnotic Specter. Before the end of that turn, Bianca leaves the game. At the beginning of the end step, the delayed triggered ability generated by Astral Slide that would return Hypnotic Specter to play triggers, but it isn't put on the stack. Hypnotic Specter never returns to the battlefield.

If an object that would be owned by a player who has left the game would be created in any zone, it isn't created. If a triggered ability that would be controlled by a player who has left the game would be put onto the stack, it isn't put on the stack.

Example: Astral Slide is an enchantment that reads, "Whenever a player cycles a card, you may exile target creature. If you do, return that creature to the battlefield under its owner's control at the beginning of the next end step." During Alex's turn, Bianca uses Astral Slide's ability to exile Alex's Hypnotic Specter. Before the end of that turn, Bianca leaves the game. At the beginning of the end step, the delayed triggered ability generated by Astral Slide that would return Hypnotic Specter to the battlefield triggers, but it isn't put on the stack. Hypnotic Specter never returns to the battlefield.

801.12.

The "legend rule" (see rule 704.5k) applies to a permanent only if other legendary permanents with the same name are within its controller's range of influence.

Example: Alex has range of influence 1, and Carissa has range of influence 2. Rob sits between them. If Alex controls a legendary permanent and Carissa puts a legendary permanent with the same name onto the battlefield, only the one controlled by Carissa will be put into a graveyard.

801.13.801.12.

The "world rule" (see rule 704.5m) applies to a permanent only if other world permanents are within its controller's range of influence.

The "world rule" (see rule 704.5m) applies to a permanent only if other world permanents are within its controller's range of influence.

801.15.801.13.

Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 614, "Replacement Effects," and rule 615, "Prevention Effects."

Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 614, "Replacement Effects," and rule 615, "Prevention Effects."

801.15a.801.13a.

If a replacement effect tries to cause a spell or ability to affect an object or player outside its controller's range of influence, that portion of the event does nothing.

Example: Alex casts Lava Axe ("Lava Axe deals 5 damage to target player") targeting Rob. In response, Rob casts Captain's Maneuver ("The next X damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn is dealt to another target creature or player instead") with X equal to 3, targeting Carissa. Carissa isn't in Alex's range of influence. When Lava Axe resolves, it deals 2 damage to Rob and no damage to Carissa.

If a replacement effect tries to cause a spell or ability to affect an object or player outside its controller's range of influence, that portion of the event does nothing.

Example: Alex casts Lava Axe ("Lava Axe deals 5 damage to target player") targeting Rob. In response, Rob casts Captain's Maneuver ("The next X damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn is dealt to another target creature or player instead") with X equal to 3, targeting Carissa. Carissa isn't in Alex's range of influence. When Lava Axe resolves, it deals 2 damage to Rob and no damage to Carissa.

801.15b.801.13b.

If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a permanent or player, it can affect only permanents and players within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Alex controls an enchantment that says, "Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures." Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa casts Lightning Blast ("Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player") targeting Rob. In response, Alex casts Mending Hands ("Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn") targeting Rob. The damage to Rob is prevented.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature, and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex casts Fog ("Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.") Carissa and Rob's creatures deal combat damage to each other.

If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a permanent or player, it can affect only permanents and players within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Alex controls an enchantment that says, "Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures." Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa casts Lightning Blast ("Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player") targeting Rob. In response, Alex casts Mending Hands ("Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn") targeting Rob. The damage to Rob is prevented.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature, and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex casts Fog ("Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.") Carissa and Rob's creatures deal combat damage to each other.

801.14.

The "planeswalker uniqueness rule" (see rule 704.5j) applies to a planeswalker only if other planeswalkers with the same planeswalker type are within its controller's range of influence.

801.16.801.14.

If an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead.

If an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead.

801.17.801.15.

If the effect of a spell or ability states that the game is a draw, the game is a draw for that spell or ability's controller and all players within his or her range of influence. They leave the game. All remaining players continue to play the game.

If the effect of a spell or ability states that the game is a draw, the game is a draw for that spell or ability's controller and all players within his or her range of influence. They leave the game. All remaining players continue to play the game.

801.18.801.16.

If the game somehow enters a "loop" of mandatory actions, repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop, the game is a draw for each player who controls an object that's involved in that loop, as well as for each player within the range of influence of any of those players. They leave the game. All remaining players continue to play the game.

If the game somehow enters a "loop" of mandatory actions, repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop, the game is a draw for each player who controls an object that's involved in that loop, as well as for each player within the range of influence of any of those players. They leave the game. All remaining players continue to play the game.

801.19.801.17.

Effects that restart the game (see rule 714) are exempt from the limited range of influence option. All players in the game will be involved in the new game.

Effects that restart the game (see rule 714) are exempt from the limited range of influence option. All players in the game will be involved in the new game.

801.20.801.18.

In multiplayer Planechase games other than Grand Melee games, plane cards and phenomenon cards are exempt from the limited range of influence option. Their abilities, and the effects of those abilities, affect all applicable objects and players in the game. See rule 901, "Planechase."

In multiplayer Planechase games other than Grand Melee games, plane cards and phenomenon cards are exempt from the limited range of influence option. Their abilities, and the effects of those abilities, affect all applicable objects and players in the game. See rule 901, "Planechase."

802.2a.802.2a.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If an ability of an attacking creature refers to a defending player, or a spell or ability refers to both an attacking creature and a defending player, then unless otherwise specified, the defending player it's referring to is the player that creature was attacking at the time it became an attacking creature that combat, or the controller of the planeswalker that creature was attacking at the time it became an attacking creature that combat. If a spell or ability could apply to multiple attacking creatures, the appropriate defending player is individually determined for each of those attacking creatures. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the spell or ability chooses one.

Example: Rob attacks Alex with Runeclaw Bear and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If an ability of an attacking creature refers to a defending player, or a spell or ability refers to both an attacking creature and a defending player, then unless otherwise specified, the defending player it's referring to is the player that creature was attacking at the time it became an attacking creature that combat, or the controller of the planeswalker that creature was attacking at the time it became an attacking creature that combat. If a spell or ability could apply to multiple attacking creatures, the appropriate defending player is individually determined for each of those attacking creatures. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the spell or ability chooses one.

Example: Rob attacks Alex with Runeclaw Bear and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Whether the creature with mountainwalk can be blocked depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.

802.3b.802.3b.

Creatures in a band can't attack different players. See rule 702.20, "Banding."

Creatures in a band can't attack different players. See rule 702.21, "Banding."

902.4.902.4.

Each player's starting life total is 20, as modified by the life modifier of his or her vanguard card.

Example: The life modifier of a player's vanguard card is -3. That player starts the game with 17 life.

Each player's starting life total is 20 plus or minus the life modifier of his or her vanguard card.

Example: The life modifier of a player's vanguard card is -3. That player's starting life total is 17.

902.5.902.5.

Each player draws a hand of seven cards, as modified by the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.

Each player's starting hand size is seven cards, as modified by the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.

903.1.903.1.

In the Commander variant, each deck is led by a legendary creature designated as that deck's commander. The Commander variant was created and popularized by fans; an independent rules committee maintains additional resources at http://mtgcommander.net. The Commander variant uses all the normal rules for a Magic game, with the following additions.

In the Commander variant, each deck is led by a legendary creature designated as that deck's commander. The Commander variant was created and popularized by fans; an independent rules committee maintains additional resources at MTGCommander.net. The Commander variant uses all the normal rules for a Magic game, with the following additions.

AbsorbAbsorb

A keyword ability that prevents damage. See rule 702.62, "Absorb."

A keyword ability that prevents damage. See rule 702.63, "Absorb."

AffinityAffinity

A keyword ability that reduces how much mana you need to spend to cast a spell. See rule 702.39, "Affinity."

A keyword ability that reduces how much mana you need to spend to cast a spell. See rule 702.40, "Affinity."

AmplifyAmplify

A keyword ability than can have a creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 702.36, "Amplify."

A keyword ability than can have a creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 702.37, "Amplify."

AnnihilatorAnnihilator

A keyword ability that can make a creature particularly brutal when it attacks. See rule 702.84, "Annihilator."

A keyword ability that can make a creature particularly brutal when it attacks. See rule 702.85, "Annihilator."

Aura SwapAura Swap

A keyword ability that lets you exchange an Aura on the battlefield with one in your hand. See rule 702.63, "Aura Swap."

A keyword ability that lets you exchange an Aura on the battlefield with one in your hand. See rule 702.64, "Aura Swap."

Banding, "Bands with Other"Banding, "Bands with Other"

Banding is a keyword ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. "Bands with other" is a specialized version of the ability. See rule 702.20, "Banding."

Banding is a keyword ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. "Bands with other" is a specialized version of the ability. See rule 702.21, "Banding."

Battle CryBattle Cry

A keyword ability that makes other attacking creatures better in combat. See rule 702.89, "Battle Cry."

A keyword ability that makes other attacking creatures better in combat. See rule 702.90, "Battle Cry."

BloodthirstBloodthirst

A keyword ability that can have a creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 702.52, "Bloodthirst."

A keyword ability that can have a creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 702.53, "Bloodthirst."

BushidoBushido

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.43, "Bushido."

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.44, "Bushido."

BuybackBuyback

A keyword ability of instants and sorceries that can let the spell return to its owner's hand as it resolves. See rule 702.25, "Buyback."

A keyword ability of instants and sorceries that can let the spell return to its owner's hand as it resolves. See rule 702.26, "Buyback."

CascadeCascade

A keyword ability that may let a player cast a random extra spell for no cost. See rule 702.83, "Cascade."

A keyword ability that may let a player cast a random extra spell for no cost. See rule 702.84, "Cascade."

Champion, ChampionedChampion, Championed

"Champion" is a keyword ability that lets one creature temporarily replace another. A permanent is "championed" by another permanent if the latter exiles the former as the direct result of a champion ability. See rule 702.70, "Champion."

"Champion" is a keyword ability that lets one creature temporarily replace another. A permanent is "championed" by another permanent if the latter exiles the former as the direct result of a champion ability. See rule 702.71, "Champion."

ChangelingChangeling

A characteristic-defining ability that grants the object it's on every creature type. See rule 702.71, "Changeling."

A characteristic-defining ability that grants the object it's on every creature type. See rule 702.72, "Changeling."

CipherCipher

A keyword ability that allows you to encode a card on a creature and cast that card whenever that creature deals combat damage to a player. See rule 702.97, "Cipher."

A keyword ability that allows you to encode a card on a creature and cast that card whenever that creature deals combat damage to a player. See rule 702.98, "Cipher."

ConspireConspire

A keyword ability that creates a copy of a spell. See rule 702.76, "Conspire."

A keyword ability that creates a copy of a spell. See rule 702.77, "Conspire."

ConvokeConvoke

A keyword ability that reduces how much mana you need to spend to cast a spell. See rule 702.49, "Convoke."

A keyword ability that lets you tap creatures rather than pay mana to cast a spell. See rule 702.50, "Convoke."

Cumulative UpkeepCumulative Upkeep

A keyword ability that imposes an increasing cost to keep a permanent on the battlefield. See rule 702.22, "Cumulative Upkeep."

A keyword ability that imposes an increasing cost to keep a permanent on the battlefield. See rule 702.23, "Cumulative Upkeep."

CyclingCycling

A keyword ability that lets a card be discarded and replaced with a new card. See rule 702.27, "Cycling."

A keyword ability that lets a card be discarded and replaced with a new card. See rule 702.28, "Cycling."

DelveDelve

A keyword ability that reduces how much mana you need to spend to cast a spell. See rule 702.64, "Delve."

A keyword ability that lets you exile cards from your graveyard rather than pay generic mana to cast a spell. See rule 702.65, "Delve."

DevourDevour

A keyword ability that can have a creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 702.80, "Devour."

A keyword ability that can have a creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 702.81, "Devour."

DiesDies

A creature "dies" if it is put into a graveyard from the battlefield. See rule 700.6.

A creature "dies" if it is put into a graveyard from the battlefield. See rule 700.4.

DredgeDredge

A keyword ability that lets a player return a card from his or her graveyard to his or her hand. See rule 702.50, "Dredge."

A keyword ability that lets a player return a card from his or her graveyard to his or her hand. See rule 702.51, "Dredge."

EchoEcho

A keyword ability that imposes a cost to keep a permanent on the battlefield. See rule 702.28, "Echo."

A keyword ability that imposes a cost to keep a permanent on the battlefield. See rule 702.29, "Echo."

EncodedEncoded

A term that describes the relationship between a permanent and a card exiled by a cipher ability. See rule 702.97, "Cipher."

A term that describes the relationship between a permanent and a card exiled by a cipher ability. See rule 702.98, "Cipher."

EntwineEntwine

A keyword ability that lets a player choose all modes for a spell rather than just one. See rule 702.40, "Entwine."

A keyword ability that lets a player choose all modes for a spell rather than just one. See rule 702.41, "Entwine."

EpicEpic

A keyword ability that lets a player copy a spell at the beginning of each of his or her upkeeps at the expense of casting any other spells for the rest of the game. See rule 702.48, "Epic."

A keyword ability that lets a player copy a spell at the beginning of each of his or her upkeeps at the expense of casting any other spells for the rest of the game. See rule 702.49, "Epic."

EvokeEvoke

A keyword ability that causes a permanent to be sacrificed when it enters the battlefield. See rule 702.72, "Evoke."

A keyword ability that causes a permanent to be sacrificed when it enters the battlefield. See rule 702.73, "Evoke."

EvolveEvolve

A keyword ability that lets you put a +1/+1 counter on a creature when a larger creature enters the battlefield under your control. See rule 702.98, "Evolve."

A keyword ability that lets you put a +1/+1 counter on a creature when a larger creature enters the battlefield under your control. See rule 702.99, "Evolve."

ExaltedExalted

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.81, "Exalted."

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.82, "Exalted."

Expansion SymbolExpansion Symbol

A characteristic, and part of a card. A card's expansion symbol is a small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol."

A card's expansion symbol is a small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration that has no effect on game play. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol."

ExtortExtort

A keyword ability that lets you gain life and have opponents lose life whenever you cast a spell. See rule 702.99, "Extort."

A keyword ability that lets you gain life and have opponents lose life whenever you cast a spell. See rule 702.100, "Extort."

Face DownFace Down

1. A card is "face down" if it's physically positioned so the card back is showing. Cards in some zones are normally kept face down. See section 4, "Zones." 2. A status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 702.35, "Morph." 3. Face-down spells have additional rules. See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," and rule 702.35, "Morph."

1. A card is "face down" if it's physically positioned so the card back is showing. Cards in some zones are normally kept face down. See section 4, "Zones." 2. A status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 702.36, "Morph." 3. Face-down spells have additional rules. See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," and rule 702.36, "Morph."

Face UpFace Up

1. A card is "face up" if it's physically positioned so the card front is showing. Cards in some zones are normally kept face up. See section 4, "Zones." 2. A default status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 702.35, "Morph."

1. A card is "face up" if it's physically positioned so the card front is showing. Cards in some zones are normally kept face up. See section 4, "Zones." 2. A default status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 702.36, "Morph."

FadingFading

A keyword ability that limits how long a permanent remains on the battlefield. See rule 702.30, "Fading."

A keyword ability that limits how long a permanent remains on the battlefield. See rule 702.31, "Fading."

FearFear

A keyword ability that restricts how a creature may be blocked. See rule 702.34, "Fear."

A keyword ability that restricts how a creature may be blocked. See rule 702.35, "Fear."

FlankingFlanking

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.23, "Flanking."

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.24, "Flanking."

FlashbackFlashback

A keyword ability that lets a player cast a card from his or her graveyard. See rule 702.32, "Flashback."

A keyword ability that lets a player cast a card from his or her graveyard. See rule 702.33, "Flashback."

ForecastForecast

A keyword ability that allows an activated ability to be activated from a player's hand. See rule 702.55, "Forecast."

A keyword ability that allows an activated ability to be activated from a player's hand. See rule 702.56, "Forecast."

FortificationFortification

An artifact subtype. Fortifications can be attached to lands. See rule 301, "Artifacts," and rule 702.65, "Fortify."

An artifact subtype. Fortifications can be attached to lands. See rule 301, "Artifacts," and rule 702.66, "Fortify."

FortifyFortify

A keyword ability that lets a player attach a Fortification to a land he or she controls. See rule 301, "Artifacts," and rule 702.65, "Fortify."

A keyword ability that lets a player attach a Fortification to a land he or she controls. See rule 301, "Artifacts," and rule 702.66, "Fortify."

FrenzyFrenzy

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.66, "Frenzy."

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.67, "Frenzy."

FuseFuse

A keyword ability that allows a player to cast both halves of a split card. See rule 702.100, "Fuse."

A keyword ability that allows a player to cast both halves of a split card. See rule 702.101, "Fuse."

Fused Split SpellFused Split Spell

A split card on the stack that has been cast using the fuse ability or a copy of such a card. See rule 702.100, "Fuse."

A split card on the stack that has been cast using the fuse ability or a copy of such a card. See rule 702.101, "Fuse."

GraftGraft

A keyword ability that has a permanent enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it and can move those counters to other creatures. See rule 702.56, "Graft."

A keyword ability that has a permanent enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it and can move those counters to other creatures. See rule 702.57, "Graft."

GravestormGravestorm

A keyword ability that creates copies of a spell. See rule 702.67, "Gravestorm."

A keyword ability that creates copies of a spell. See rule 702.68, "Gravestorm."

HauntHaunt

A keyword ability that exiles cards. A card exiled this way "haunts" a creature targeted by the haunt ability. See rule 702.53, "Haunt."

A keyword ability that exiles cards. A card exiled this way "haunts" a creature targeted by the haunt ability. See rule 702.54, "Haunt."

HideawayHideaway

A keyword ability that lets a player store a secret card. See rule 702.73, "Hideaway."

A keyword ability that lets a player store a secret card. See rule 702.74, "Hideaway."

HorsemanshipHorsemanship

A keyword ability that restricts how a creature may be blocked. See rule 702.29, "Horsemanship."

A keyword ability that restricts how a creature may be blocked. See rule 702.30, "Horsemanship."

IndestructibleIndestructible

An attribute of a permanent that precludes it from being destroyed. See rule 700.4.

A keyword ability that precludes a permanent from being destroyed. See rule 702.12.

InfectInfect

A keyword ability that affects how an object deals damage to creatures and players. See rule 702.88, "Infect."

A keyword ability that affects how an object deals damage to creatures and players. See rule 702.89, "Infect."

IntimidateIntimidate

A keyword ability that restricts how a creature may be blocked. See rule 702.12, "Intimidate."

A keyword ability that restricts how a creature may be blocked. See rule 702.13, "Intimidate."

Kicker, KickedKicker, Kicked

Kicker is a keyword ability that represents an optional additional cost. A spell has been kicked if its controller declared the intention to pay any or all of its kicker costs. See rule 702.31, "Kicker."

Kicker is a keyword ability that represents an optional additional cost. A spell has been kicked if its controller declared the intention to pay any or all of its kicker costs. See rule 702.32, "Kicker."

LandwalkLandwalk

A generic term for a group of keyword abilities that restrict whether a creature may be blocked. See rule 702.13, "Landwalk."

A generic term for a group of keyword abilities that restrict whether a creature may be blocked. See rule 702.14, "Landwalk."

Legend RuleLegend Rule

A state-based action that causes all legendary permanents with the same name to be put into their owners' graveyards. See rule 704.5k.

A state-based action that causes a player who controls two or more legendary permanent with the same name to put all but one into their owners' graveyards. See rule 704.5k.

Level UpLevel Up

A keyword ability that can put level counters on a creature. See rule 702.85, "Level Up."

A keyword ability that can put level counters on a creature. See rule 702.86, "Level Up."

A keyword ability that causes a player to gain life. See rule 702.14, "Lifelink."

A keyword ability that causes a player to gain life. See rule 702.15, "Lifelink."

Living WeaponLiving Weapon

A keyword ability that causes a creature token to be put onto the battlefield along with the Equipment with the ability. See rule 702.90, "Living Weapon."

A keyword ability that causes a creature token to be put onto the battlefield along with the Equipment with the ability. See rule 702.91, "Living Weapon."

MadnessMadness

A keyword ability that lets a player cast a card he or she discards. See rule 702.33, "Madness."

A keyword ability that lets a player cast a card he or she discards. See rule 702.34, "Madness."

MiracleMiracle

A keyword ability that lets you cast a spell for a reduced cost if it's the first card you draw in a turn. See rule 702.92, "Miracle."

A keyword ability that lets you cast a spell for a reduced cost if it's the first card you draw in a turn. See rule 702.93, "Miracle."

ModularModular

A keyword ability that has a permanent enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it and can move those counters to other artifact creatures. See rule 702.41, "Modular."

A keyword ability that has a permanent enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it and can move those counters to other artifact creatures. See rule 702.42, "Modular."

MorphMorph

A keyword ability that lets a card be cast face down as a 2/2 creature. See rule 702.35, "Morph," and rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents."

A keyword ability that lets a card be cast face down as a 2/2 creature. See rule 702.36, "Morph," and rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents."

MultikickerMultikicker

Multikicker is a variant of the kicker keyword ability. It represents an optional additional cost that may be paid any number of times. See rule 702.31, "Kicker." See also Kicker.

Multikicker is a variant of the kicker keyword ability. It represents an optional additional cost that may be paid any number of times. See rule 702.32, "Kicker." See also Kicker.

NinjutsuNinjutsu

A keyword ability that lets a creature suddenly enter combat. See rule 702.47, "Ninjutsu."

A keyword ability that lets a creature suddenly enter combat. See rule 702.48, "Ninjutsu."

OfferingOffering

A keyword ability that modifies when you can cast a spell and how much mana you need to spend to do it. See rule 702.46, "Offering."

A keyword ability that modifies when you can cast a spell and how much mana you need to spend to do it. See rule 702.47, "Offering."

OracleOracle

The reference that contains the up-to-date wordings (in English) for all tournament-legal cards. A card's Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer.wizards.com. See rule 108.1.

The reference that contains the up-to-date wordings (in English) for all tournament-legal cards. A card's Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at Gatherer.Wizards.com. See rule 108.1.

OverloadOverload

A keyword ability that allows a spell to affect either a single target or many objects. See rule 702.94, "Overload."

A keyword ability that allows a spell to affect either a single target or many objects. See rule 702.95, "Overload."

PersistPersist

A keyword ability that can return a creature from the graveyard to the battlefield. See rule 702.77, "Persist."

A keyword ability that can return a creature from the graveyard to the battlefield. See rule 702.78, "Persist."

PhasePhase

1. A subsection of a turn. See section 5, "Turn Structure." 2. A permanent "phases in" when its status changes from phased out to phased in. A permanent "phases out" when its status changes from phased in to phased out. See rule 702.24, "Phasing."

1. A subsection of a turn. See section 5, "Turn Structure." 2. A permanent "phases in" when its status changes from phased out to phased in. A permanent "phases out" when its status changes from phased in to phased out. See rule 702.25, "Phasing."

Phased In, Phased OutPhased In, Phased Out

A status a permanent may have. Phased-in is the default status. Phased-out permanents are treated as though they do not exist. See rule 110.6 and rule 702.24, "Phasing." ("Phased-out" was a zone in older versions of the rules.)

A status a permanent may have. Phased-in is the default status. Phased-out permanents are treated as though they do not exist. See rule 110.6 and rule 702.25, "Phasing." ("Phased-out" was a zone in older versions of the rules.)

PhasingPhasing

A keyword ability that causes a permanent to sometimes be treated as though it does not exist. See rule 702.24, "Phasing."

A keyword ability that causes a permanent to sometimes be treated as though it does not exist. See rule 702.25, "Phasing."

Planeswalker Uniqueness RulePlaneswalker Uniqueness Rule

A state-based action that causes multiple planeswalkers with the same planeswalker type to be put into their owners' graveyards. See rule 704.5j.

A state-based action that causes a player who controls two or more planeswalkers with the same planeswalker type to put all but one of those planeswalkers into their owners' graveyards. See rule 704.5j.

PoisonousPoisonous

A keyword ability that causes a player to get poison counters. See rule 702.68, "Poisonous."

A keyword ability that causes a player to get poison counters. See rule 702.69, "Poisonous."

ProtectionProtection

A keyword ability that provides a range of benefits against objects with a specific quality. See rule 702.15, "Protection."

A keyword ability that provides a range of benefits against objects with a specific quality. See rule 702.16, "Protection."

ProvokeProvoke

A keyword ability that can force a creature to block. See rule 702.37, "Provoke."

A keyword ability that can force a creature to block. See rule 702.38, "Provoke."

ProwlProwl

A keyword ability that may allow a spell to be cast for an alternative cost. See rule 702.74, "Prowl."

A keyword ability that may allow a spell to be cast for an alternative cost. See rule 702.75, "Prowl."

RampageRampage

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.21, "Rampage."

A keyword ability that can make a creature better in combat. See rule 702.22, "Rampage."

ReachReach

A keyword ability that allows a creature to block an attacking creature with flying. See rule 702.16, "Reach." See also Flying.

A keyword ability that allows a creature to block an attacking creature with flying. See rule 702.17, "Reach." See also Flying.

ReboundRebound

A keyword ability that allows an instant or sorcery spell to be cast a second time. See rule 702.86, "Rebound."

A keyword ability that allows an instant or sorcery spell to be cast a second time. See rule 702.87, "Rebound."

RecoverRecover

A keyword ability that lets a player return a card from his or her graveyard to his or her hand. See rule 702.57, "Recover."

A keyword ability that lets a player return a card from his or her graveyard to his or her hand. See rule 702.58, "Recover."

ReinforceReinforce

A keyword ability that lets a player put +1/+1 counters on a creature. See rule 702.75, "Reinforce."

A keyword ability that lets a player put +1/+1 counters on a creature. See rule 702.76, "Reinforce."

ReplicateReplicate

A keyword ability that creates copies of a spell. See rule 702.54, "Replicate."

A keyword ability that creates copies of a spell. See rule 702.55, "Replicate."

RetraceRetrace

A keyword ability that lets a player cast a card from his or her graveyard. See rule 702.79, "Retrace."

A keyword ability that lets a player cast a card from his or her graveyard. See rule 702.80, "Retrace."

RippleRipple

A keyword ability that may let a player cast extra cards from his or her library for no cost. See rule 702.58, "Ripple."

A keyword ability that may let a player cast extra cards from his or her library for no cost. See rule 702.59, "Ripple."

ScavengeScavenge

A keyword ability that allows you to exile a creature card from your graveyard to put +1/+1 counters on a creature. See rule 702.95, "Scavenge."

A keyword ability that allows you to exile a creature card from your graveyard to put +1/+1 counters on a creature. See rule 702.96, "Scavenge."

ShadowShadow

A keyword ability that restricts how a creature may be blocked and which creatures it can block. See rule 702.26, "Shadow."

A keyword ability that restricts how a creature may be blocked and which creatures it can block. See rule 702.27, "Shadow."

ShroudShroud

A keyword ability that precludes a permanent or player from being targeted. See rule 702.17, "Shroud."

A keyword ability that precludes a permanent or player from being targeted. See rule 702.18, "Shroud."

SoulbondSoulbond

A keyword ability that makes creatures better by pairing them together. See rule 702.93, "Soulbond."

A keyword ability that makes creatures better by pairing them together. See rule 702.94, "Soulbond."

SoulshiftSoulshift

A keyword ability that lets a player return a card from his or her graveyard to his or her hand. See rule 702.44, "Soulshift."

A keyword ability that lets a player return a card from his or her graveyard to his or her hand. See rule 702.45, "Soulshift."

SpliceSplice

A keyword ability that lets a player copy a card's text box onto another spell. See rule 702.45, "Splice."

A keyword ability that lets a player copy a card's text box onto another spell. See rule 702.46, "Splice."

Split SecondSplit Second

A keyword ability that makes it nearly impossible for a player to respond to a spell. See rule 702.59, "Split Second."

A keyword ability that makes it nearly impossible for a player to respond to a spell. See rule 702.60, "Split Second."

Starting Hand Size

The number of cards a player draws as a game begins. In most games, each player's starting hand size is seven. See rule 103.4.

Starting Life Total

The amount of life a player has as a game begins. In most games, each player's starting life total is 20. See rule 103.3.

StormStorm

A keyword ability that creates copies of a spell. See rule 702.38, "Storm."

A keyword ability that creates copies of a spell. See rule 702.39, "Storm."

SunburstSunburst

A keyword ability that can have a permanent enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters or charge counters on it. See rule 702.42, "Sunburst."

A keyword ability that can have a permanent enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters or charge counters on it. See rule 702.43, "Sunburst."

SuspendSuspend

A keyword ability that provides an alternate way to play a card. See rule 702.60, "Suspend." A card is "suspended" if it's in the exile zone, has suspend, and has a time counter on it.

A keyword ability that provides an alternate way to play a card. See rule 702.61, "Suspend." A card is "suspended" if it's in the exile zone, has suspend, and has a time counter on it.

Totem ArmorTotem Armor

A keyword ability that allows an Aura to protect the permanent it's enchanting. See rule 702.87, "Totem Armor."

A keyword ability that allows an Aura to protect the permanent it's enchanting. See rule 702.88, "Totem Armor."

TrampleTrample

A keyword ability that modifies how a creature assigns combat damage. See rule 702.18, "Trample."

A keyword ability that modifies how a creature assigns combat damage. See rule 702.19, "Trample."

TransfigureTransfigure

A keyword ability that lets a player search his or her library for a replacement creature card. See rule 702.69, "Transfigure."

A keyword ability that lets a player search his or her library for a replacement creature card. See rule 702.70, "Transfigure."

TransmuteTransmute

A keyword ability that lets a player search his or her library for a replacement card. See rule 702.51, "Transmute."

A keyword ability that lets a player search his or her library for a replacement card. See rule 702.52, "Transmute."

TypecyclingTypecycling

A variant of the cycling ability. See rule 702.27, "Cycling."

A variant of the cycling ability. See rule 702.28, "Cycling."

Unblockable

An attribute of a creature that precludes it from being blocked. See rule 700.5.

Unblockable (Obsolete)

A term that meant "can't be blocked." Cards that used this term have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

UndyingUndying

A keyword ability that can return a creature from the graveyard to the battlefield. See rule 702.91, "Undying."

A keyword ability that can return a creature from the graveyard to the battlefield. See rule 702.92, "Undying."

UnearthUnearth

A keyword ability that lets a player return a creature card from his or her graveyard to the battlefield. See rule 702.82, "Unearth."

A keyword ability that lets a player return a creature card from his or her graveyard to the battlefield. See rule 702.83, "Unearth."

UnleashUnleash

A keyword ability that allows a creature to enter the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it and stops it from blocking if it has a +1/+1 counter on it. See rule 702.96, "Unleash."

A keyword ability that allows a creature to enter the battlefield with a +1/+1 counter on it and stops it from blocking if it has a +1/+1 counter on it. See rule 702.97, "Unleash."

VanishingVanishing

A keyword ability that limits how long a permanent remains on the battlefield. See rule 702.61, "Vanishing."

A keyword ability that limits how long a permanent remains on the battlefield. See rule 702.62, "Vanishing."

VigilanceVigilance

A keyword ability that lets a creature attack without tapping. See rule 702.19, "Vigilance."

A keyword ability that lets a creature attack without tapping. See rule 702.20, "Vigilance."

WitherWither

A keyword ability that affects how an object deals damage to a creature. See rule 702.78, "Wither."

A keyword ability that affects how an object deals damage to a creature. See rule 702.79, "Wither."

World RuleWorld Rule

A state-based action that causes all permanents with the world supertype except the newest to be put into their owners' graveyards. See rule 704.5m.

A state-based action that causes all permanents with the world supertype except the one that has had the world supertype for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners' graveyards. See rule 704.5m.