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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Eventide to Shards of Alara

General changes

Old rule (Eventide) New rule (Shards of Alara)

100.5.

Most Magic tournaments have special rules (not included here) and may limit the use of some cards, including barring all cards from some older sets. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI(r) Floor Rules for more information. They can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home.

100.5.

Most Magic tournaments have special rules (not included here) and may limit the use of some cards, including barring all cards from some older sets. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI(r) Floor Rules for more information. They can be found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home.

102.3a.

A player can concede the game at any time. A player who concedes loses the game immediately.

102.3a.

A player can concede the game at any time. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately. He or she loses the game.

206.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver expansion symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white expansion symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple expansion symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

206.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

212.4j.

If an Aura is coming into play under a player's control by any means other than by being played, and the effect putting it into play doesn't specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, that player chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura's enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If the player can't make a legal choice, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play.

212.4j.

If an Aura is coming into play under a player's control by any means other than by being played, and the effect putting it into play doesn't specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, that player chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura's enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If no legal choice can be made, see rule 212.4k.

212.4k.

If an effect attempts to attach an Aura in play to an object or player, that object or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the object or player can't be, the Aura doesn't move.

212.4k.

If an Aura is coming into play and there is no legal object or player for it to enchant, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play.

212.4m.

If an effect attempts to attach an Aura in play to an object or player, that object or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the object or player can't be, the Aura doesn't move.

217.1d.

If an object would move from one zone to another, first determine what event is moving the object. Then apply any appropriate replacement effects to that event. If an effect or rule tries to do two or more contradictory or mutually exclusive things to a particular object, that object's controller-or its owner if it has no controller-chooses what the effect does to the object. Then the event moves the object.

217.1d.

If an object would move from one zone to another, first determine what event is moving the object. Then apply any appropriate replacement effects to that event. If any effects or rules try to do two or more contradictory or mutually exclusive things to a particular object, that object's controller-or its owner if it has no controller-chooses which effect to apply, and what that effect does. (Note that multiple instances of the same thing may be mutually exclusive; for example, two simultaneous "destroy" effects.) Then the event moves the object.

217.9a.

Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing "for keeps." Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game, and it's allowed only where it's not forbidden by law or by other rules. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the DCI Universal Tournament Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home).

217.9a.

Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing "for keeps." Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game, and it's allowed only where it's not forbidden by law or by other rules. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the DCI Universal Tournament Rules (http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home).

306.3b.

If an effect would put a creature into play attacking under the control of any player except an attacking player, that creature does come into play, but it's never considered to be an attacking creature.

306.3c.

If an effect would put a creature into play blocking but the creature it would block isn't attacking either the first creature's controller or a planeswalker that player controls, that creature does come into play, but it's never considered to be a blocking creature.

306.5.

An attacking creature is attacking alone if no other creatures are attacking. A blocking creature is blocking alone if no other creatures are blocking.

306.5.

A creature attacks alone if it's the only creature declared as an attacker during the declare attackers step. A creature is attacking alone if it's attacking but no other creatures are. A creature blocks alone if it's the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step. A creature is blocking alone if it's blocking but no other creatures are.

402.2.

There are three general categories of abilities: activated, triggered, and static. Activated and triggered abilities can also be mana abilities. Abilities can generate one-shot effects or continuous effects. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects.

402.2.

Aside from the abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving (see rule 401.3), there are three general categories of abilities: activated, triggered, and static. Activated and triggered abilities can also be mana abilities. Abilities can generate one-shot effects or continuous effects. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects.

402.5.

An ability isn't a spell and therefore can't be countered by anything that counters only spells. Abilities can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities, as well as by the rules (for example, an ability with one or more targets is countered if all its targets become illegal).

402.5.

Activated and triggered abilities aren't spells, and therefore can't be countered by anything that counters only spells. Abilities can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities, as well as by the rules (for example, an ability with one or more targets is countered if all its targets become illegal). Static abilities don't use the stack and thus can't be countered at all.

403.1.

An activated ability is written as "[cost]: [effect]." The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). An ability's activation cost must be paid by the player who is playing it.

403.1.

An activated ability is written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Play restriction (if any).]" The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). An ability's activation cost must be paid by the player who is playing it.

403.4.

A creature's activated ability with the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) in its activation cost can't be played unless the creature has been under its controller's control since the start of his or her most recent turn. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502.5).

403.3.

A creature's activated ability with the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) in its activation cost can't be played unless the creature has been under its controller's control since the start of his or her most recent turn. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502.5).

403.3.

If an activated ability has a restriction on its use (for example, "Play this ability only once each turn"), the restriction continues to apply to that object even if its controller changes.

403.4.

If an activated ability has a restriction on its use (for example, "Play this ability only once each turn"), the restriction continues to apply to that object even if its controller changes.

408.1i.

Special actions don't use the stack. The special actions are playing a land (see rule 408.2d), turning a face-down creature face up (see rule 408.2h), ending continuous effects or stopping delayed triggered abilities (see rule 408.2i), ignoring continuous effects (see rule 408.2j), and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game (see rule 408.2k).

408.1i.

Special actions don't use the stack. The special actions are playing a land (see rule 408.2d), turning a face-down creature face up (see rule 408.2h), stopping delayed triggered abilities from triggering or ending continuous effects (see rule 408.2i), ignoring continuous effects (see rule 408.2j), and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game (see rule 408.2k).

408.2g.

Game actions don't use the stack. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.1), untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.2), drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304.1), declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308.1), declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.1), the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314.1), removing damage from permanents and ending "until end of turn effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314.2), and mana burn as each phase ends (see rule 300.3).

408.2g.

Game actions don't use the stack. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.1), untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.2), drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304.1), declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308.1), declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.1), the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314.1), removing damage from permanents and ending "until end of turn" effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314.2), and mana burn as each phase ends (see rule 300.3).

408.2i.

Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time, usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability. This is a special action. A player can end a continuous effect or stop a delayed triggered ability only if the effect or ability allows it and only when he or she has priority. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action.

408.2i.

Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time, usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability. This is a special action. A player can stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering or end a continuous effect only if the ability or effect allows it and only when he or she has priority. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action.

409.1b.

If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase "Choose one -," "Choose two -,"or "[specified player] chooses one -"), the player announces the mode choice. If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 502.40), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell or ability has a variable mana cost (indicated by {X}) or some other variable cost, the player announces the value of that variable at this time. If the spell or ability has alternative, additional, or other special costs (such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409.1f). You can't apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. If a cost includes hybrid mana symbols in its cost, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

409.1b.

If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase "Choose one -," "Choose two -," "Choose one or both -," or "[specified player] chooses one -"), the player announces the mode choice. If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 502.40), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell or ability has a variable mana cost (indicated by {X}) or some other variable cost, the player announces the value of that variable at this time. If the spell or ability has alternative, additional, or other special costs (such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409.1f). You can't apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. If a cost includes hybrid mana symbols in its cost, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

409.1c.

If the spell or ability requires any targets, the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets), then announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each of those targets. A player can't play a spell or ability unless he or she chooses the required number of legal targets. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).

Example: If an ability reads "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the ability requires two different legal targets. An ability that reads "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

409.1c.

If the spell or ability requires any targets, the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets), then announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each of those targets. A spell or ability can't be played unless the required number of legal targets are chosen for it. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).

Example: If an ability reads "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the ability requires two different legal targets. An ability that reads "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

419.5.

If an event is prevented or replaced, it never happens. A modified event occurs instead, which may in turn trigger abilities. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instruction.

419.5.

If an event is prevented or replaced, it never happens. A modified event occurs instead, which may in turn trigger abilities. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the impossible instruction is simply ignored.

419.5b.

Some abilities read, "you may [X]. If you do, [Y]." An "if you do" clause that follows a "you may [X]" clause refers to choosing to do the event X, regardless of what events actually occur as a result of that decision. If X is replaced entirely or in part by a different event, the "if you do" clause refers to the event that replaced X.

419.6e.

Skipping an action, step, phase, or turn is a replacement effect. "Skip [something]" is the same as "Instead of doing [something], do nothing." Once a step, phase, or turn has started, it can no longer be skipped-any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence.

419.6e.

Skipping an event, step, phase, or turn is a replacement effect. "Skip [something]" is the same as "Instead of doing [something], do nothing." Once a step, phase, or turn has started, it can no longer be skipped-any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence.

419.6g.

Some replacement effects say "instead choose one -." Such effects are called modal replacement effects. The mode is chosen as the replacement effect is applied. If a modal replacement effect would apply to multiple events, a different mode may be chosen for each event. A modal replacement effect doesn't invoke itself repeatedly, regardless of which mode was chosen. You may not choose modes that are impossible.

419.6g.

Some effects cause a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, then another action. That action is considered to be the first thing that happens during the next step, phase, or turn to actually occur.

419.8a.

Some effects apply to damage from a source-for example, "The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn, prevent that damage." If an effect requires a player to choose a source, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including an artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker spell); any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack; or a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack, even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage from that permanent, regardless of whether it's from one of that permanent's abilities or combat damage dealt by it. If the player chooses an artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker spell, the effect will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves.

419.8a.

Some effects apply to damage from a source-for example, "The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn, prevent that damage." If an effect requires a player to choose a source, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell); any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack; or a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack, even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage from that permanent, regardless of whether it's from one of that permanent's abilities or combat damage dealt by it. If the player chooses an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell, the effect will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves.

419.9a.

If two or more replacement or prevention effects are attempting to modify the way an event affects an object or player, the affected object's controller (or its owner if it has no controller) or the affected player chooses one to apply. Then the other effect applies if it is still appropriate. If one or more of the applicable replacement effects is a self-replacement effect (see rule 419.6d), that effect is applied before any other replacement effects. If two or more players have to make these choices at the same time, choices are made in APNAP order (see rule 103.4).

Example: Two permanents are in play. One is an enchantment that reads "If a card would be put into a graveyard, instead remove it from the game," and the other is a creature that reads "If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from play, instead shuffle it into its owner's library." The controller of the creature that would be destroyed decides which replacement to apply first; the other does nothing.

419.9a.

If two or more replacement or prevention effects are attempting to modify the way an event affects an object or player, the affected object's controller (or its owner if it has no controller) or the affected player chooses one to apply. If any of those effects are self-replacement effects (see rule 419.6d), one of them must be chosen. If not, but any of those effects would modify under whose control an object would come into play, one of them must be chosen. Otherwise, any of the applicable effects may be chosen. Once the chosen effect has been applied, this process is repeated (taking into account only replacement or prevention effects that would now be applicable) until there are no more left to apply. If two or more players have to make these choices at the same time, choices are made in APNAP order (see rule 103.4).

Example: Two permanents are in play. One is an enchantment that reads "If a card would be put into a graveyard, instead remove it from the game," and the other is a creature that reads "If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from play, instead shuffle it into its owner's library." The controller of the creature that would be destroyed decides which replacement to apply first; the other does nothing.

420.3.

Whenever a player would get priority (see rule 408, "Timing of Spells and Abilities"), the game checks for any of the listed conditions for state-based effects. All applicable effects resolve as a single event, then the check is repeated. Once no more state-based effects have been generated, triggered abilities go on the stack, and then the appropriate player gets priority. This check is also made during the cleanup step (see rule 314); if any of the listed conditions apply, the active player receives priority.

420.3.

Whenever a player would get priority (see rule 408, "Timing of Spells and Abilities"), the game checks for any of the listed conditions for state-based effects. All applicable effects resolve simultaneously as a single event, then the check is repeated. Once no more state-based effects have been generated, triggered abilities go on the stack, and then the appropriate player gets priority. This check is also made during the cleanup step (see rule 314); if any of the listed conditions apply, the active player receives priority.

420.6.

If multiple state-based effects would have the same result at the same time, a single replacement effect will replace all of them.

Example: You control Lich's Mirror, which says "If you would lose the game, instead shuffle your hand, your graveyard, and all permanents you own into your library, then draw seven cards and your life total becomes 20." There's one card in your library and your life total is 1. A spell causes you to draw two cards and lose 2 life. The next time state-based effects are checked, you'd lose the game due to rule 420.5a and rule 420.5g. Instead, Lich's Mirror replaces that game loss and you keep playing.

421.3.

If a loop contains optional actions controlled by two players and actions by both of those players are required to continue the loop, the first player (or the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number. The other player then has two choices. He or she can choose a lower number, in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the active player to "have the last word." Or he or she can agree to the number the first player chose, in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the second player to "have the last word." (Note that either fraction may be zero.) This sequence of choices is extended to all applicable players if there are more than two players involved.

Example: In a two-player game, one player controls a creature with the ability "{0}: [This creature] gains flying," and another player controls a permanent with the ability "{0}: Target creature loses flying." The "infinity rule" ensures that regardless of which player initiated the gain/lose flying ability, the nonactive player will always have the final choice and therefore be able to determine whether the creature has flying. (Note that this assumes that the first player attempted to give the creature flying at least once.)

421.3.

If a loop contains optional actions controlled by two players and actions by both of those players are required to continue the loop, the active player (or, if the active player is not involved, the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number. The other player then has two choices. He or she can choose a lower number, in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the first player to "have the last word." Or he or she can agree to the number the first player chose, in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the second player to "have the last word." (Note that either fraction may be zero.) This sequence of choices is extended to all applicable players if there are more than two players involved.

Example: In a two-player game, one player controls a creature with the ability "{0}: [This creature] gains flying," and another player controls a permanent with the ability "{0}: Target creature loses flying." The "infinity rule" ensures that regardless of which player initiated the gain/lose flying ability, the nonactive player will always have the final choice and therefore be able to determine whether the creature has flying. (Note that this assumes that the first player attempted to give the creature flying at least once.)

421.5.

If the loop contains optional actions controlled by different players and these actions don't depend on one another, the active player chooses a number. In APNAP order, the nonactive players can each either agree to that number or choose a higher number. Note that this rule applies even if the actions could exist in separate loops rather than in a single loop.

421.5.

If the loop contains more than one set of optional, independent actions, each controlled by different players, then the active player (or, if the active player is not involved, the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number for his or her set of actions. Knowing that number, the remaining players, in turn order, each choose a number for his or her sets of actions. It can be higher, lower, or the same. Then each set of actions occurs the appropriate number of times.

421.6.

If the loop contains an effect that says "[X] unless [Y]," where [X] and [Y] are each actions, no player can be forced to perform [Y] to break the loop. If no player chooses to perform [Y], the loop will continue as though [X] were mandatory.

424.6.

Some spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities read, "[X]. If [a player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." or "[a player] may [X]. If [that player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." The action [X] is a cost, paid when the spell or ability resolves. The "If [a player] [does or doesn't]" clause checks whether the player chose to pay an optional cost or started to pay a mandatory cost, regardless of what events actually occurred.

Example: You control Hesitation, an enchantment that says "When a spell is played, sacrifice Hesitation. If you do, counter that spell." A spell is played, causing Hesitation's ability to trigger. Then an ability is played that removes Hesitation from the game. When Hesitation's ability resolves, you're unable to pay the "sacrifice Hesitation" cost. The spell is not countered.

Example: Your opponent has played Gather Specimens, a spell that says "If a creature would come into play under an opponent's control this turn, it comes into play under your control instead." You control a face-down Dermoplasm, a creature with morph that says "When Dermoplasm is turned face up, you may put a creature card with morph from your hand into play face up. If you do, return Dermoplasm to its owner's hand." You turn Dermoplasm face up, and you choose to put a creature card with morph from your hand into play. Due to Gather Specimens, it comes into play under your opponent's control instead of yours. However, since you chose to pay the cost, Dermoplasm is still returned to its owner's hand.

502.15m.

A permanent that phases in can attack and tap to play abilities as though it had haste. This applies even if that permanent phased out and phased back in the turn it came into play. The permanent remains able to attack and tap to play abilities until it changes controllers or leaves play.

502.15m.

A permanent that phases in can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol ({T}) or the untap symbol ({Q}) as though that permanent had haste. This applies even if that permanent phased out and phased back in the turn it came into play. The permanent remains able to do so until it changes controllers or leaves play.

502.82.

Devour

502.82a.

Devour is a static ability. "Devour N" means "As this object comes into play, you may sacrifice any number of creatures. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way."

502.82b.

Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. "It devoured" means "sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it came into play."

502.83.

Exalted

502.83a.

Exalted is a triggered ability. "Exalted" means "Whenever a creature you control attacks alone, that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn."

502.83b.

A creature "attacks alone" if it's the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase. See rule 306.5.

502.84.

Unearth

502.84a.

Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard. "Unearth [cost]" means "[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to play. It gains haste. Remove it from the game at end of turn. If it would leave play, remove it from the game instead of putting it anywhere else. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery."

511.3.

If the coin that's being flipped doesn't have an obvious "heads" or "tails," designate one side to be "heads," and the other side to be "tails." Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution. For example, the player may roll an even-sided die and call "odds" or "evens," or roll an even-sided die and designate that "odds" means "heads" and "evens" means "tails."

511.3.

A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up. If the coin that's being flipped doesn't have an obvious "heads" or "tails," designate one side to be "heads," and the other side to be "tails." Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution. For example, the player may roll an even-sided die and call "odds" or "evens," or roll an even-sided die and designate that "odds" means "heads" and "evens" means "tails."

600.3.

Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here, including rules for deck construction. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules for more information. They can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home.

600.3.

Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here, including rules for deck construction. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules for more information. They can be found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home.

606.8c.

If a player concedes, his or her team loses the game.

606.8c.

If a player concedes, his or her team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.

Ability

"Ability" and "effect" are often confused with one another. An instruction in an object's text is an ability. The result of following such an instruction is an effect. For more information, see section 4, "Spells, Abilities, and Effects." When an activated ability is played, it goes onto the stack and stays there until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. When an effect states that an object "gains" or "has" an ability, it's granting that object an ability. If an effect defines a property of an object ("[card or permanent] is [property]"), it's not granting an ability. For example, an Aura might read, "Enchanted creature is red." The Aura isn't granting an ability of any kind; it's simply changing the enchanted creature's color to red.

Ability

"Ability" and "effect" are often confused with one another. An instruction in an object's text is an ability. The result of following such an instruction is an effect. For more information, see section 4, "Spells, Abilities, and Effects." The general categories of abilities are activated abilities (see rule 403), triggered abilities (see rule 404), static abilities (see rule 405), and the abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving (see rule 401.3). When an effect states that an object "gains" or "has" an ability, it's granting that object an ability. If an effect defines a property of an object ("[card or permanent] is [property]"), it's not granting an ability. For example, an Aura might read, "Enchanted creature is red." The Aura isn't granting an ability of any kind; it's simply changing the enchanted creature's color to red.

Ability Word

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The list of ability words, updated through the Eventide (tm) set, is as follows: channel, chroma, grandeur, hellbent, kinship, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

Ability Word

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The list of ability words, updated through the Shards of Alara (tm) set, is as follows: channel, chroma, grandeur, hellbent, kinship, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

Activated Ability

An activated ability is written as "activation cost: effect." By paying the activation cost, a player may play such an ability whenever he or she has priority. See rule 403, "Activated Abilities."

Activated Ability

An activated ability is written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Play restriction (if any).]" By paying the activation cost, a player may play such an ability whenever he or she has priority. When an activated ability is played, it goes onto the stack and stays there until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 403, "Activated Abilities."

Activation Cost

The activation cost of an activated ability is everything before the colon in "activation cost: effect." It must be paid to play the ability. See rule 403, "Activated Abilities."

Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads "{2}, {T}: You gain 1 life" is two mana of any color plus tapping the permanent.

Activation Cost

The activation cost of an activated ability is everything that appears before the colon in that ability's text. It must be paid to play the ability. See rule 403, "Activated Abilities."

Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads "{2}, {T}: You gain 1 life" is two mana of any color plus tapping the permanent.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Shards of Alara set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Attack Alone

A creature is attacking alone when it's the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase. See rule 306.5.

Attack Alone

A creature attacks alone if it's the only creature declared as an attacker during the declare attackers step. A creature is attacking alone if it's attacking but no other creatures are. See rule 306.5.

Block Alone

A creature is blocking alone when it's the sole creature controlled by the defending player declared as a blocker in a given combat phase. See rule 306.5.

Block Alone

A creature blocks alone if it's the only creature declared as a blocker during the declare blockers step. A creature is blocking alone if it's blocking but no other creatures are. See rule 306.5.

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Advisor, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Shards of Alara set, is as follows: Advisor, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Devour

Devour is a static ability. "Devour N" means "As this object comes into play, you may sacrifice any number of creatures. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each creature sacrificed this way." Some objects have abilities that refer to the number of creatures the permanent devoured. "It devoured" means "sacrificed as a result of its devour ability as it came into play." See rule 502.82, "Devour."

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Shards of Alara set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Exalted

Exalted is a triggered ability. "Exalted" means "Whenever a creature you control attacks alone, that creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn." See rule 502.83, "Exalted."

Expansion Symbol

The small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol. It indicates the set in which the card was published. Cards reprinted in a core set or another expansion receive its expansion symbol. Spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion only affect cards with that set's expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol. Visit the products section of www.magicthegathering.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=magic/products/cardsets). Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or allowed by the Magic Floor Rules). See the Magic Floor Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home).

Expansion Symbol

The small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol. The symbol indicates the set in which the card was published, and its color indicates the rarity of the card. Cards reprinted in a core set or another expansion receive its expansion symbol. Spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion only affect cards with that set's expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. Cards printed before the Exodus set had black expansion symbols regardless of rarity. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol. Visit the products section of www.magicthegathering.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Article.aspx?x=mtg/tcg/products/allproducts). Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or allowed by the Magic Floor Rules). See the Magic Floor Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home).

Flip a Coin

To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip, the affected player flips the coin and calls "heads" or "tails." If the call matches the result, that player wins the flip. Otherwise, the player loses the flip. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip; no other players are involved. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails, each affected player flips a coin without making a call. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. If the coin that's being flipped doesn't have an obvious "heads" or "tails," designate one side to be "heads," and the other side to be "tails." Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution.

Flip a Coin

To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip, the affected player flips the coin and calls "heads" or "tails." If the call matches the result, that player wins the flip. Otherwise, the player loses the flip. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip; no other players are involved. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails, each affected player flips a coin without making a call. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. A coin used in a flip must be a two-sided object with easily distinguished sides and equal likelihood that either side lands face up. If the coin that's being flipped doesn't have an obvious "heads" or "tails," designate one side to be "heads," and the other side to be "tails." Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution.

Floor Rules

The current DCI Magic: The Gathering Floor Rules can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home.

Floor Rules

The current DCI Magic: The Gathering Floor Rules can be found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home.

Keyword Action

Most actions described in a card's rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within, but some specialized verb are used whose meanings may not be clear. These "keywords" are game terms; sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings. See rule 501, "Keyword Actions."

Keyword Action

Most actions described in a card's rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within, but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. These "keywords" are game terms; sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings. See rule 501, "Keyword Actions."

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Shards of Alara set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Lose the Game

There are several ways to lose the game. A player can concede the game at any time; a player who concedes loses the game immediately. If a player's life total is 0 or less, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player attempts to draw a card from an empty library, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player would both win and lose simultaneously, he or she loses. In a multiplayer game between teams, a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost. See rule 102, "Winning and Losing."

Lose the Game

There are several ways to lose the game. A player can concede the game at any time; a player who concedes loses the game (see rule 102.3a). If a player's life total is 0 or less, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player attempts to draw a card from an empty library, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player would both win and lose simultaneously, he or she loses. In a multiplayer game between teams, a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost. See rule 102, "Winning and Losing."

Match

A match is a series of Magic games and is important only for tournament or league play. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games, or sometimes the best three of five. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game. For more information, consult the DCI Magic Floor Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home).

Match

A match is a series of Magic games and is important only for tournament or league play. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games, or sometimes the best three of five. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game. For more information, consult the DCI Magic Floor Rules (http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home).

Modal, Mode

A spell or ability is modal if it is written "Choose one -," "Choose two -," or "[a specified player] chooses one -." Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects. A modal spell or ability's controller must choose the mode(s) as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities); see rule 409.1b. If a mode has targets, a player can't choose that mode unless all of its targets can be chosen. A modal replacement effect's mode is chosen as it's applied; see rule 419.6g.

Modal, Mode

A spell or ability is modal if it is written "Choose one -," "Choose two -," "Choose one or both -," or "[a specified player] chooses one -." Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects. A modal spell or ability's controller must choose the mode(s) as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities); see rule 409.1b. If a mode has targets, a player can't choose that mode unless all of its targets can be chosen.

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Ajani, Chandra, Garruk, Jace, Liliana.

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Shards of Alara set, is as follows: Ajani, Chandra, Elspeth, Garruk, Jace, Liliana, Sarkhan, Tezzeret.

Search

If you're required to search a zone not revealed to all players for cards of a given quality, such as card type or color, you aren't required to find some or all of those cards even if they're present; however, if you do choose to find cards, you must reveal those cards to all players. Even if you don't find any cards, you are still considered to have searched the zone. If you're simply searching for a quantity of cards, such as "a card" or "three cards," you must find that many cards (or as many as possible). These cards often aren't revealed.

Example: If an effect causes you to search a player's library for all duplicates of a particular card and remove them from the game, you may choose to leave some of them alone, but if an effect causes you to search your library for three cards and it contains at least three, you can't choose less than three.

Search

If you're required to search a zone not revealed to all players for cards of a given quality, such as card type or color, you aren't required to find some or all of those cards even if they're present; however, if you do choose to find cards, you must reveal those cards to all players. Even if you don't find any cards, you are still considered to have searched the zone. If you're simply searching for a quantity of cards, such as "a card" or "three cards," you must find that many cards (or as many as possible). These cards often aren't revealed.

Example: If an effect causes you to search a player's library for all duplicates of a particular card and remove them from the game, you may choose to leave some of them alone, but if an effect causes you to search your library for three cards and it contains at least three, you can't choose fewer than three.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Arcane.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Shards of Alara set, is as follows: Arcane.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Shards of Alara set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Tournament

A tournament is an organized event where players compete against other players to win prizes. See the Tournament Locator on the MagicTheGathering.com Tournament Center page (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=mtgcom/tournamentcenter) to find tournaments in your area.

Tournament

A tournament is an organized event where players compete against other players to win prizes. Use the Magic Locator at http://www.wizards.com/magic/TCG/Default.aspx to find tournaments in your area; just select "Events" and type in the name of your city.

Trigger, Triggered Ability

A triggered ability begins with the word "when," "whenever," or "at." Whenever the trigger event occurs, the ability goes on top of the stack the next time a player would receive priority. See rule 404, "Triggered Abilities."

Trigger, Triggered Ability

A triggered ability begins with the word "when," "whenever," or "at." Whenever the trigger event occurs, the ability goes on top of the stack the next time a player would receive priority and stays there until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 404, "Triggered Abilities."

Unearth

Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard. "Unearth [cost]" means "[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to play. It gains haste. Remove it from the game at end of turn. If it would leave play, remove it from the game instead of putting it anywhere else. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery." See rule 502.84, "Unearth."

Universal Tournament Rules

The DCI Universal Tournament Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home) cover tournament play for all DCI-sanctioned games, including the Magic game.

Universal Tournament Rules

The DCI Universal Tournament Rules (http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home) cover tournament play for all DCI-sanctioned games, including the Magic game.