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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Future Sight to Core Set - Tenth Edition

General changes

Old rule (Future Sight) New rule (Core Set - Tenth Edition)

101.4a.

In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.

101.4a.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the standard mulligan rule, with some modifications. First, the starting team takes any mulligans. For a team to take a mulligan, each player on that team decides whether or not to take a mulligan, then all players who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. The first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand, the team repeats the process. (Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.) Once a player has decided to keep a hand, those cards become his or her opening hand. That player can't take any more mulligans, but his or her teammate may. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand, the other team may take mulligans.

Example: Bob and Clare are the starting team in a Two-Headed Giant game. They've each draw seven cards. After reviewing each other's hands, both Bob and Clare decide to mulligan. Each shuffles his or her hand into his or her deck and draws seven cards. Clare isn't sure about Bob's new hand, but he decides to keep it. Clare decides to take another mulligan. Bob's hand becomes his opening hand, and Clare shuffles her hand into her deck and draws six cards. Then only Clare has the option to mulligan. She decides to keep her hand of six cards and that becomes her opening hand. After that, the other team decides whether to take mulligans.

101.4b.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the multiplayer mulligan rule, with some modifications. First, the starting team takes any mulligans. For a team to take a mulligan, each player on that team decides whether or not to take a mulligan, then all players who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. The first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand, the team repeats the process. (Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.) Once a player has decided to keep a hand, those cards become his or her opening hand. That player can't take any more mulligans, but his or her teammate may. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand, the other team may take mulligans.

Example: Bob and Clare are the starting team in a Two-Headed Giant game. They've each draw seven cards. After reviewing each other's hands, both Bob and Clare decide to mulligan. Each shuffles his or her hand into his or her deck and draws seven cards. Clare isn't sure about Bob's new hand, but he decides to keep it. Clare decides to take another mulligan. Bob's hand becomes his opening hand, and Clare shuffles her hand into her deck and draws six cards. Then only Clare has the option to mulligan. She decides to keep her hand of six cards and that becomes her opening hand. After that, the other team decides whether to take mulligans.

101.5.

Once all players have kept their opening hands, the starting player takes his or her first turn.

101.5.

Once all players have kept their opening hands, if any cards in the starting player's hand allow that player to begin the game with those cards in play, he or she may put any or all of them into play. Then each other player, in turn order, may do the same.

101.6.

The starting player takes his or her first turn.

101.5a.

In a two-player game, the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 304, "Draw Step") of his or her first turn.

101.6a.

In a two-player game, the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 304, "Draw Step") of his or her first turn.

101.5b.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. In all other multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn.

101.6b.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. In all other multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn.

104.4.

The tap symbol is {T}. The tap symbol in an activation cost means "Tap this permanent." A permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven't been under a player's control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can't use any ability with the tap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3d.

104.4.

The tap symbol is {T}. The tap symbol in an activation cost means "Tap this permanent." A permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped again to pay the cost. Creatures that haven't been under a player's control continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn can't use any ability with the tap symbol in the cost. See rule 212.3f.

104.6.

A type icon appears in the upper left corner of each card from the Future Sight (tm) set printed with an alternate "timeshifted" frame. If the card has a single card type, this icon indicates what it is: claw marks for creature, a flame for sorcery, a lightning bolt for instant, a sunrise for enchantment, a chalice for artifact, and a pair of mountain peaks for land. If the card has multiple card types, that's indicated by a black and white cross. This icon has no effect on game play.

203.1.

The mana cost of a card is indicated by mana symbols near the top of the card. On most cards, these symbols are printed in the upper right corner. Some cards from the Future Sight (tm) set have alternate frames in which the mana symbols appear to the left of the art. Paying an object's mana cost requires matching the color of any colored mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost.

203.1.

The mana cost of a card is indicated by mana symbols near the top of the card. On most cards, these symbols are printed in the upper right corner. Some cards from the Future Sight set have alternate frames in which the mana symbols appear to the left of the art. Paying an object's mana cost requires matching the color of any colored mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost.

212.6b.

A player may play only one land card during each of his or her own turns. Effects may allow the playing of additional lands; playing an additional land in this way doesn't prevent a player from taking the normal action of playing a land. Players can't begin to play a land that an effect prohibits from being played. As a player plays a land, he or she announces whether he or she is using the once-per-turn action of playing a land. If not, he or she specifies which effect is allowing the additional land play. Effects may also allow you to "put" lands into play. This isn't the same as "playing a land" and doesn't count as the player's one land played during his or her turn. A player may not play a land during another player's turn, even if an effect would seem to allow the player to do so.

212.6b.

A player may play only one land card during each of his or her own turns. Effects may allow the playing of additional lands; playing an additional land in this way doesn't prevent a player from taking the normal action of playing a land. Players can't begin to play a land that an effect prohibits from being played. As a player plays a land, he or she announces whether he or she is using the once-per-turn action of playing a land. If not, he or she specifies which effect is allowing the additional land play. Effects may also allow you to "put" lands into play. This isn't the same as "playing a land" and doesn't count as the player's one land played during his or her turn. A player may not play a land unless it's his or her turn, even if an effect would seem to allow the player to do so.

216.2.

A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token's type or subtype. A token isn't a card (even if represented by cards from other games or Unglued (tm) cards).

216.2.

A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token's type or subtype. A token isn't a card (even if represented by a card that has a Magic back or that came from a Magic booster pack).

217.5a.

Most of the area between the players represents the in-play zone. The in-play zone starts out empty. Permanents a player controls (other than Auras attached to another player's permanents) are kept in front of him or her in the in-play zone.

217.5a.

Most of the area between the players represents the in-play zone. The in-play zone starts out empty. Permanents a player controls are normally kept in front of him or her in the in-play zone, though there are some cases (such as an Aura attached to another player's permanent) when a permanent one player controls is kept closer to a different player.

308.4.

If no creatures are declared as attackers, finish the declare attackers step, but skip the declare blockers and combat damage steps.

308.4.

If no creatures are declared as attackers, skip the declare blockers and combat damage steps.

310.4.

Combat damage resolves as an object on the stack. When it resolves, it's all dealt at once, as originally assigned. After combat damage finishes resolving, the active player gets priority.

310.4.

Combat damage resolves as an object on the stack. When it resolves, it's all dealt at once, as originally assigned. The combat damage object is then removed from the stack and ceases to exist. After combat damage finishes resolving, the active player gets priority.

410.2a.

If a triggered ability's trigger event is met, but the object with that triggered ability is at no time visible to all players, the ability does not trigger.

410.2a.

If a triggered ability's trigger condition is met, but the object with that triggered ability is at no time visible to all players, the ability does not trigger.

413.2i.

A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell's controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner's graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell's resolution.

413.2i.

A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell's controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner's graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell's resolution. An ability is removed from the stack and ceases to exist as the final step of its resolution.

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first, then all other effects in timestamp order. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-setting abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c), making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play (layer 6d), making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first, then all other effects in timestamp order. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-defining abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c), making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play (layer 6d), making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

418.5k.

Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 419.1f. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-g).

418.5k.

Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 409.1f. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-g).

418.6c.

Spells and abilities that create creature tokens use creature types to define both the creature types and the names of the tokens. These words can be changed, because they are being used as creature types, even though they're also being used as names.

418.6c.

Most spells and abilities that create creature tokens use creature types to define both the creature types and the names of the tokens. These words can be changed, because they are being used as creature types, even though they're also being used as names.

419.6i.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent would be put into play. (See rules 419.1b-c.) Such effects check only the copiable characteristics of that permanent as it would exist in play. Continuous effects that affected its characteristics in its previous zone or that will affect its characteristics once it's in play are not taken into account. Replacement effects that have already modified how it would be put into play are taken into account, however. (See rule 503.5.) If, once the permanent is in play, it would have a static ability whose effect would modify how permanents are put into play, it does not affect itself or other permanents coming into play at the same time.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put into play, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk is put into play tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put into play from a graveyard is put into play tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents come into play tapped." It will not affect itself, so Orb of Dreams is put into play untapped.

419.6i.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent would be put into play. (See rules 419.1b-c.) Such effects check only the copiable values of the characteristics of that permanent as it would exist in play. Continuous effects that affected its characteristics in its previous zone or that will affect its characteristics once it's in play are not taken into account. Replacement effects that have already modified how it would be put into play are taken into account, however. (See rule 503.5.) Some permanents have static abilities that modify how a general subset of permanents would be put into play; such an ability doesn't affect the permanent itself or any permanents coming into play at the same time as it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put into play, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk is put into play tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put into play from a graveyard is put into play tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents come into play tapped." It will not affect itself, so Orb of Dreams is put into play untapped.

424.4.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it is considered to be {0}. Paying a cost altered by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

Example: You play a spell with mana cost {W} that has kicker {1}. You choose to pay the kicker, but a cost reduction effect means you spend only {W} when paying for the spell. The spell's "if the kicker cost was paid" effect will be applied.

424.4.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it is considered to be {0}. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

Example: You play a spell with mana cost {W} that has kicker {1}. You choose to pay the kicker, but a cost reduction effect means you spend only {W} when paying for the spell. The spell's "if the kicker cost was paid" effect will be applied.

502.5b.

A creature with haste can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol even if it hasn't been controlled by its controller continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn. (See rule 212.3d.)

502.5b.

A creature with haste can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol even if it hasn't been controlled by its controller continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn. (See rule 212.3f.)

502.11b.

An attacking creature with "bands with other [creature type]" can form an attacking band with other creatures that have the same "bands with other [creature type]" ability. Creatures with banding can also join this band, but creatures without banding can't. The creatures in this band don't have to have the creature type specified in the "bands with other [creature type]" ability. Blocking this band follows the same general rules as for banding.

502.11b.

An attacking creature with "bands with other [quality]" can form an attacking band with other creatures that have the same "bands with other [quality]" ability. Creatures with banding can also join this band, but creatures without banding can't. The creatures in this band don't have to have the creature type specified in the "bands with other [quality]" ability. Blocking this band follows the same general rules as for banding.

502.11c.

If an attacking creature is blocked by at least two creatures with the same "bands with other [creature type]" ability, the defending player chooses how the attacking creature's damage is assigned. Similarly, if a blocking creature blocks at least two attacking creatures with the same "bands with other [creature type]" ability, the attacking player chooses how the blocking creature's damage is assigned.

502.11c.

If an attacking creature is blocked by at least two creatures with the same "bands with other [quality]" ability, the defending player chooses how the attacking creature's damage is assigned. Similarly, if a blocking creature blocks at least two attacking creatures with the same "bands with other [quality]" ability, the attacking player chooses how the blocking creature's damage is assigned.

503.10.

To copy a spell means to put a copy of the spell onto the stack; a copy of a spell isn't "played." In addition to copying the characteristics of the spell, all decisions made when the spell was played are copied. These include mode, targets, the value of X, and optional additional costs such as buyback. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, but it has no spell card associated with it. It works just like a normal spell: it can be countered or it can resolve, and it uses the same timing rules as normal spells.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

503.10.

To copy a spell means to put a copy of the spell onto the stack; a copy of a spell isn't "played." In addition to copying the characteristics of the spell, all decisions made when the spell was played are copied. These include mode, targets, the value of X, and optional additional costs such as buyback. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, but it has no spell card associated with it. It works just like a normal spell: it can be countered or it can resolve, and it uses the same timing rules as normal spells.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

506.1.

Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame.

506.1.

Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. A "subgame" is the game created by the card's effect. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.

506.1a.

A "subgame" is a completely separate Magic game created by a card's effect. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.

506.1b.

No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other, except as defined by the effect that created the subgame. For example, the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame.

506.3.

To start the subgame, each player removes his or her library from the game face down. It becomes that player's deck in the subgame. Abilities that trigger on cards being removed from the main game face down will trigger.

506.2.

As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library, moves them to his or her subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in section 101, "Starting the Game."

506.3a.

A player's deck in the subgame may have less than the minimum number of cards. If a player's deck contains less than seven cards, the player will lose the game as soon as it starts, even if he or she mulligans. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.")

506.3.

Any rules regarding the size of a player's deck are ignored for the subgame. However, because each player draws seven cards when a game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her deck will lose the subgame when state-based effects are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.")

506.5.

All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.

506.4.

All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.

506.5a.

Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. Cards brought into a subgame from a main game are considered to be removed from the main game. Abilities in the main game that trigger on objects being removed from the main game will trigger.

506.4a.

Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game, abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger, but they won't be put onto the stack until the main game resumes.

506.6.

At the end of a subgame, each player puts all objects he or she owns that were brought into the subgame into his or her library in the main game, then shuffles that library. Cards removed from the game in the subgame are not put into the player's main-game library. Instead they remain removed from the game in the main game.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner's main-game library when the subgame ends.

506.5.

At the end of a subgame, each player puts all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame into his or her library in the main game, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame's removed-from-the-game zone. (This is a change from previous rules.) All other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that's no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner's main-game library when the subgame ends.

506.7.

If another subgame is created during a subgame, there can be multiple subgames and main games. Each main game has one subgame, and each subgame has one main game. In this case, some games will be considered both a main game and a subgame at the same time.

506.6.

A subgame can be created within a subgame. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame.

600.5.

In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule; see rule 606.6a.

606.7a.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player. Any one-shot effect or characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect or of the object with the characteristic-setting ability chooses which one the spell or ability refers to. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

606.7a.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player. Any one-shot effect or characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect or of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the spell or ability refers to. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Abomination, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Eye, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gamer, Gargoyle, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Hellion, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Spuzzem, Spy, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Abomination, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Eye, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gamer, Gargoyle, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Hellion, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Master, Masticore, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Metathran, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Spuzzem, Spy, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Forestcycling

See Landcycling.

Forestcycling

See Typecycling.

Islandcycling

See Landcycling.

Islandcycling

See Typecycling.

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Mountaincycling

See Landcycling.

Mountaincycling

See Typecycling.

Mulligan

A player can "mulligan" by shuffling his or her hand back into his or her library and drawing a new hand with one fewer card before taking the first turn. Any player dissatisfied with his or her starting hand may mulligan as often as he or she wishes, drawing one fewer card each time. See rule 101.4. The Two-Headed Giant variant uses a modified mulligan rule; see rule 606.6a.

Mulligan

A player can "mulligan" by shuffling his or her hand back into his or her library and drawing a new hand with one fewer card before taking the first turn. Any player dissatisfied with his or her starting hand may mulligan as often as he or she wishes, drawing one fewer card each time. See rule 101.4. In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule; see rule 606.6a.

Owner

The owner of a card is the player who started the game with that card in his or her deck or, for cards that didn't start the game in a player's deck, the player who brought the card into the game. (Legal ownership is irrelevant to the game rules, except for the rules for ante.) The owner of a token is the controller of the effect that created it. See rule 200.1a. An effect can change a permanent's controller but never its owner. (A few cards have the text "Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you're not playing for ante." These are the only cards that can change a card's owner. See rule 217.9, "Ante.") A card is always put into its owner's library, hand, or graveyard, regardless of who controlled the card in its previous zone. See rule 217.1a.

Owner

The owner of a card is the player who started the game with that card in his or her deck or, for cards that didn't start the game in a player's deck, the player who brought the card into the game. (Legal ownership is irrelevant to the game rules, except for the rules for ante.) See rule 200.1a. The owner of a token, or of a copy of a spell, is the controller of the effect that created it. An effect can change a permanent's controller but never its owner. (A few cards have the text "Remove [this card] from your deck before playing if you're not playing for ante." These are the only cards that can change a card's owner. See rule 217.9, "Ante.") A card is always put into its owner's library, hand, or graveyard, regardless of who controlled the card in its previous zone. See rule 217.1a.

Plainscycling

See Landcycling.

Plainscycling

See Typecycling.

Slivercycling

See Typecycling.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Arcane.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Arcane.

Summoning Sickness (Informal)

The term "summoning sickness" is an informal term which describes a creature's inability to attack or to use activated abilities that include the tap symbol when it has come under a player's control since the beginning of that player's most recent turn. See rule 212.3d. See also Haste.

Summoning Sickness (Informal)

The term "summoning sickness" is an informal term which describes a creature's inability to attack or to use activated abilities that include the tap symbol when it has come under a player's control since the beginning of that player's most recent turn. See rule 212.3f. See also Haste.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Swampcycling

See Landcycling.

Swampcycling

See Typecycling.

Wizardcycling

See Typecycling.