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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Guildpact to Dissension

General changes

Old rule (Guildpact) New rule (Dissension)

104.3.

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, {Z}, the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on, and the half-half symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}.

104.3.

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, {Z}, the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on, and the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}.

104.3f.

Each of the half-half mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue.

Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}.

104.3f.

Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue.

Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}.

104.3g.

If an effect would add one mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol to a player's mana pool, that player chooses either one of that symbol's colors and adds one mana of that color to his or her mana pool.

202.2b.

If an object grants to another object an ability that refers to the first object by name, the name refers only to the object granting the ability, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads "Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token into play. It has 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.'" The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token, not at any other Saproling Burst in play.

202.2b.

If an ability of an object grants to another object an ability that refers to the first object by name, the name refers only to the object whose ability grants that ability, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads "Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token into play. It has 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.'" The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token, not at any other Saproling Burst in play.

203.2e.

An object with one or more half-half mana symbols in its mana cost is each of the colors of that mana symbol, in addition to any other colors the object might be. Most cards with half-half mana symbols in their mana costs are printed in a two-tone frame. See rule 104.3.

203.2e.

An object with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost is each of the colors of that mana symbol, in addition to any other colors the object might be. Most cards with hybrid mana symbols in their mana costs are printed in a two-tone frame. See rule 104.3.

208.1.

A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed on its lower right corner. The first number is the creature's power (the amount of damage it deals in combat); the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). For example, 2/3 means the creature has power 2 and toughness 3. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects.

208.1.

A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed on its lower right corner. The first number is its power (the amount of damage it deals in combat); the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). For example, 2/3 means the object has power 2 and toughness 3. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects.

208.2.

Some objects have power and/or toughness of *, where * is a value determined by the abilities of the object. As long as the object is in play, the ability sets the value of *. The * is 0 while the object is not in play.

208.2.

Some creature cards have power and/or toughness of *, where * is a value determined by the abilities of that object. As long as the object is in play, the ability sets the value of *. The * is 0 while the object is not in play.

208.3.

A noncreature permanent has no power or toughness, even if it's a card with a power and toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

308.3.

Abilities that trigger on a creature attacking trigger only at the point the creature starts to attack. They will not trigger if a creature attacks and the characteristics of that creature are then changed to match the ability's trigger condition.

Example: A permanent has the ability "Whenever a green creature attacks, destroy that creature at end of combat." If a blue creature attacks and is later turned green, the ability will not trigger.

308.3.

Abilities that trigger on a creature attacking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as an attacker. They will not trigger if a creature attacks and then that creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition. They will not trigger if a creature is put into play attacking.

Example: A permanent has the ability "Whenever a green creature attacks, destroy that creature at end of combat." If a blue creature attacks and is later turned green, the ability will not trigger.

309.2f.

An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature; one with no blockers becomes an unblocked creature. The creature's status remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. (Some effects can change a creature's status.)

309.2f.

An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature; one with no blockers becomes an unblocked creature. The creature's state remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. (Some effects can change a creature's state.)

309.3.

Abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or becoming blocked trigger only at the point the creature blocks or becomes blocked. They will not trigger if a creature blocks or becomes blocked, and then the characteristics of that creature are changed to match the ability's trigger condition.

Example: A creature has the ability "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a white creature, destroy that creature at end of combat." If that creature is blocked by a black creature that is later turned white, the ability will not trigger.

309.3.

Abilities that trigger on a creature blocking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as a blocker. They will not trigger if a creature blocks, and then that creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition. They will not trigger if a creature is put into play blocking.

309.4.

Abilities that trigger on a creature becoming blocked trigger only at the first point the creature becomes blocked that combat. They will trigger if a creature becomes blocked by a creature declared as a blocker, by a creature that's put into play as a blocker, or by an effect, but only if the attacking creature hadn't yet been blocked that combat. They will not trigger if a creature becomes blocked, and then the blocking creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition.

Example: A creature has the ability "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a white creature, destroy that creature at end of combat." If that creature is blocked by a black creature that is later turned white, the ability will not trigger.

405.1.

A static ability does something all the time rather than being activated or triggered. The ability isn't played-it just "exists." Such abilities apply only while the ability is on a permanent in play, unless the ability is covered by rule 402.8 or rule 402.9.

405.1.

A static ability does something all the time rather than being activated or triggered. The ability isn't played-it just "exists." Such abilities apply only while the ability is on a permanent in play, unless the ability is covered by rule 402.8.

409.1a.

The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability. It moves from the zone it's in to the stack and remains there until it's countered or resolves. In the case of spells, the physical card goes onto the stack. In the case of activated abilities, the ability goes onto the stack without any card associated with it. Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the player who played the spell. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability.

409.1a.

The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability. It moves from the zone it's in to the stack and remains there until it's countered or resolves. In the case of spells, the physical card goes onto the stack. In the case of activated abilities, the ability goes onto the stack without any card associated with it. If the ability is being played from a hidden zone, the card with that ability is revealed. Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the player who played the spell. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability.

409.1i.

Once the steps described in 409.1a-409.1h are completed, the spell or ability becomes played. Any abilities that trigger on a spell or ability being played or put onto the stack trigger at this time. The spell or ability's controller gets priority.

409.1i.

Once the steps described in 409.1a-409.1h are completed, the spell or ability becomes played. Any abilities that trigger on a spell or ability being played or put onto the stack trigger at this time. If the spell or ability's controller had priority before playing it, he or she gets priority.

410.2.

Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability's trigger event, that ability triggers. When a phase or step begins, all abilities that trigger "at the beginning of" that phase or step trigger. The ability doesn't do anything when it triggers but automatically puts the ability on the stack as soon as a player would receive priority. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics.

410.2.

Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability's trigger event, that ability triggers. When a phase or step begins, all abilities that trigger "at the beginning of" that phase or step trigger. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. The ability doesn't do anything when it triggers, but it's automatically put on the stack by its controller as soon as a player would receive priority.

410.9a.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] blocks," or "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked," triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it blocks or is blocked by multiple creatures. An effect that causes the creature to become blocked (if the creature wasn't already blocked) will also trigger such abilities.

410.9a.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] blocks, . . ." triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it blocks multiple creatures. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker.

410.9b.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] blocks a creature" triggers once for each attacking creature the named creature blocks.

410.9b.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] blocks a creature, . . ." triggers once for each attacking creature the creature with the ability blocks. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker.

410.9c.

An ability that reads "Whenever a creature blocks [this creature]" triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature. It doesn't trigger if the attacking creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a blocking creature.

410.9c.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked, . . ." triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it's blocked by multiple creatures. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature, but only if it hadn't already been blocked that combat. It will trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.

410.9d.

If an ability triggers when a creature blocks or is blocked by a particular number of creatures, the ability triggers if the creature blocks or is blocked by that many creatures when the attack or block declaration is made. Effects that add or remove blockers can cause such abilities to trigger. This also applies to abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or being blocked by at least a certain number of creatures.

410.9d.

An ability that reads "Whenever a creature blocks [this creature], . . ." triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature, even if it had already been blocked that combat. It won't trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.

410.9e.

If an ability triggers when a creature blocks or becomes blocked by a particular number of creatures, the ability triggers if the creature blocks or is blocked by that many creatures when the attack or block declaration is made. Effects that add or remove blockers can cause such abilities to trigger. This also applies to abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or being blocked by at least a certain number of creatures.

410.10a.

Comes-into-play abilities trigger when a permanent enters the in-play zone. These are written, "When [this card] comes into play, . . . " or "Whenever a [type] comes into play, . . ." Each time an event puts one or more permanents into play, all permanents in play (including the newcomers) are checked for any comes-into-play triggers that match the event.

410.10a.

Comes-into-play abilities trigger when a permanent enters the in-play zone. These are written, "When [this object] comes into play, . . . " or "Whenever a [type] comes into play, . . ." Each time an event puts one or more permanents into play, all permanents in play (including the newcomers) are checked for any comes-into-play triggers that match the event.

502.26e.

If a face-up permanent is turned face down by a spell or ability, it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and a mana cost of {0}. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") The rules for morph and face-down permanents apply to it normally.

502.26e.

If a face-up permanent with morph is turned face down by a spell or ability, it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and a mana cost of {0}. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") The rules for morph and face-down permanents apply to it normally.

502.45d.

Auras with the "enchant player" ability can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can't target permanents and can't be attached to permanents. Rules 212.4d-i apply to an Aura with enchant player in relation to players as they normally would for permanents.

502.45d.

Auras that can enchant a player can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can't target permanents and can't be attached to permanents. Rules 212.4d-i apply to an Aura with the "enchant player" or "enchant opponent" ability in relation to players as they normally would for permanents.

502.53.

Forecast

502.53a.

A forecast ability is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player's hand. It's written "Forecast — [Activated ability]."

502.53b.

A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until the upkeep step ends or until it leaves the player's hand, whichever comes first.

502.54.

Graft

502.54a.

Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature comes into play, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature."

502.54b.

If a creature has multiple instances of graft, each one works separately.

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, "comes into play as" abilities, and any values set for face-down spells or permanents. Other effects (including type-changing effects) and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, "comes into play as" abilities, and abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and a mana cost of {0}. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

503.3.

The copied information becomes the copiable values for the copy, replacing its previous copiable values. Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, "As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains 'At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. If you do, this creature gains this ability.'" A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger's upkeep-triggered ability.

503.3.

The copy's copiable values become the copied information, as modified by the copy's status. Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, "As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains 'At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. If you do, this creature gains this ability.'" A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger's upkeep-triggered ability.

Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Tomoya's characteristics become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious, which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). The Demon's characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. However, since the creature is face down, it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and a mana cost of {0}. It can be turned face up for {G}. If it's turned face up, it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn't have morph). It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and a mana cost of {0}. Its controller can't turn it face up as a special action. If an effect turns it face up, it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.

504.2.

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allow the card, spell, or permanent to be face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") Objects that are put into play face down are turned face down before they come into play, so the permanent's comes-into-play abilities won't trigger (if triggered) or have any effect (if static). Objects that are played face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack, so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell's characteristics.

504.2.

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card, spell, or permanent to be turned face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") Objects that are put into play face down are turned face down before they come into play, so the permanent's comes-into-play abilities won't trigger (if triggered) or have any effect (if static). Objects that are played face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack, so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell's characteristics.

504.7.

If a face-down permanent becomes a copy of another permanent, its copiable values become the copiable values of that permanent, as modified by its face-down status. Its characteristics therefore remain the same: the characteristics listed by the ability or rules that allowed it to be turned face down. However, if it is turned face up, its copiable values become the values it copied from the other permanent.

505.3.

Because every split card consists of two halves with different colored mana symbols in their mana costs, each split card is a multicolored card except while it's a spell on the stack. While it's a spell on the stack, it's only the color of the half being played.

505.3.

Because every split card consists of two halves with different colored mana symbols in their mana costs, each split card is a multicolored card while it's not a spell on the stack. While it's a spell on the stack, it's only the color or colors of the half being played.

505.5.

Effects that ask for a particular characteristic of a split card while it's in a zone other than the stack get an answer that consists of a combination of the split card's two halves.

Example: Infernal Genesis has an ability that reads, "At the beginning of each player's upkeep, that player puts the top card from his or her library into his or her graveyard. He or she then puts X 1/1 black Minion creature tokens into play, where X is that card's converted mana cost." If the top card of your library is Assault/Battery when this ability resolves, you get five 1/1 creature tokens because Assault's converted mana cost is 1 and Battery's is 4, for a total of 5.

505.5.

Effects that ask for a particular characteristic of a split card while it's in a zone other than the stack get two answers (one for each of the split card's two halves).

Example: Infernal Genesis has an ability that reads, "At the beginning of each player's upkeep, that player puts the top card from his or her library into his or her graveyard. He or she then puts X 1/1 black Minion creature tokens into play, where X is that card's converted mana cost." If the top card of your library is Assault/Battery when this ability resolves, the game sees its converted mana cost as "1, and 4." You get five creature tokens.

505.6.

Effects that ask if a split card's characteristic (in any zone other than the stack) matches a given value get only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of the split card matches the given value.

Example: Void reads, "Choose a number. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number." If a player plays Void and chooses 1 or 4, his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery. If the player chooses 5, Assault/Battery would be unaffected, because neither half has a converted mana cost of 5.

505.6.

Effects that ask if a split card's characteristic (in any zone other than the stack) matches a given value get only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of the split card matches the given value.

Example: Void reads, "Choose a number. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number." If a player plays Void and chooses 1, his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because the game sees its converted mana cost as "1, and 4." The same is true if the player chooses 4. If the player chooses 5, however, Assault/Battery would be unaffected.

508.1b.

The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent has been flipped.

508.1b.

The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped.

508.1c.

A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent has been flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply.

508.1c.

A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply.

508.2.

In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone has been flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says "search for library for a legendary card" can't find this flip card. An effect that says "legendary creatures get +2/+2" doesn't affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.

508.2.

In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says "search for library for a legendary card" can't find this flip card. An effect that says "legendary creatures get +2/+2" doesn't affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.

508.3.

If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent has flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects.

508.3.

If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects.

508.4.

Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent has been flipped, it's impossible to flip the permanent back again. However, if a flipped permanent leaves play, it forgets its previous existence.

508.4.

Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it's impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if a flipped permanent leaves play, it retains no memory of its status.

510.

Status

510.1.

A permanent's "status" is its physical state. There are three status categories, each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped, flipped/unflipped, and face up/face down. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories.

510.2.

Status is not a characteristic, though it may affect a permanent's characteristics.

510.3.

Permanents come into play untapped, unflipped, and face up unless a spell or ability says otherwise.

510.4.

A permanent retains its status until a spell, ability, or game action changes it, even if that status is not relevant to it.

Example: Dimir Doppelganger says "{1}{U}{B}: Remove target creature card in a graveyard from the game. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability." It becomes a copy of Jushi Apprentice, a flip card. Through use of Jushi Apprentice's ability, this creature flips, making it a copy of Tomoya the Revealer with the Dimir Doppelganger ability. If this permanent then becomes a copy of Grizzly Bears, it will retain its flipped status even though that has no relevance to Grizzly Bears. If its copy ability is activated again, this time targeting a Nezumi Shortfang card (another flip card), this permanent's flipped status means it will have the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious (the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang) with the Dimir Doppelganger ability.

510.5.

Only permanents have status. Cards not in play do not. Although a card in the removed-from-the-game zone may be face down, this has no correlation to the face-down status of a permanent.

510.6.

A permanent that phases out remembers its status, as well as other information about the permanent (such as who controls it or whether it has any counters on it). It will phase in with the same status it had when it phased out. If it was face down when it phased out, it will stay face down in the phased-out zone.

606.8a.

If a team's life total is 0 or less, the team loses the game the next time a team would receive priority. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.

606.8a.

If a team's life total is 0 or less, the team loses the game the next time a team would receive priority. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. However, if an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Guildpact (tm) set, is as follows: Equipment.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. However, if an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Dissension (tm) set, is as follows: Equipment.

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Guildpact set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cavalry, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dandan, Demon, Dervish, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Flying-Men, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gaea's-Liege, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin,Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hunter, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mistfolk, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mosquito, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Sindbad, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Sponge, Sprite, Spuzzem, Spy, Squire, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Taskmaster, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Uncle-Istvan, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Dissension set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cavalry, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dandan, Demon, Dervish, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Flying-Men, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gaea's-Liege, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin,Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hunter, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mistfolk, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mosquito, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Sindbad, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Sponge, Sprite, Spuzzem, Spy, Squire, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Taskmaster, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Uncle-Istvan, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Dual Land (Informal)

The Ravnica: City of Guilds (tm) and Guildpact sets and early Magic core sets contain "dual lands"; each of these has two basic land types. For example, Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those types. However, they are not basic lands. A dual land doesn't count as two lands while in play-it's just one land with multiple land types.

Dual Land (Informal)

The Ravnica (tm) block and early Magic core sets contain "dual lands"; each of these has two basic land types. For example, Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those types. However, they are not basic lands. A dual land doesn't count as two lands while in play-it's just one land with multiple land types.

Enchant Opponent, Enchant Player

Auras with the "enchant opponent" or "enchant player" ability can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can't target permanents and can't be attached to permanents. Rules 212.4d-i apply to an Aura with enchant player or enchant opponent in relation to players as they normally would for permanents. See also Aura, Enchant.

Enchant Player

Auras with the "enchant player" ability can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can't target permanents and can't be attached to permanents. Rules 212.4d-i apply to an Aura with enchant player in relation to players as they normally would for permanents. See also Aura, Enchant.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Guildpact set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Dissension set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Face Down

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allow the card, spell, or permanent to be face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. At any time, you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack, a face-down permanent you control, or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. You can't look at face-down cards in any other zone, face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player, or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. The ability or rules that allow a permanent to be face down may also allow the permanent's controller to turn it face up. Spells normally can't be turned face up. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play, you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," and rule 502.26, "Morph."

Face Down

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card, spell, or permanent to be turned face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. At any time, you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack, a face-down permanent you control, or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. You can't look at face-down cards in any other zone, face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player, or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. The ability or rules that allowed a permanent to be turned face down may also allow the permanent's controller to turn it face up. Spells normally can't be turned face up. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play, you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," and rule 502.26, "Morph."

Flip Cards

Flip cards, such as the "heroes" from the Champions of Kamigawa set, have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card's normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. See rule 508, "Flip Cards." The top half of a flip card contains the card's normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to "flip" if certain conditions are met. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent has been flipped. A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent has been flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply. In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone has been flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent has flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent has been flipped, it's impossible to flip the permanent back again. However, if flipped permanent leaves play, it forgets its previous existence.

Flip Cards

Flip cards, such as the "heroes" from the Champions of Kamigawa set, have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card's normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. See rule 508, "Flip Cards." The top half of a flip card contains the card's normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to "flip" if certain conditions are met. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply. In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it's impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if flipped permanent leaves play, it retains no memory of its status.

Forecast

Forecast is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player's hand. It's written "Forecast — [Activated ability]." A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until the upkeep step ends or until it leaves the player's hand, whichever comes first.

Graft

Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature comes into play, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature." If a creature has multiple instances of graft, each one works separately.

Half-Half Mana Symbols

Each of the half-half mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue.

Hybrid Mana Symbols

Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. (A previous version of these rules referred to hybrid mana symbols as half-half mana symbols.)

Instant Type

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. The list of instant types, updated through the Guildpact set, is as follows: Arcane.

Instant Type

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. The list of instant types, updated through the Dissension set, is as follows: Arcane.

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Guildpact set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Dissension set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, {Z} and the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on, and the half-half symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the half-half mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. See rule 104.3f.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, {Z} and the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on, and the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. See rule 104.3f.

Monocolored

A monocolored card has exactly one color. A colorless card isn't monocolored.

Power

The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is the creature's power. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power. See rule 310, "Combat Damage Step." Some objects have power represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-setting ability that sets its power according to some stated condition. The * is 0 while the object isn't in play.

Power

The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its power. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power. See rule 310, "Combat Damage Step." Some creature cards have power represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-setting ability that sets its power according to some stated condition. The * is 0 while the object isn't in play. A noncreature permanent has no power, even if it's a card with a power printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Priority

The player who has the option to play a spell or ability at any given time has priority. See rule 408, "Timing of Spells and Abilities." Each time a spell, an ability (other than a mana ability), or combat damage resolves, and at the beginning of most phases and steps, the active player receives priority. After a player plays a spell, ability, or land, or takes a special action, he or she again receives priority. When a player passes, his or her opponent receives priority. If all players pass in succession, the spell, ability, or combat damage on top of the stack resolves or, if the stack is empty, the phase or step ends. Each time a player would get priority, all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420). Then, if any new state-based effects have been generated, they resolve as a single event. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410). These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated. In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, teams rather than individual players have priority. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Priority

The player who has the option to play a spell or ability at any given time has priority. See rule 408, "Timing of Spells and Abilities." Each time a spell, an ability (other than a mana ability), or combat damage resolves, and at the beginning of most phases and steps, the active player receives priority. If a player has priority when he or she plays a spell, ability, or land, or takes a special action, he or she receives priority afterward. When a player passes in a two-player game, his or her opponent receives priority. If all players pass in succession, the spell, ability, or combat damage on top of the stack resolves or, if the stack is empty, the phase or step ends. Each time a player would get priority, all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420). Then, if any new state-based effects have been generated, they resolve as a single event. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410). These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated. In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, teams rather than individual players have priority. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Sorcery Type

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. The list of sorcery types, updated through the Guildpact set, is as follows: Arcane.

Sorcery Type

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. The list of sorcery types, updated through the Dissension set, is as follows: Arcane.

Split Cards

Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal, full-size Magic card back. Split cards have two sets of characteristics: two names, two mana costs, and so on. They always have both sets, except when they're spells on the stack. When you play a split card, you announce which side you're playing. While it's on the stack, the other side is ignored completely. See rule 505, "Split Cards." Split cards have two mana costs with different colors of mana in them. That means they are multicolored cards, except while they're on the stack. If an effect tells you to name a card, you must name all of a split card's names. Effects that ask for a split card's characteristic get both answers. Effects that ask if a split card's characteristic matches a given value get only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of the split card matches the given value.

Split Cards

Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal, full-size Magic card back. Split cards have two sets of characteristics: two names, two mana costs, and so on. They always have both sets, except when they're spells on the stack. When you play a split card, you announce which side you're playing. While it's on the stack, the other side is ignored completely. See rule 505, "Split Cards." Split cards have two mana costs with different colors of mana in them. That means they are multicolored cards while they're not on the stack. A split card is a multicolored card on the stack only if the half that's been played is multicolored. If an effect tells you to name a card, you must name all of a split card's names. Effects that ask for a split card's characteristic get both answers. Effects that ask if a split card's characteristic matches a given value get only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of the split card matches the given value.

Status

A permanent's status is its physical state. There are three status categories, each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped, flipped/unflipped, and face up/face down. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories. Status is not a characteristic, though it may affect a permanent's characteristics. Permanents come into play untapped, unflipped, and face up unless a spell or ability says otherwise.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updates through the Guildpact set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow-covered, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Dissension set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow-covered, and world.

Tapped

A permanent that's turned sideways is tapped. Tapping permanents shows that they've been used. Permanents untap during their controllers' untap steps. See also Tap, Untap, and Untapped.

Tapped

A permanent that's turned sideways is tapped. Tapping permanents shows that they've been used. Permanents untap during their controllers' untap steps. See also Status, Tap, Untap, and Untapped.

Toughness

The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is the creature's toughness. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." A creature that's been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has lethal damage and will be destroyed the next time any player would receive priority. This is a state-based effect. Some objects have toughness represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-setting ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. The * is 0 while the object isn't in play.

Toughness

The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its toughness. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." A creature that's been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has lethal damage and will be destroyed the next time any player would receive priority. This is a state-based effect. Some creature cards have toughness represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-setting ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. The * is 0 while the object isn't in play. A noncreature permanent has no toughness, even if it's a card with a toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Unblocked

A creature is unblocked if it's attacking and no creature blocked it during the declare blockers step of the current combat phase. It remains an unblocked creature until an effect causes it to become blocked, it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. Unblocked creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase or before the declare blockers step. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step."

Unblocked Creature

An attacking creature becomes an unblocked creature during the declare blockers step of the combat phase if no creature blocks it. It remains an unblocked creature until an effect causes it to become blocked, it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. Unblocked creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase or before the declare blockers step. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step."