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Magic Rules Changes

Planechase to Zendikar

General

PlanechaseZendikar
101.2a.101.2a.

Adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don't fall under this rule; see rule 112.9.

Adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don't fall under this rule; see rule 112.10.

103.3b.

In a Vanguard game, each player sets his or her life total to 20, as modified by the life modifier of his or her vanguard card, and draws a hand of seven cards, as modified by the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.

103.3c.

In an EDH game, each player sets his or her life total to 40.

103.4.103.4.

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may take a mulligan. First, the starting player declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then each other player in turn order does the same. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her deck, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than he or she had before. If a player kept his or her hand of cards, those cards become the player's opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player's hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.)

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may take a mulligan. First, the starting player declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then each other player in turn order does the same. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her library, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than he or she had before. If a player kept his or her hand of cards, those cards become the player's opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player's hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.)

103.4b.103.4b.

In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.

In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of as many cards as he or she had before. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.

103.4d.

The EDH casual variant uses an alternate mulligan rule. Each time a player takes a mulligan, rather than shuffling his or her entire hand of cards into his or her library, that player exiles any number of cards from his or her hand. Then the player draws a number of cards equal to one less than the number of cards he or she exiled this way. Once a player keeps an opening hand, that player shuffles all cards he or she exiled this way into his or her library.

104.3i.

In an Emperor game, a team loses the game if its emperor loses the game. (See rule 807.)

104.3j.

In an EDH game, a player that's been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same general over the course of the game loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704. Also see rule 903.)

104.3i.104.3k.

In a tournament game, a player can be awarded a Game Loss or a Match Loss by a judge. See rule 100.6.

In a tournament game, a player can be awarded a Game Loss or a Match Loss by a judge. See rule 100.6.

104.4d.104.4d.

In a multiplayer game between teams, the game is a draw if all remaining teams lose at once.

In a multiplayer game between teams, the game is a draw if all remaining teams lose simultaneously.

104.4g.

In the Emperor variant, the game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor. See rule 807.5.

109.2c.109.2c.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word "source," it means a source matching that description—either a source of an ability or a source of damage—in any zone. See rule 608.7.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word "source," it means a source matching that description—either a source of an ability or a source of damage—in any zone. See rule 609.7.

109.3.109.3.

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, toughness, and loyalty. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn't a characteristic. For example, characteristics don't include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell's target, an object's owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, toughness, loyalty, hand modifier, and life modifier. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn't a characteristic. For example, characteristics don't include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell's target, an object's owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

109.4.109.4.

Only objects on the stack or on the battlefield have a controller. Objects that are neither on the stack nor on the battlefield aren't controlled by any player. See rule 108.4.

Only objects on the stack or on the battlefield have a controller. Objects that are neither on the stack nor on the battlefield aren't controlled by any player. See rule 108.4. There are two exceptions to this rule:

109.4a.

In a Planar Magic game, a face-up plane card is controlled by the player designated as the planar controller. This is usually the active player. See rule 901.6.

109.4b.

In a Vanguard game, each vanguard card is controlled by its owner. See rule 902.6.

110.3.110.3.

A nontoken permanent's characteristics are the same as those printed on its card, as modified by any continuous effects. See rule 612, "Interaction of Continuous Effects."

A nontoken permanent's characteristics are the same as those printed on its card, as modified by any continuous effects. See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects."

111.1.111.1.

A spell is a card on the stack. As the first step of being cast (see rule 601, "Casting Spells"), the card becomes a spell and is moved to the top of the stack from the zone it was in, which is usually its owner's hand. (See rule 405, "Stack.") A spell remains on the stack as a spell until it resolves (see rule 607, "Resolving Spells and Abilities"), is countered (see rule 701.5), or otherwise leaves the stack. For more information, see section 6, "Spells, Abilities, and Effects."

A spell is a card on the stack. As the first step of being cast (see rule 601, "Casting Spells"), the card becomes a spell and is moved to the top of the stack from the zone it was in, which is usually its owner's hand. (See rule 405, "Stack.") A spell remains on the stack as a spell until it resolves (see rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities"), is countered (see rule 701.5), or otherwise leaves the stack. For more information, see section 6, "Spells, Abilities, and Effects."

111.3.111.3.

A noncopy spell's characteristics are the same as those printed on its card, as modified by any continuous effects. See rule 612, "Interaction of Continuous Effects."

A noncopy spell's characteristics are the same as those printed on its card, as modified by any continuous effects. See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects."

112.1a.112.1a.

An ability is a characteristic an object has that lets it affect the game. An object's abilities are defined by its rules text or by the effect that created it. Abilities can also be granted to objects by rules or effects. (Effects that do so use the words "has," "have," "gains," or "gain.") Abilities generate effects. (See rule 608, "Effects.")

An ability is a characteristic an object has that lets it affect the game. An object's abilities are defined by its rules text or by the effect that created it. Abilities can also be granted to objects by rules or effects. (Effects that do so use the words "has," "have," "gains," or "gain.") Abilities generate effects. (See rule 609, "Effects.")

112.2d.112.2d.

Abilities can generate one-shot effects or continuous effects. Some continuous effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. See rule 608, "Effects."

Abilities can generate one-shot effects or continuous effects. Some continuous effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. See rule 609, "Effects."

112.5.

Some activated abilities are loyalty abilities. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of that permanent's loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, "Loyalty Abilities."

112.5.112.6.

Abilities of an instant or sorcery spell usually function only while that object is on the stack. Abilities of all other objects usually function only while that object is on the battlefield. The exceptions are as follows:

Abilities of an instant or sorcery spell usually function only while that object is on the stack. Abilities of all other objects usually function only while that object is on the battlefield. The exceptions are as follows:

112.5a.112.6a.

Characteristic-defining abilities function everywhere, even outside the game. (See rule 604.3.)

Characteristic-defining abilities function everywhere, even outside the game. (See rule 604.3.)

112.5b.112.6b.

An ability that states which zones it functions in functions only from those zones.

An ability that states which zones it functions in functions only from those zones.

112.5c.112.6c.

An object's ability that modifies what that particular object costs to cast functions on the stack.

An object's ability that modifies what that particular object costs to cast functions on the stack.

112.5d.112.6d.

An object's ability that restricts or modifies how that particular object can be played or cast functions in any zone from which it could be played or cast.

An object's ability that restricts or modifies how that particular object can be played or cast functions in any zone from which it could be played or cast.

112.5e.112.6e.

An object's ability that restricts or modifies what zones that particular object can be played or cast from functions in all zones.

An object's ability that restricts or modifies what zones that particular object can be played or cast from functions in all zones.

112.5f.112.6f.

An object's ability that modifies how that particular object enters the battlefield functions as that object is entering the battlefield. See rule 613.12.

An object's ability that modifies how that particular object enters the battlefield functions as that object is entering the battlefield. See rule 614.12.

112.5g.112.6g.

An object's activated ability that has a cost that can't be paid while the object is on the battlefield functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid.

An object's activated ability that has a cost that can't be paid while the object is on the battlefield functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid.

112.5h.112.6h.

A trigger condition that can't trigger from the battlefield functions in all zones it can trigger from. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull enters the battlefield or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition triggers from the battlefield and the second trigger condition functions from the exile zone. (See rule 702.52, "Haunt.")

A trigger condition that can't trigger from the battlefield functions in all zones it can trigger from. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull enters the battlefield or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition triggers from the battlefield and the second trigger condition functions from the exile zone. (See rule 702.52, "Haunt.")

112.5i.112.6i.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to the battlefield. Activate this ability only during your upkeep." A player may activate this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to the battlefield. Activate this ability only during your upkeep." A player may activate this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

112.5j.112.6j.

An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules, but also the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format. However, such an ability can't affect the format legality of a card, including whether it's banned or restricted. The current Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules can be found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home.

An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules, but also the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format. However, such an ability can't affect the format legality of a card, including whether it's banned or restricted. The current Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules can be found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home.

112.5k.112.6k.

Abilities of plane cards function in the command zone. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

Abilities of plane cards and vanguard cards function in the command zone. See rule 901, "Planar Magic," and rule 902, "Vanguard."

112.6.112.7.

The source of an ability on the stack is the object that generated that ability. For an activated ability, it's the object whose ability was activated. For a triggered ability (other than a delayed triggered ability), it's the object whose ability triggered. For a delayed triggered ability created by a spell, it's that spell. For a delayed triggered ability created by another ability, it's the source of that other ability.

The source of an ability on the stack is the object that generated that ability. For an activated ability, it's the object whose ability was activated. For a triggered ability (other than a delayed triggered ability), it's the object whose ability triggered. For a delayed triggered ability created by a spell, it's that spell. For a delayed triggered ability created by another ability, it's the source of that other ability.

112.6a.112.7a.

Once activated or triggered, an ability exists on the stack independently of its source. Destruction or removal of the source after that time won't affect the ability. Note that some abilities cause a source to do something (for example, "Prodigal Sorcerer deals 1 damage to target creature or player") rather than the ability doing anything directly. In these cases, any activated or triggered ability that references information about the source because the effect needs to be divided checks that information when the ability is put onto the stack. Otherwise, it will check that information when it resolves. In both instances, if the source is no longer in the zone it's expected to be in at that time, its last known information is used. The source can still perform the action even though it no longer exists.

Once activated or triggered, an ability exists on the stack independently of its source. Destruction or removal of the source after that time won't affect the ability. Note that some abilities cause a source to do something (for example, "Prodigal Sorcerer deals 1 damage to target creature or player") rather than the ability doing anything directly. In these cases, any activated or triggered ability that references information about the source because the effect needs to be divided checks that information when the ability is put onto the stack. Otherwise, it will check that information when it resolves. In both instances, if the source is no longer in the zone it's expected to be in at that time, its last known information is used. The source can still perform the action even though it no longer exists.

112.7.112.8.

The controller of an activated ability on the stack is the player who activated it. The controller of a triggered ability on the stack (other than a delayed triggered ability) is the player who controlled the ability's source when it triggered, or, if it had no controller, the player who owned the ability's source when it triggered. The controller of a delayed triggered ability on the stack is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.

The controller of an activated ability on the stack is the player who activated it. The controller of a triggered ability on the stack (other than a delayed triggered ability) is the player who controlled the ability's source when it triggered, or, if it had no controller, the player who owned the ability's source when it triggered. The controller of a delayed triggered ability on the stack is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.

112.8.112.9.

Activated and triggered abilities on the stack aren't spells, and therefore can't be countered by anything that counters only spells. Activated and triggered abilities on the stack can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities, as well as by the rules (for example, an ability with one or more targets is countered if all its targets become illegal). Static abilities don't use the stack and thus can't be countered at all.

Activated and triggered abilities on the stack aren't spells, and therefore can't be countered by anything that counters only spells. Activated and triggered abilities on the stack can be countered by effects that specifically counter abilities, as well as by the rules (for example, an ability with one or more targets is countered if all its targets become illegal). Static abilities don't use the stack and thus can't be countered at all.

112.9.112.10.

Effects can add or remove abilities of objects. An effect that adds an ability will state that the object "gains" or "has" that ability. An effect that removes an ability will state that the object "loses" that ability. Effects that remove an ability remove all instances of it. If two or more effects add and remove the same ability, in general the most recent one prevails. (See rule 612, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

Effects can add or remove abilities of objects. An effect that adds an ability will state that the object "gains" or "has" that ability. An effect that removes an ability will state that the object "loses" that ability. Effects that remove an ability remove all instances of it. If two or more effects add and remove the same ability, in general the most recent one prevails. (See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

112.10.112.11.

An effect that sets an object's characteristic, or simply states a quality of that object, is different from an ability granted by an effect. When an object "gains" or "has" an ability, that ability can be removed by another effect. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object ("[permanent] is [characteristic value]"), it's not granting an ability. (See rule 604.3.)

Example: Muraganda Petroglyphs reads, "Creatures with no abilities get +2/+2." A Runeclaw Bear (a creature with no abilities) enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature has flying" would not get +2/+2. A Runeclaw Bear enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature is red" or "Enchanted creature is indestructible" would get +2/+2.

An effect that sets an object's characteristic, or simply states a quality of that object, is different from an ability granted by an effect. When an object "gains" or "has" an ability, that ability can be removed by another effect. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object ("[permanent] is [characteristic value]"), it's not granting an ability. (See rule 604.3.)

Example: Muraganda Petroglyphs reads, "Creatures with no abilities get +2/+2." A Runeclaw Bear (a creature with no abilities) enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature has flying" would not get +2/+2. A Runeclaw Bear enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature is red" or "Enchanted creature is indestructible" would get +2/+2.

113.9.113.9.

Spells and abilities can affect objects and players they don't target. In general, those objects and players aren't chosen until the spell or ability resolves. See rule 607, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

Spells and abilities can affect objects and players they don't target. In general, those objects and players aren't chosen until the spell or ability resolves. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

115.1.115.1.

Which player can take actions at any given time is determined by a system of priority. The player with priority may cast spells, activate abilities, and take special actions.

Unless a spell or ability is instructing a player to take an action, which player can take actions at any given time is determined by a system of priority. The player with priority may cast spells, activate abilities, and take special actions.

115.2.115.2.

Other kinds of abilities and actions are automatically generated or performed by the game rules.

Other kinds of abilities and actions are automatically generated or performed by the game rules, or are performed by players without receiving priority.

115.2b.115.2b.

Static abilities continuously affect the game. Priority doesn't apply to them. (See rule 604, "Handling Static Abilities," and rule 610, "Continuous Effects.")

Static abilities continuously affect the game. Priority doesn't apply to them. (See rule 604, "Handling Static Abilities," and rule 611, "Continuous Effects.")

115.2e.

Resolving spells and abilities may instruct players to make choices or take actions, or may allow players to activate mana abilities. Even if a player is doing so, no player has priority while a spell or ability is resolving. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

115.7.115.7.

If a player with priority casts a spell or activates an activated ability while another spell or ability is already on the stack, the new spell or ability has been cast or activated "in response to" the earlier spell or ability. The new spell or ability will resolve first. See rule 607, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

If a player with priority casts a spell or activates an activated ability while another spell or ability is already on the stack, the new spell or ability has been cast or activated "in response to" the earlier spell or ability. The new spell or ability will resolve first. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

117.1.117.1.

Each player begins the game with a life total of 20. In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead; see rule 806, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Each player begins the game with a life total of 20.

117.1a.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead; see rule 806, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

117.1b.

In a Vanguard game, each player begins the game with a starting life total of 20, as modified by his or her vanguard card's life modifier. See rule 902, "Vanguard."

117.1c.

In an EDH game, each player begins the game with a starting life total of 40 instead; see rule 903, "EDH."

118.4a.118.4a.

First, damage is dealt, as modified by replacement and prevention effects that interact with damage. (See rule 613, "Replacement Effects," and rule 614, "Prevention Effects.") Abilities that trigger when damage is dealt trigger now and wait to be put on the stack.

First, damage is dealt, as modified by replacement and prevention effects that interact with damage. (See rule 614, "Replacement Effects," and rule 615, "Prevention Effects.") Abilities that trigger when damage is dealt trigger now and wait to be put on the stack.

118.7.118.7.

The source of damage is the object that dealt it. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a prevention or replacement effect that's waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or, in certain casual variant games, a face-up card in the command zone. A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. See rule 608.7, "Sources of Damage."

The source of damage is the object that dealt it. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a prevention or replacement effect that's waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or, in certain casual variant games, a face-up card in the command zone. A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. See rule 609.7, "Sources of Damage."

120.1a.120.1a.

A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. See rule 612.3.

A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. See rule 613.3.

200.1.200.1.

The parts of a card are name, mana cost, illustration, type line, expansion symbol, text box, power and toughness, loyalty, illustration credit, legal text, and collector number. Some cards may have more than one of any or all of these parts.

The parts of a card are name, mana cost, illustration, type line, expansion symbol, text box, power and toughness, loyalty, hand modifier, life modifier, illustration credit, legal text, and collector number. Some cards may have more than one of any or all of these parts.

204.2a.204.2a.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal. See section 3, "Card Types."

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, sorcery, tribal, and vanguard. See section 3, "Card Types."

204.3i.204.3i.

Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types. The planeswalker types are Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Elspeth, Garruk, Jace, Liliana, Sarkhan, and Tezzeret. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based action. See rule 704.

Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types. The planeswalker types are Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Elspeth, Garruk, Jace, Liliana, Nissa, Sarkhan, Sorin, and Tezzeret. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based action. See rule 704.

204.3j.204.3j.

Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. The only spell type at this time is Arcane.

Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. The spell types are Arcane and Trap.

204.3k.204.3k.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Ally, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

204.3n.

Vanguard cards have no subtypes.

206.2c.206.2c.

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The ability words are channel, chroma, domain, grandeur, hellbent, imprint, kinship, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The ability words are channel, chroma, domain, grandeur, hellbent, imprint, kinship, landfall, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

207.2b.207.2b.

The card may have a static ability that creates a replacement effect that sets the creature's power and toughness to one of a number of specific choices as it enters the battlefield or is turned face up. (See rule 613, "Replacement Effects.") Such an ability is worded "As [this creature] enters the battlefield . . . ," "As [this creature] is turned face up . . . ," or "[This creature] enters the battlefield as . . ." and lists two or more specific power and toughness values (and may also list additional characteristics). The characteristics chosen with these effects affect the creature's copiable values; see rule 706.2. While the card isn't on the battlefield, its power and toughness are each considered to be 0.

The card may have a static ability that creates a replacement effect that sets the creature's power and toughness to one of a number of specific choices as it enters the battlefield or is turned face up. (See rule 614, "Replacement Effects.") Such an ability is worded "As [this creature] enters the battlefield . . . ," "As [this creature] is turned face up . . . ," or "[This creature] enters the battlefield as . . ." and lists two or more specific power and toughness values (and may also list additional characteristics). The characteristics chosen with these effects affect the creature's copiable values; see rule 706.2. While the card isn't on the battlefield, its power and toughness are each considered to be 0.

208.2.

An activated ability with a loyalty symbol in its cost is a loyalty ability. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of that permanent's loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, "Loyalty Abilities."

209.

Hand Modifier

209.1.

Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the maximum hand size of the vanguard card's owner (normally seven) to determine both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and his or her maximum hand size.

210.

Life Modifier

210.1.

Each vanguard card has a life modifier printed in its lower right corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting life total of the vanguard card's owner (normally 20) to determine how much life that player begins the game with.

209.211.

Information Below the Text Box

Information Below the Text Box

209.1.211.1.

Each card features text printed below the text box that has no effect on game play.

Each card features text printed below the text box that has no effect on game play.

209.1a.211.1a.

The illustration credit for a card is printed on the first line below the text box. It follows the paintbrush icon or, on older cards, the abbreviation "Illus."

The illustration credit for a card is printed on the first line below the text box. It follows the paintbrush icon or, on older cards, the abbreviation "Illus."

209.1b.211.1b.

Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information.

Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information.

209.1c.211.1c.

Some card sets feature collector numbers. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set], immediately following the legal text.

Some card sets feature collector numbers. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set], immediately following the legal text.

300.1.300.1.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, sorcery, tribal, and vanguard.

302.4c.302.4c.

To determine a creature's power and toughness, start with the numbers printed in its lower right corner, then apply any applicable continuous effects. (See rule 612, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

To determine a creature's power and toughness, start with the numbers printed in its lower right corner, then apply any applicable continuous effects. (See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

303.4c.303.4c.

An Aura can't enchant itself, and an Aura that's also a creature can't enchant anything. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

An Aura can't enchant itself. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. An Aura that's also a creature can't enchant anything. If this occurs somehow, the Aura becomes unattached, then is put into its owner's graveyard. (These are state-based actions. See rule 704.)

306.5b.306.5b.

A planeswalker is treated as if its text box included, "This permanent enters the battlefield with a number of loyalty counters on it equal to its printed loyalty number." This ability creates a replacement effect (see rule 613.1c).

A planeswalker is treated as if its text box included, "This permanent enters the battlefield with a number of loyalty counters on it equal to its printed loyalty number." This ability creates a replacement effect (see rule 614.1c).

306.7.306.5d.

A player may activate an ability of a planeswalker he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of its activated abilities have been activated that turn.

Each planeswalker has a number of loyalty abilities, which are activated abilities with loyalty symbols in their costs. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of that permanent's loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, "Loyalty Abilities."

306.8.306.7.

If noncombat damage would be dealt to a player by a source controlled by an opponent, that opponent may have that source deal that damage to a planeswalker the first player controls instead. This is a redirection effect (see rule 613.9) and is subject to the normal rules for ordering replacement effects (see rule 615). The opponent chooses whether to redirect the damage as the redirection effect is applied.

If noncombat damage would be dealt to a player by a source controlled by an opponent, that opponent may have that source deal that damage to a planeswalker the first player controls instead. This is a redirection effect (see rule 614.9) and is subject to the normal rules for ordering replacement effects (see rule 616). The opponent chooses whether to redirect the damage as the redirection effect is applied.

306.7a.

The cost to activate an ability of a planeswalker is to put on or remove from that planeswalker a certain number of loyalty counters, as shown by the loyalty symbol in the ability's cost.

306.7b.

An ability with a negative loyalty cost can't be activated unless the planeswalker has at least that many loyalty counters on it.

306.9.306.8.

Damage dealt to a planeswalker results in that many loyalty counters being removed from it.

Damage dealt to a planeswalker results in that many loyalty counters being removed from it.

306.10.306.9.

If a planeswalker's loyalty is 0, it's put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based action. See rule 704.

If a planeswalker's loyalty is 0, it's put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based action. See rule 704.

310.

Vanguards

310.1.

Vanguard is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Vanguard casual variant uses vanguards. See Section 902, "Vanguard."

310.2.

Vanguard cards remain in the command zone throughout the game. They're not permanents. They can't be cast. If a vanguard card would leave the command zone, it remains in the command zone.

310.3.

Vanguard cards have no subtypes.

310.4.

A vanguard card may have any number of static, triggered, and/or activated abilities. As long as a vanguard card is in the command zone, its static abilities affect the game, its triggered abilities may trigger, and its activated abilities may be activated.

310.5.

The owner of a vanguard card is the player who started the game with it in the command zone. The controller of a face-up vanguard card is its owner.

310.6.

Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the maximum hand size of the vanguard card's owner (normally seven) to determine both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and his or her maximum hand size.

310.7.

Each vanguard card has a life modifier printed in its lower right corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting life total of the vanguard card's owner (normally 20) to determine how much life that player begins the game with.

401.6.401.6.

Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. If the top card of the player's library changes while a spell is being cast, the new top card won't be revealed until the spell becomes cast (see rule 601.2h). The same is true with relation to an ability being activated.

Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed, or say that a player may look at the top card of his or her library. If the top card of the player's library changes while a spell is being cast, the new top card won't be revealed and can't be looked at until the spell becomes cast (see rule 601.2h). The same is true with relation to an ability being activated.

406.5.406.5.

An object may have one ability printed on it that causes one or more cards to be exiled, and another ability that refers either to "the exiled cards" or to cards "exiled with [this object]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards that have been exiled due to the first. See rule 606, "Linked Abilities."

An object may have one ability printed on it that causes one or more cards to be exiled, and another ability that refers either to "the exiled cards" or to cards "exiled with [this object]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards that have been exiled due to the first. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

408.1.408.1.

In certain casual variants, nontraditional Magic cards start the game in the command zone. Each variant has its own rules regarding such cards. See Section 9, "Casual Variants."

In certain casual variants, nontraditional Magic cards and/or specially designated cards start the game in the command zone. Each variant has its own rules regarding such cards. See Section 9, "Casual Variants."

500.10.500.10.

Some effects can cause a step, phase, or turn to be skipped. To skip a step, phase, or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn't exist. See rule 613.10.

Some effects can cause a step, phase, or turn to be skipped. To skip a step, phase, or turn is to proceed past it as though it didn't exist. See rule 614.10.

510.1f.

Once a player has assigned combat damage from each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls, the total damage assignment is checked to see if it complies with the above rules. If it doesn't, the combat damage assignment was illegal; the game returns to the moment before that player began to assign combat damage. (See rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions").

511.3.511.3.

As soon as the end of combat step ends, all creatures and planeswalkers are removed from combat. After the end of combat step ends, the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins (see rule 505).

As soon as the end of combat step ends, all creatures and planeswalkers (including those that are phased out) are removed from combat. After the end of combat step ends, the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins (see rule 505).

601.2c.601.2c.

The player announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each target the spell requires. A spell may require some targets only if an alternative, additional, or special cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost), or a particular mode, was chosen for it; otherwise, the spell is cast as though it did not have those targets. If the spell has a variable number of targets, the player announces how many targets he or she will choose before he or she announces those targets. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell. However, if the spell uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).The chosen players, objects, and/or zones each become a target of that spell. (Any abilities that trigger when those players, objects, and/or zones become the target of a spell trigger at this point; they'll wait to be put on the stack until the spell has finished being cast.)

Example: If a spell says "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the spell requires two different legal targets. A spell that says "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

The player announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each target the spell requires. A spell may require some targets only if an alternative, additional, or special cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost), or a particular mode, was chosen for it; otherwise, the spell is cast as though it did not have those targets. If the spell has a variable number of targets, the player announces how many targets he or she will choose before he or she announces those targets. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell. However, if the spell uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). If any effects say that an object or player must be chosen as a target, the player chooses targets so that he or she obeys the maximum possible number of such effects without violating any rules or effects that say that an object or player can't be chosen as a target. The chosen players, objects, and/or zones each become a target of that spell. (Any abilities that trigger when those players, objects, and/or zones become the target of a spell trigger at this point; they'll wait to be put on the stack until the spell has finished being cast.)

Example: If a spell says "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the spell requires two different legal targets. A spell that says "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

603.10.603.10.

Some objects have a static ability that's linked to a triggered ability. (See rule 606, "Linked Abilities.") These objects combine both abilities into one paragraph, with the static ability first, followed by the triggered ability. A very few objects have triggered abilities which are written with the trigger condition in the middle of the ability, rather than at the beginning.

Example: An ability that reads "Reveal the first card you draw each turn. Whenever you reveal a basic land card this way, draw a card" is a static ability linked to a triggered ability.

Some objects have a static ability that's linked to a triggered ability. (See rule 607, "Linked Abilities.") These objects combine both abilities into one paragraph, with the static ability first, followed by the triggered ability. A very few objects have triggered abilities which are written with the trigger condition in the middle of the ability, rather than at the beginning.

Example: An ability that reads "Reveal the first card you draw each turn. Whenever you reveal a basic land card this way, draw a card" is a static ability linked to a triggered ability.

604.2.604.2.

Static abilities create continuous effects, some of which are prevention effects or replacement effects. These effects are active as long as the permanent with the ability remains on the battlefield and has the ability, or as long as the object with the ability remains in the appropriate zone, as described in rule 112.5.

Static abilities create continuous effects, some of which are prevention effects or replacement effects. These effects are active as long as the permanent with the ability remains on the battlefield and has the ability, or as long as the object with the ability remains in the appropriate zone, as described in rule 112.6.

606.

Loyalty Abilities

606.1.

Some activated abilities are loyalty abilities, which are subject to special rules.

606.2.

An activated ability with a loyalty symbol in its cost is a loyalty ability. Normally, only planeswalkers have loyalty abilities.

606.3.

A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of its loyalty abilities have been activated that turn.

606.4.

The cost to activate a loyalty ability of a permanent is to put on or remove from that permanent a certain number of loyalty counters, as shown by the loyalty symbol in the ability's cost.

606.5.

A loyalty ability with a negative loyalty cost can't be activated unless the permanent has at least that many loyalty counters on it.

606.607.

Linked Abilities

Linked Abilities

606.1.607.1.

An object may have two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. If so, these two abilities are linked: the second refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first, and not by any other ability.

An object may have two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. If so, these two abilities are linked: the second refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first, and not by any other ability.

606.1a.607.1a.

An ability printed on an object within another ability that grants that ability to that object is still considered to be "printed on" that object for these purposes.

An ability printed on an object within another ability that grants that ability to that object is still considered to be "printed on" that object for these purposes.

606.2.607.2.

There are different kinds of linked abilities.

There are different kinds of linked abilities.

606.2a.607.2a.

If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that exiles one or more cards, and another ability printed on it that refers either to "the exiled cards" or to cards "exiled with [this object]," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to cards in the exile zone that were put there as a result of the first ability.

If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that exiles one or more cards, and another ability printed on it that refers either to "the exiled cards" or to cards "exiled with [this object]," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to cards in the exile zone that were put there as a result of the first ability.

606.2b.607.2b.

If an object has an ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be exiled, and another ability printed on it that refers either to "the exiled cards" or to cards "exiled with [this object]," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to cards in the exile zone that were put there as a direct result of a replacement event caused by the first ability. See rule 613, "Replacement Effects."

If an object has an ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be exiled, and another ability printed on it that refers either to "the exiled cards" or to cards "exiled with [this object]," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to cards in the exile zone that were put there as a direct result of a replacement event caused by the first ability. See rule 614, "Replacement Effects."

606.2c.607.2c.

If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that puts one or more objects onto the battlefield, and another ability printed on it that refers to objects "put onto the battlefield with [this object]," those abilities are linked. The second can refer only to objects put onto the battlefield as a result of the first.

If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that puts one or more objects onto the battlefield, and another ability printed on it that refers to objects "put onto the battlefield with [this object]," those abilities are linked. The second can refer only to objects put onto the battlefield as a result of the first.

606.2d.607.2d.

If an object has an ability printed on it that causes a player to "choose a [value]" or "name a card," and another ability printed on it that refers to "the chosen [value]," "the last chosen [value]," or "the named card," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to a choice made as a result of the first ability.

If an object has an ability printed on it that causes a player to "choose a [value]" or "name a card," and another ability printed on it that refers to "the chosen [value]," "the last chosen [value]," or "the named card," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to a choice made as a result of the first ability.

606.2e.607.2e.

If an object has both a static ability and a triggered ability printed on it in the same paragraph, those abilities are linked. The triggered ability refers only to actions taken as a result of the static ability. See rule 603.10.

If an object has both a static ability and a triggered ability printed on it in the same paragraph, those abilities are linked. The triggered ability refers only to actions taken as a result of the static ability. See rule 603.10.

606.2f.607.2f.

If an object has a kicker ability printed on it, and another ability printed on it that refers to whether the kicker cost was paid, those abilities are linked. The second refers only to whether the kicker cost listed in the first was paid when the object was cast as a spell. If a kicker ability lists multiple costs, it will have multiple abilities linked to it. Each of those abilities will specify which kicker cost it refers to. See rule 702.30, "Kicker."

If an object has a kicker ability printed on it, and another ability printed on it that refers to whether that object was kicked, those abilities are linked. The second refers only to whether the intent to pay the kicker cost listed in the first was declared as the object was cast as a spell. If a kicker ability lists multiple costs, it will have multiple abilities linked to it. Each of those abilities will specify which kicker cost it refers to. See rule 702.30, "Kicker."

606.2g.607.2g.

The two abilities represented by the champion keyword are linked abilities. See rule 702.69, "Champion."

The two abilities represented by the champion keyword are linked abilities. See rule 702.69, "Champion."

606.3.607.3.

An ability may be part of more than one pair of linked abilities.

Example: Paradise Plume has the following three abilities: "As Paradise Plume enters the battlefield, choose a color," "Whenever a player casts a spell of the chosen color, you may gain 1 life," and "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." The first and second abilities are linked. The first and third abilities are linked.

An ability may be part of more than one pair of linked abilities.

Example: Paradise Plume has the following three abilities: "As Paradise Plume enters the battlefield, choose a color," "Whenever a player casts a spell of the chosen color, you may gain 1 life," and "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." The first and second abilities are linked. The first and third abilities are linked.

606.4.607.4.

If an object acquires a pair of linked abilities as part of the same effect, the abilities will be similarly linked to one another on that object even though they weren't printed on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}: Exile the top ten cards of your library: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Exile target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card exiled with Sisters of Stone Death onto the battlefield under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, activates it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, activates the exile ability, and then activates the return-to-the-battlefield ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental exiled with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to the battlefield. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental exiled with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

If an object acquires a pair of linked abilities as part of the same effect, the abilities will be similarly linked to one another on that object even though they weren't printed on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}: Exile the top ten cards of your library: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Exile target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card exiled with Sisters of Stone Death onto the battlefield under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, activates it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, activates the exile ability, and then activates the return-to-the-battlefield ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental exiled with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to the battlefield. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental exiled with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

607.608.

Resolving Spells and Abilities

Resolving Spells and Abilities

607.1.608.1.

Each time all players pass in succession, the spell or ability on top of the stack resolves. (See rule 608, "Effects.")

Each time all players pass in succession, the spell or ability on top of the stack resolves. (See rule 609, "Effects.")

607.2.608.2.

If the object that's resolving is an instant spell, a sorcery spell, or an ability, its resolution may involve several steps. The steps described in rules 607.2a and 607.2b are followed first. The steps described in rules 607.2c-i are then followed as appropriate, in no specific order. The step described in rule 607.2j is followed last.

If the object that's resolving is an instant spell, a sorcery spell, or an ability, its resolution may involve several steps. The steps described in rules 608.2a and 608.2b are followed first. The steps described in rules 608.2c-j are then followed as appropriate, in no specific order. The step described in rule 608.2k is followed last.

607.2a.608.2a.

If a triggered ability has an intervening "if" clause, it checks whether the clause's condition is true. If it isn't, the ability is removed from the stack and does nothing. Otherwise, it continues to resolve. See rule 603.4.

If a triggered ability has an intervening "if" clause, it checks whether the clause's condition is true. If it isn't, the ability is removed from the stack and does nothing. Otherwise, it continues to resolve. See rule 603.4.

607.2b.608.2b.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's moved out of the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally, affecting only the targets that are still legal. If a target is illegal, the spell or ability can't perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left the battlefield), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's no longer in the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally, affecting only the targets that are still legal. If a target is illegal, the spell or ability can't perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left the battlefield), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell.

607.2c.608.2c.

The controller of the spell or ability follows its instructions in the order written. However, replacement effects may modify these actions. In some cases, later text on the card may modify the meaning of earlier text (for example, "Destroy target creature. It can't be regenerated" or "Counter target spell. If that spell is countered this way, put it on top of its owner's library instead of into its owner's graveyard.") Don't just apply effects step by step without thinking in these cases—read the whole text and apply the rules of English to the text.

The controller of the spell or ability follows its instructions in the order written. However, replacement effects may modify these actions. In some cases, later text on the card may modify the meaning of earlier text (for example, "Destroy target creature. It can't be regenerated" or "Counter target spell. If that spell is countered this way, put it on top of its owner's library instead of into its owner's graveyard.") Don't just apply effects step by step without thinking in these cases—read the whole text and apply the rules of English to the text.

607.2d.608.2d.

If an effect of a spell or ability offers any choices other than choices already made as part of casting the spell, activating the ability, or otherwise putting the spell or ability on the stack, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible, with the exception that having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 119.3).

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

If an effect of a spell or ability offers any choices other than choices already made as part of casting the spell, activating the ability, or otherwise putting the spell or ability on the stack, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible, with the exception that having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 119.3).

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

607.2e.608.2e.

Some spells and abilities have multiple steps or actions, denoted by separate sentences or clauses, that involve multiple players. In these cases, the choices for the first action are made in APNAP order, and then the first action is processed simultaneously. Then the choices for the second action are made in APNAP order, and then that action is processed simultaneously, and so on. See rule 101.4.

Some spells and abilities have multiple steps or actions, denoted by separate sentences or clauses, that involve multiple players. In these cases, the choices for the first action are made in APNAP order, and then the first action is processed simultaneously. Then the choices for the second action are made in APNAP order, and then that action is processed simultaneously, and so on. See rule 101.4.

607.2f.608.2f.

If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana, he or she may activate mana abilities before taking that action. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to cast a spell during resolution, he or she does so by putting that spell on top of the stack, then continuing to cast it by following the steps in rules 601.2a-h, except no player receives priority after it's cast. The currently resolving spell or ability then continues to resolve, which may include casting other spells this way. No other spells can normally be cast and no other abilities can normally be activated during resolution.

If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana, he or she may activate mana abilities before taking that action. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to cast a spell during resolution, he or she does so by putting that spell on top of the stack, then continuing to cast it by following the steps in rules 601.2a-h, except no player receives priority after it's cast. The currently resolving spell or ability then continues to resolve, which may include casting other spells this way. No other spells can normally be cast and no other abilities can normally be activated during resolution.

607.2g.608.2g.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures on the battlefield), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself or a target that's become illegal, the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn't changed zones; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. See rule 112.6a. (Note that if an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among some number of target creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put onto the stack rather than at this time; see rule 601.2d). If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it, not the ability.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures on the battlefield), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself or a target that's become illegal, the effect uses the current information of that object if it's in the zone it was expected to be in; otherwise, the effect uses the object's last known information. See rule 112.7a. (Note that if an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among some number of target creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put onto the stack rather than at this time; see rule 601.2d.) If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it, not the ability.

607.2h.608.2h.

If an effect refers to certain characteristics, it checks only for the value of the specified characteristics, regardless of any related ones an object may also have.

Example: An effect that reads "Destroy all black creatures" destroys a white-and-black creature, but one that reads "Destroy all nonblack creatures" doesn't.

If an effect refers to certain characteristics, it checks only for the value of the specified characteristics, regardless of any related ones an object may also have.

Example: An effect that reads "Destroy all black creatures" destroys a white-and-black creature, but one that reads "Destroy all nonblack creatures" doesn't.

607.2i.608.2i.

If an ability's effect refers to a specific untargeted object that has been previously referred to by that ability's cost or trigger condition, it still affects that object even if the object has changed characteristics.

Example: Wall of Tears says "Whenever Wall of Tears blocks a creature, return that creature to its owner's hand at end of combat." If Wall of Tears blocks a creature, then that creature ceases to be a creature before the triggered ability resolves, the permanent will still be returned to its owner's hand.

If an ability's effect refers to a specific untargeted object that has been previously referred to by that ability's cost or trigger condition, it still affects that object even if the object has changed characteristics.

Example: Wall of Tears says "Whenever Wall of Tears blocks a creature, return that creature to its owner's hand at end of combat." If Wall of Tears blocks a creature, then that creature ceases to be a creature before the triggered ability resolves, the permanent will still be returned to its owner's hand.

607.2j.608.2j.

If an instant spell, sorcery spell, or ability that can legally resolve leaves the stack once it starts to resolve, it will continue to resolve fully.

If an instant spell, sorcery spell, or ability that can legally resolve leaves the stack once it starts to resolve, it will continue to resolve fully.

607.2k.608.2k.

As the final part of an instant or sorcery spell's resolution, the spell is put into its owner's graveyard. As the final part of an ability's resolution, the ability is removed from the stack and ceases to exist.

As the final part of an instant or sorcery spell's resolution, the spell is put into its owner's graveyard. As the final part of an ability's resolution, the ability is removed from the stack and ceases to exist.

607.3.608.3.

If the object that's resolving is a permanent spell, its resolution involves a single step (unless it's an Aura). The spell card becomes a permanent and is put onto the battlefield under the control of the spell's controller.

If the object that's resolving is a permanent spell, its resolution involves a single step (unless it's an Aura). The spell card becomes a permanent and is put onto the battlefield under the control of the spell's controller.

607.3a.608.3a.

If the object that's resolving is an Aura spell, its resolution involves two steps. First, it checks whether the target specified by its enchant ability is still legal, as described in rule 607.2b. (See rule 702.5, "Enchant.") If so, the spell card becomes a permanent and is put onto the battlefield under the control of the spell's controller attached to the object it was targeting.

If the object that's resolving is an Aura spell, its resolution involves two steps. First, it checks whether the target specified by its enchant ability is still legal, as described in rule 608.2b. (See rule 702.5, "Enchant.") If so, the spell card becomes a permanent and is put onto the battlefield under the control of the spell's controller attached to the object it was targeting.

607.3b.608.3b.

If a permanent spell resolves but its controller can't put it onto the battlefield, that player puts it into its owner's graveyard.

Example: Worms of the Earth says "If a land would enter the battlefield, instead it doesn't." Clone says "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." If a player casts Clone and chooses to copy Dryad Arbor (a land creature) while Worms of the Earth is on the battlefield, Clone can't enter the battlefield from the stack. It's put into its owner's graveyard.

If a permanent spell resolves but its controller can't put it onto the battlefield, that player puts it into its owner's graveyard.

Example: Worms of the Earth says "If a land would enter the battlefield, instead it doesn't." Clone says "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." If a player casts Clone and chooses to copy Dryad Arbor (a land creature) while Worms of the Earth is on the battlefield, Clone can't enter the battlefield from the stack. It's put into its owner's graveyard.

608.609.

Effects

Effects

608.1.609.1.

An effect is something that happens in the game as a result of a spell or ability. When a spell, activated ability, or triggered ability resolves, it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. Text itself is never an effect.

An effect is something that happens in the game as a result of a spell or ability. When a spell, activated ability, or triggered ability resolves, it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. Text itself is never an effect.

608.2.609.2.

Effects apply only to permanents unless the instruction's text states otherwise or they clearly can apply only to objects in one or more other zones.

Example: An effect that changes all lands into creatures won't alter land cards in players' graveyards. But an effect that says spells cost more to cast will apply only to spells on the stack, since a spell is always on the stack while a player is casting it.

Effects apply only to permanents unless the instruction's text states otherwise or they clearly can apply only to objects in one or more other zones.

Example: An effect that changes all lands into creatures won't alter land cards in players' graveyards. But an effect that says spells cost more to cast will apply only to spells on the stack, since a spell is always on the stack while a player is casting it.

608.3.609.3.

If an effect attempts to do something impossible, it does only as much as possible.

Example: If a player is holding only one card, an effect that reads "Discard two cards" causes him or her to discard only that card. If an effect moves cards out of the library (as opposed to drawing), it moves as many as possible.

If an effect attempts to do something impossible, it does only as much as possible.

Example: If a player is holding only one card, an effect that reads "Discard two cards" causes him or her to discard only that card. If an effect moves cards out of the library (as opposed to drawing), it moves as many as possible.

608.4.609.4.

Some effects state that a player may do something "as though" some condition were true or a creature can do something "as though" some condition were true. This applies only to the stated effect. For purposes of that effect, treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. For all other purposes, treat the game normally.

Some effects state that a player may do something "as though" some condition were true or a creature can do something "as though" some condition were true. This applies only to the stated effect. For purposes of that effect, treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. For all other purposes, treat the game normally.

608.4a.609.4a.

If two effects state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing "as though" different conditions were true, both conditions could apply. If one "as though" effect satisfies the requirements for another "as though" effect, then both effects will apply.

Example: A player controls Vedalken Orrery, an artifact that says "You may cast nonland cards as though they had flash." That player casts Shaman's Trance, an instant that says, in part, "You may play cards from other players' graveyards as though they were in your graveyard." The player may cast a sorcery with flashback from another player's graveyard as though it were in that player's graveyard and as though it had flash.

If two effects state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing "as though" different conditions were true, both conditions could apply. If one "as though" effect satisfies the requirements for another "as though" effect, then both effects will apply.

Example: A player controls Vedalken Orrery, an artifact that says "You may cast nonland cards as though they had flash." That player casts Shaman's Trance, an instant that says, in part, "You may play cards from other players' graveyards as though they were in your graveyard." The player may cast a sorcery with flashback from another player's graveyard as though it were in that player's graveyard and as though it had flash.

608.5.609.5.

If an effect could result in a tie, the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. The Magic game has no default for ties.

If an effect could result in a tie, the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. The Magic game has no default for ties.

608.6.609.6.

Some continuous effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. See rules 613 and 614.

Some continuous effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. See rules 614 and 615.

608.7.609.7.

Some effects apply to damage from a source—for example, "The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn, prevent that damage."

Some effects apply to damage from a source—for example, "The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn, prevent that damage."

608.7a.609.7a.

If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a replacement or prevention effect that's waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or, for certain casual variant games, a face-up card in the command zone. A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage dealt by that permanent, regardless of whether it's combat damage or damage dealt as the result of a spell or ability. If the player chooses a permanent spell, the effect will apply to any damage dealt by that spell and any damage dealt by the permanent that spell becomes when it resolves.

If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a replacement or prevention effect that's waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or, for certain casual variant games, a face-up card in the command zone. A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage dealt by that permanent, regardless of whether it's combat damage or damage dealt as the result of a spell or ability. If the player chooses a permanent spell, the effect will apply to any damage dealt by that spell and any damage dealt by the permanent that spell becomes when it resolves.

608.7b.609.7b.

Some effects from resolved spells and abilities prevent or replace damage from sources with certain properties, such as a creature or a source of a particular color. When the source would deal damage, the "shield" rechecks the source's properties. If the properties no longer match, the damage isn't prevented or replaced. If for any reason the shield prevents no damage or replaces no damage, the shield isn't used up.

Some effects from resolved spells and abilities prevent or replace damage from sources with certain properties, such as a creature or a source of a particular color. When the source would deal damage, the "shield" rechecks the source's properties. If the properties no longer match, the damage isn't prevented or replaced. If for any reason the shield prevents no damage or replaces no damage, the shield isn't used up.

608.7c.609.7c.

Some effects from static abilities prevent or replace damage from sources with certain properties. For these effects, the prevention or replacement applies to sources that are permanents with that property and to any sources that aren't on the battlefield that have that property.

Some effects from static abilities prevent or replace damage from sources with certain properties. For these effects, the prevention or replacement applies to sources that are permanents with that property and to any sources that aren't on the battlefield that have that property.

609.610.

One-Shot Effects

One-Shot Effects

609.1.610.1.

A one-shot effect does something just once and doesn't have a duration. Examples include dealing damage, destroying a permanent, putting a token onto the battlefield, and moving an object from one zone to another.

A one-shot effect does something just once and doesn't have a duration. Examples include dealing damage, destroying a permanent, putting a token onto the battlefield, and moving an object from one zone to another.

609.2.610.2.

Some one-shot effects create a delayed triggered ability, which instructs a player to do something later in the game (usually at a specific time) rather than as the spell or ability that's creating the one-shot effect resolves. See rule 603.7.

Some one-shot effects create a delayed triggered ability, which instructs a player to do something later in the game (usually at a specific time) rather than as the spell or ability that's creating the one-shot effect resolves. See rule 603.7.

610.611.

Continuous Effects

Continuous Effects

610.1.611.1.

A continuous effect modifies characteristics of objects, modifies control of objects, or affects players or the rules of the game, for a fixed or indefinite period.

A continuous effect modifies characteristics of objects, modifies control of objects, or affects players or the rules of the game, for a fixed or indefinite period.

610.2.611.2.

A continuous effect may be generated by the resolution of a spell or ability.

A continuous effect may be generated by the resolution of a spell or ability.

610.2a.611.2a.

A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability lasts as long as stated by the spell or ability creating it (such as "until end of turn"). If no duration is stated, it lasts until the end of the game.

A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability lasts as long as stated by the spell or ability creating it (such as "until end of turn"). If no duration is stated, it lasts until the end of the game.

610.2b.611.2b.

Some continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability have durations worded "for as long as . . . ." If the "for as long as" duration never starts, or it ends before the moment the effect would first be applied, the effect does nothing. It doesn't start and immediately stop again, and it doesn't last forever.

Example: Endoskeleton is an artifact with an activated ability that reads "{2}, {T}: Target creature gets +0/+3 for as long as Endoskeleton remains tapped." If you activate this ability and then Endoskeleton becomes untapped before the ability resolves, it does nothing, because its duration—remaining tapped—was over before the effect began.

Some continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability have durations worded "for as long as . . . ." If the "for as long as" duration never starts, or it ends before the moment the effect would first be applied, the effect does nothing. It doesn't start and immediately stop again, and it doesn't last forever.

Example: Endoskeleton is an artifact with an activated ability that reads "{2}, {T}: Target creature gets +0/+3 for as long as Endoskeleton remains tapped." If you activate this ability and then Endoskeleton becomes untapped before the ability resolves, it does nothing, because its duration—remaining tapped—was over before the effect began.

610.2c.611.2c.

If a continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability modifies the characteristics or changes the controller of any objects, the set of objects it affects is determined when that continuous effect begins. After that point, the set won't change. (Note that this works differently than a continuous effect from a static ability.) A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability that doesn't modify the characteristics or change the controller of any objects modifies the rules of the game, so it can affect objects that weren't affected when that continuous effect began.

Example: An effect that reads "All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn" gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves—even if they change color later—and doesn't affect those that enter the battlefield or turn white afterward.

Example: An effect that reads "Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn" doesn't modify any object's characteristics, so it's modifying the rules of the game. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren't on the battlefield when the continuous effect began. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn.

If a continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability modifies the characteristics or changes the controller of any objects, the set of objects it affects is determined when that continuous effect begins. After that point, the set won't change. (Note that this works differently than a continuous effect from a static ability.) A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability that doesn't modify the characteristics or change the controller of any objects modifies the rules of the game, so it can affect objects that weren't affected when that continuous effect began.

Example: An effect that reads "All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn" gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves—even if they change color later—and doesn't affect those that enter the battlefield or turn white afterward.

Example: An effect that reads "Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn" doesn't modify any object's characteristics, so it's modifying the rules of the game. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren't on the battlefield when the continuous effect began. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn.

610.2d.611.2d.

If a resolving spell or ability that creates a continuous effect contains a variable such as X, the value of that variable is determined only once, on resolution. See rule 607.2g.

If a resolving spell or ability that creates a continuous effect contains a variable such as X, the value of that variable is determined only once, on resolution. See rule 608.2g.

610.3.611.3.

A continuous effect may be generated by the static ability of an object.

A continuous effect may be generated by the static ability of an object.

610.3a.611.3a.

A continuous effect generated by a static ability isn't "locked in"; it applies at any given moment to whatever its text indicates.

A continuous effect generated by a static ability isn't "locked in"; it applies at any given moment to whatever its text indicates.

610.3b.611.3b.

The effect applies at all times that the permanent generating it is on the battlefield or the object generating it is in the appropriate zone.

Example: A permanent with the static ability "All white creatures get +1/+1" generates an effect that continuously gives +1/+1 to each white creature on the battlefield. If a creature becomes white, it gets this bonus; a creature that stops being white loses it.

The effect applies at all times that the permanent generating it is on the battlefield or the object generating it is in the appropriate zone.

Example: A permanent with the static ability "All white creatures get +1/+1" generates an effect that continuously gives +1/+1 to each white creature on the battlefield. If a creature becomes white, it gets this bonus; a creature that stops being white loses it.

610.3c.611.3c.

Continuous effects that modify characteristics of permanents do so simultaneously with the permanent entering the battlefield. They don't wait until the permanent is on the battlefield and then change it. Because such effects apply as the permanent enters the battlefield, they are applied before determining whether the permanent will cause an ability to trigger when it enters the battlefield.

Example: A permanent with the static ability "All white creatures get +1/+1" is on the battlefield. A creature spell that would normally create a 1/1 white creature instead creates a 2/2 white creature. The creature doesn't enter the battlefield as 1/1 and then change to 2/2.

Continuous effects that modify characteristics of permanents do so simultaneously with the permanent entering the battlefield. They don't wait until the permanent is on the battlefield and then change it. Because such effects apply as the permanent enters the battlefield, they are applied before determining whether the permanent will cause an ability to trigger when it enters the battlefield.

Example: A permanent with the static ability "All white creatures get +1/+1" is on the battlefield. A creature spell that would normally create a 1/1 white creature instead creates a 2/2 white creature. The creature doesn't enter the battlefield as 1/1 and then change to 2/2.

611.612.

Text-Changing Effects

Text-Changing Effects

611.1.612.1.

Some continuous effects change an object's text. This can apply to any words or symbols printed on that object, but generally affects only that object's rules text (which appears in its text box) and/or the text that appears in its type line. Such an effect is a text-changing effect.

Some continuous effects change an object's text. This can apply to any words or symbols printed on that object, but generally affects only that object's rules text (which appears in its text box) and/or the text that appears in its type line. Such an effect is a text-changing effect.

611.2.612.2.

A text-changing effect changes only those words that are used in the correct way (for example, a Magic color word being used as a color word, a land type word used as a land type, or a creature type word used as a creature type). An effect that changes a color word or a subtype can't change a card name, even if that name contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word, basic land type, or creature type.

A text-changing effect changes only those words that are used in the correct way (for example, a Magic color word being used as a color word, a land type word used as a land type, or a creature type word used as a creature type). An effect that changes a color word or a subtype can't change a card name, even if that name contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word, basic land type, or creature type.

611.2a.612.2a.

Most spells and abilities that create creature tokens use creature types to define both the creature types and the names of the tokens. A text-changing effect that affects such a spell or an object with such an ability can change these words because they're being used as creature types, even though they're also being used as names.

Most spells and abilities that create creature tokens use creature types to define both the creature types and the names of the tokens. A text-changing effect that affects such a spell or an object with such an ability can change these words because they're being used as creature types, even though they're also being used as names.

611.3.612.3.

Effects that add or remove abilities don't change the text of the objects they affect, so any abilities that are granted to an object can't be modified by text-changing effects that affect that object.

Effects that add or remove abilities don't change the text of the objects they affect, so any abilities that are granted to an object can't be modified by text-changing effects that affect that object.

611.4.612.4.

A token's subtypes and rules text are defined by the spell or ability that created the token. A text-changing effect that affects a token can change these characteristics.

A token's subtypes and rules text are defined by the spell or ability that created the token. A text-changing effect that affects a token can change these characteristics.

611.5.612.5.

One card (Volrath's Shapeshifter) states that an object has the "full text" of another object. This changes not just the text that appears in the object's text box and type line, but also changes the text that represents its name, mana cost, expansion symbol, power, and toughness.

One card (Volrath's Shapeshifter) states that an object has the "full text" of another object. This changes not just the text that appears in the object's text box and type line, but also changes the text that represents its name, mana cost, expansion symbol, power, and toughness.

612.613.

Interaction of Continuous Effects

Interaction of Continuous Effects

612.1.613.1.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object. For a card, that means the values of the characteristics printed on that card. For a token or a copy of a spell or card, that means the values of the characteristics defined by the effect that created it. Then all applicable continuous effects are applied in a series of layers in the following order:

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object. For a card, that means the values of the characteristics printed on that card. For a token or a copy of a spell or card, that means the values of the characteristics defined by the effect that created it. Then all applicable continuous effects are applied in a series of layers in the following order:

612.1a.613.1a.

Layer 1: Copy effects are applied. See rule 706, "Copying Objects."

Layer 1: Copy effects are applied. See rule 706, "Copying Objects."

612.1b.613.1b.

Layer 2: Control-changing effects are applied.

Layer 2: Control-changing effects are applied.

612.1c.613.1c.

Layer 3: Text-changing effects are applied. See rule 611, "Text-Changing Effects."

Layer 3: Text-changing effects are applied. See rule 612, "Text-Changing Effects."

612.1d.613.1d.

Layer 4: Type-changing effects are applied. This includes effects that change an object's card type, subtype, and/or supertype.

Layer 4: Type-changing effects are applied. This includes effects that change an object's card type, subtype, and/or supertype.

612.1e.613.1e.

Layer 5: Color-changing effects are applied.

Layer 5: Color-changing effects are applied.

612.1f.613.1f.

Layer 6: Ability-adding and ability-removing effects are applied.

Layer 6: Ability-adding and ability-removing effects are applied.

612.1g.613.1g.

Layer 7: Power- and/or toughness-changing effects are applied.

Layer 7: Power- and/or toughness-changing effects are applied.

612.2.613.2.

Within layers 1-6, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first (see rule 604.3), then all other effects in timestamp order (see rule 612.6). Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer. (See rule 612.7.)

Within layers 1-6, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first (see rule 604.3), then all other effects in timestamp order (see rule 613.6). Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer. (See rule 613.7.)

612.3.613.3.

Within layer 7, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the order described below. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. (See rule 612.6.) Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a sublayer. (See rule 612.7.)

Within layer 7, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the order described below. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. (See rule 613.6.) Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a sublayer. (See rule 613.7.)

612.3a.613.3a.

Layer 7a: Effects from characteristic-defining abilities are applied. See rule 604.3.

Layer 7a: Effects from characteristic-defining abilities are applied. See rule 604.3.

612.3b.613.3b.

Layer 7b: Effects that set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value are applied.

Layer 7b: Effects that set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value are applied.

612.3c.613.3c.

Layer 7c: Effects that modify power and/or toughness (but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value) are applied.

Layer 7c: Effects that modify power and/or toughness (but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value) are applied.

612.3d.613.3d.

Layer 7d: Power and/or toughness changes from counters are applied. See rule 120.

Layer 7d: Power and/or toughness changes from counters are applied. See rule 120.

612.3e.613.3e.

Layer 7e: Effects that switch a creature's power and toughness are applied. Such effects take the value of power and apply it to the creature's toughness, and take the value of toughness and apply it to the creature's power.

Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. Then another effect switches the creature's power and toughness. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. A new effect gives the creature +5/+0. Its "unswitched" power and toughness would be 6/4, so its actual power and toughness is 4/6.

Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. Then another effect switches the creature's power and toughness. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. If the +0/+1 effect ends before the switch effect ends, the creature becomes 3/1.

Layer 7e: Effects that switch a creature's power and toughness are applied. Such effects take the value of power and apply it to the creature's toughness, and take the value of toughness and apply it to the creature's power.

Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. Then another effect switches the creature's power and toughness. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. A new effect gives the creature +5/+0. Its "unswitched" power and toughness would be 6/4, so its actual power and toughness is 4/6.

Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. Then another effect switches the creature's power and toughness. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. If the +0/+1 effect ends before the switch effect ends, the creature becomes 3/1.

612.4.613.4.

The application of continuous effects as described by the layer system is continually and automatically performed by the game. All resulting changes to an object's characteristics are instantaneous.

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are on the battlefield. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 7c), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is on the battlefield. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 7d), making it 3/3. A spell targeting it that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" resolves (layer 7c), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters the battlefield (layer 7c), making it 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 7b), making it 5/8 (0/1, plus +4/+4 from the resolved spell, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment, plus +1/+1 from the counter).

The application of continuous effects as described by the layer system is continually and automatically performed by the game. All resulting changes to an object's characteristics are instantaneous.

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are on the battlefield. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 7c), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is on the battlefield. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 7d), making it 3/3. A spell targeting it that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" resolves (layer 7c), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters the battlefield (layer 7c), making it 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 7b), making it 5/8 (0/1, plus +4/+4 from the resolved spell, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment, plus +1/+1 from the counter).

612.5.613.5.

If an effect should be applied in different layers and/or sublayers, the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate ones. If an effect starts to apply in one layer and/or sublayer, it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer and/or sublayer, even if the ability generating the effect is removed during this process.

Example: An effect that reads "Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn" is both a power- and toughness-changing effect and a color-changing effect. The "becomes the color of your choice" part is applied in layer 5, and then the "gets +1/+1" part is applied in layer 7.

Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads "Until end of turn, you gain control of target creature and it gains haste." This is both a control-changing effect and an effect that adds an ability to an object. The "you gain control" part is applied in layer 2, and then the "it gains haste" part is applied in layer 6.

Example: An effect that reads "All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn" is both a type-changing effect and a power- and toughness-setting effect. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power- and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 7, even though those permanents aren't noncreature artifacts by then.

Example: Svogthos, the Restless Tomb, is on the battlefield. An effect that says "Until end of turn, target land becomes a 3/3 creature that's still a land" is applied to it (layers 4 and 7b). An effect that says "Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 7c), making it a 4/4 land creature. Then while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard, you activate Svogthos's ability: "Until end of turn, Svogthos, the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard.' It's still a land." (layers 4, 5, and 7b). It becomes an 11/11 land creature. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard, Svogthos's power and toughness will be modified accordingly. If the first effect is applied to it again, it will become a 4/4 land creature again.

If an effect should be applied in different layers and/or sublayers, the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate ones. If an effect starts to apply in one layer and/or sublayer, it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer and/or sublayer, even if the ability generating the effect is removed during this process.

Example: An effect that reads "Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn" is both a power- and toughness-changing effect and a color-changing effect. The "becomes the color of your choice" part is applied in layer 5, and then the "gets +1/+1" part is applied in layer 7.

Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads "Until end of turn, you gain control of target creature and it gains haste." This is both a control-changing effect and an effect that adds an ability to an object. The "you gain control" part is applied in layer 2, and then the "it gains haste" part is applied in layer 6.

Example: An effect that reads "All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn" is both a type-changing effect and a power- and toughness-setting effect. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power- and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 7, even though those permanents aren't noncreature artifacts by then.

Example: Svogthos, the Restless Tomb, is on the battlefield. An effect that says "Until end of turn, target land becomes a 3/3 creature that's still a land" is applied to it (layers 4 and 7b). An effect that says "Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 7c), making it a 4/4 land creature. Then while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard, you activate Svogthos's ability: "Until end of turn, Svogthos, the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard.' It's still a land." (layers 4, 5, and 7b). It becomes an 11/11 land creature. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard, Svogthos's power and toughness will be modified accordingly. If the first effect is applied to it again, it will become a 4/4 land creature again.

612.6.613.6.

Within a layer or sublayer, determining which order effects are applied in is usually done using a timestamp system. An effect with an earlier timestamp is applied before an effect with a later timestamp.

Within a layer or sublayer, determining which order effects are applied in is usually done using a timestamp system. An effect with an earlier timestamp is applied before an effect with a later timestamp.

612.6a.613.6a.

A continuous effect generated by a static ability has the same timestamp as the object the static ability is on, or the timestamp of the effect that created the ability, whichever is later.

A continuous effect generated by a static ability has the same timestamp as the object the static ability is on, or the timestamp of the effect that created the ability, whichever is later.

612.6b.613.6b.

A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receives a timestamp at the time it's created.

A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receives a timestamp at the time it's created.

612.6c.613.6c.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, unless it's an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that's attached to another object or player, or it's a face-up plane card.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, unless it's an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that's attached to another object or player, or it's a face-up plane card.

612.6d.613.6d.

If an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification receives a new timestamp at that time.

If an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification receives a new timestamp at that time.

612.6e.613.6e.

A face-up plane card receives a timestamp at the time it's turned face up.

A face-up plane card receives a timestamp at the time it's turned face up.

613.6f.

A face-up vanguard card receives a timestamp at the beginning of the game.

612.6f.613.6g.

If two or more objects would receive a timestamp simultaneously, such as by entering a zone simultaneously or becoming attached simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at that time.

If two or more objects would receive a timestamp simultaneously, such as by entering a zone simultaneously or becoming attached simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at that time.

612.7.613.7.

Within a layer or sublayer, determining which order effects are applied in is sometimes done using a dependency system. If a dependency exists, it will override the timestamp system.

Within a layer or sublayer, determining which order effects are applied in is sometimes done using a dependency system. If a dependency exists, it will override the timestamp system.

612.7a.613.7a.

An effect is said to "depend on" another if (a) it's applied in the same layer (and, if applicable, sublayer) as the other effect (see rules 612.1 and 612.3); (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect, what it applies to, or what it does to any of the things it applies to; and (c) neither effect is from a characteristic-defining ability. Otherwise, the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect.

An effect is said to "depend on" another if (a) it's applied in the same layer (and, if applicable, sublayer) as the other effect (see rules 613.1 and 613.3); (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect, what it applies to, or what it does to any of the things it applies to; and (c) neither effect is from a characteristic-defining ability. Otherwise, the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect.

612.7b.613.7b.

An effect dependent on one or more other effects waits to apply until just after all of those effects have been applied. If multiple dependent effects would apply simultaneously in this way, they're applied in timestamp order relative to each other. If several dependent effects form a dependency loop, then this rule is ignored and the effects in the dependency loop are applied in timestamp order.

An effect dependent on one or more other effects waits to apply until just after all of those effects have been applied. If multiple dependent effects would apply simultaneously in this way, they're applied in timestamp order relative to each other. If several dependent effects form a dependency loop, then this rule is ignored and the effects in the dependency loop are applied in timestamp order.

612.8.613.8.

One continuous effect can override another. Sometimes the results of one effect determine whether another effect applies or what another effect does.

Example: Two Auras are enchanting the same creature: one that says "Enchanted creature gains flying" and one that says "Enchanted creature loses flying." Neither of these depends on the other, since nothing changes what they affect or what they're doing to it. Applying them in timestamp order means the one that was generated last "wins." It's irrelevant whether an effect is temporary (such as "Target creature loses flying until end of turn") or global (such as "All creatures lose flying").

Example: One effect reads, "White creatures get +1/+1," and another reads, "Enchanted creature is white." The enchanted creature gets +1/+1 from the first effect, regardless of its previous color.

One continuous effect can override another. Sometimes the results of one effect determine whether another effect applies or what another effect does.

Example: Two Auras are enchanting the same creature: one that says "Enchanted creature gains flying" and one that says "Enchanted creature loses flying." Neither of these depends on the other, since nothing changes what they affect or what they're doing to it. Applying them in timestamp order means the one that was generated last "wins." It's irrelevant whether an effect is temporary (such as "Target creature loses flying until end of turn") or global (such as "All creatures lose flying").

Example: One effect reads, "White creatures get +1/+1," and another reads, "Enchanted creature is white." The enchanted creature gets +1/+1 from the first effect, regardless of its previous color.

612.9.613.9.

Some continuous effects affect players rather than objects. For example, an effect might give a player protection from red. All such effects are applied in timestamp order after the determination of objects' characteristics. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 612.6 and 612.7).

Some continuous effects affect players rather than objects. For example, an effect might give a player protection from red. All such effects are applied in timestamp order after the determination of objects' characteristics. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 613.6 and 613.7).

612.10.613.10.

Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size, or say that a creature is indestructible. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 601.2e. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 612.6 and 612.7).

Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size, or say that a creature is indestructible. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 601.2e. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 613.6 and 613.7).

613.614.

Replacement Effects

Replacement Effects

613.1.614.1.

Some continuous effects are replacement effects. Like prevention effects (see rule 614), replacement effects apply continuously as events happen—they aren't locked in ahead of time. Such effects watch for a particular event that would happen and completely or partially replace that event with a different event. They act like "shields" around whatever they're affecting.

Some continuous effects are replacement effects. Like prevention effects (see rule 615), replacement effects apply continuously as events happen—they aren't locked in ahead of time. Such effects watch for a particular event that would happen and completely or partially replace that event with a different event. They act like "shields" around whatever they're affecting.

613.1a.614.1a.

Effects that use the word "instead" are replacement effects. Most replacement effects use the word "instead" to indicate what events will be replaced with other events.

Effects that use the word "instead" are replacement effects. Most replacement effects use the word "instead" to indicate what events will be replaced with other events.

613.1b.614.1b.

Effects that use the word "skip" are replacement effects. These replacement effects use the word "skip" to indicate what events, steps, phases, or turns will be replaced with nothing.

Effects that use the word "skip" are replacement effects. These replacement effects use the word "skip" to indicate what events, steps, phases, or turns will be replaced with nothing.

613.1c.614.1c.

Effects that read "[This permanent] enters the battlefield with . . . ," "As [this permanent] enters the battlefield . . . ," or "[This permanent] enters the battlefield as . . . " are replacement effects.

Effects that read "[This permanent] enters the battlefield with . . . ," "As [this permanent] enters the battlefield . . . ," or "[This permanent] enters the battlefield as . . . " are replacement effects.

613.1d.614.1d.

Continuous effects that read "[This permanent] enters the battlefield . . ." or "[Objects] enter the battlefield . . ." are replacement effects.

Continuous effects that read "[This permanent] enters the battlefield . . ." or "[Objects] enter the battlefield . . ." are replacement effects.

613.1e.614.1e.

Effects that read "As [this permanent] is turned face up . . . ," are replacement effects.

Effects that read "As [this permanent] is turned face up . . . ," are replacement effects.

613.2.614.2.

Some replacement effects apply to damage from a source. See rule 608.7.

Some replacement effects apply to damage from a source. See rule 609.7.

613.3.614.3.

There are no special restrictions on casting a spell or activating an ability that generates a replacement effect. Such effects last until they're used up or their duration has expired.

There are no special restrictions on casting a spell or activating an ability that generates a replacement effect. Such effects last until they're used up or their duration has expired.

613.4.614.4.

Replacement effects must exist before the appropriate event occurs—they can't "go back in time" and change something that's already happened. Spells or abilities that generate these effects are often cast or activated in response to whatever would produce the event and thus resolve before that event would occur.

Example: A player can activate an ability to regenerate a creature in response to a spell that would destroy it. Once the spell resolves, though, it's too late to regenerate the creature.

Replacement effects must exist before the appropriate event occurs—they can't "go back in time" and change something that's already happened. Spells or abilities that generate these effects are often cast or activated in response to whatever would produce the event and thus resolve before that event would occur.

Example: A player can activate an ability to regenerate a creature in response to a spell that would destroy it. Once the spell resolves, though, it's too late to regenerate the creature.

613.5.614.5.

A replacement effect doesn't invoke itself repeatedly and gets only one opportunity for each event.

Example: A player controls two permanents, each with an ability that reads "If a creature you control would deal damage to a creature or player, it deals double that damage to that creature or player instead." A creature that normally deals 2 damage will deal 8 damage—not just 4, and not an infinite amount.

A replacement effect doesn't invoke itself repeatedly and gets only one opportunity for each event.

Example: A player controls two permanents, each with an ability that reads "If a creature you control would deal damage to a creature or player, it deals double that damage to that creature or player instead." A creature that normally deals 2 damage will deal 8 damage—not just 4, and not an infinite amount.

613.6.614.6.

If an event is replaced, it never happens. A modified event occurs instead, which may in turn trigger abilities. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the impossible instruction is simply ignored.

If an event is replaced, it never happens. A modified event occurs instead, which may in turn trigger abilities. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the impossible instruction is simply ignored.

613.7.614.7.

If a replacement effect would replace an event, but that event never happens, the replacement effect simply doesn't do anything.

If a replacement effect would replace an event, but that event never happens, the replacement effect simply doesn't do anything.

613.7a.614.7a.

If a source would deal 0 damage, it does not deal damage at all. Replacement effects that would increase the damage dealt by that source, or would have that source deal that damage to a different object or player, have no event to replace, so they have no effect.

If a source would deal 0 damage, it does not deal damage at all. Replacement effects that would increase the damage dealt by that source, or would have that source deal that damage to a different object or player, have no event to replace, so they have no effect.

613.8.614.8.

Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. The word "instead" doesn't appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat." Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. See rule 701.11.

Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. The word "instead" doesn't appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat." Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. See rule 701.11.

613.9.614.9.

Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature, planeswalker, or player with the same damage dealt to another creature, planeswalker, or player; such effects are called redirection effects. If either creature or planeswalker is no longer on the battlefield when the damage would be redirected, or is no longer a creature or planeswalker when the damage would be redirected, the effect does nothing. If damage would be redirected to or from a player who has left the game, the effect does nothing.

Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature, planeswalker, or player with the same damage dealt to another creature, planeswalker, or player; such effects are called redirection effects. If either creature or planeswalker is no longer on the battlefield when the damage would be redirected, or is no longer a creature or planeswalker when the damage would be redirected, the effect does nothing. If damage would be redirected to or from a player who has left the game, the effect does nothing.

613.10.614.10.

An effect that causes a player to skip an event, step, phase, or turn is a replacement effect. "Skip [something]" is the same as "Instead of doing [something], do nothing." Once a step, phase, or turn has started, it can no longer be skipped—any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence.

An effect that causes a player to skip an event, step, phase, or turn is a replacement effect. "Skip [something]" is the same as "Instead of doing [something], do nothing." Once a step, phase, or turn has started, it can no longer be skipped—any skip effects will wait until the next occurrence.

613.10a.614.10a.

Anything scheduled for a skipped step, phase, or turn won't happen. Anything scheduled for the "next" occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn't skipped. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence, that player must skip the next two; one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence, while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped.

Anything scheduled for a skipped step, phase, or turn won't happen. Anything scheduled for the "next" occurrence of something waits for the first occurrence that isn't skipped. If two effects each cause a player to skip his or her next occurrence, that player must skip the next two; one effect will be satisfied in skipping the first occurrence, while the other will remain until another occurrence can be skipped.

613.10b.614.10b.

Some effects cause a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, then take another action. That action is considered to be the first thing that happens during the next step, phase, or turn to actually occur.

Some effects cause a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, then take another action. That action is considered to be the first thing that happens during the next step, phase, or turn to actually occur.

613.11.614.11.

Some effects replace card draws. These effects are applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player's library.

Some effects replace card draws. These effects are applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player's library.

613.11a.614.11a.

If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws, all actions required by the replacement are completed, if possible, before resuming the sequence.

If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws, all actions required by the replacement are completed, if possible, before resuming the sequence.

613.11b.614.11b.

If an effect would have a player both draw a card and perform an additional action on that card, and the draw is replaced, the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect.

If an effect would have a player both draw a card and perform an additional action on that card, and the draw is replaced, the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect.

613.12.614.12.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent enters the battlefield. (See rules 613.1c-d.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. To determine how and whether these replacement effects apply, check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist on the battlefield, taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it enters the battlefield, continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent's characteristics on the stack (see rule 400.7a), and continuous effects from the permanent's own static abilities, but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put onto the battlefield, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk enters the battlefield tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put onto the battlefield from a graveyard enters the battlefield tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents enter the battlefield tapped." It will not affect itself, so Orb of Dreams enters the battlefield untapped.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent enters the battlefield. (See rules 614.1c-d.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. To determine how and whether these replacement effects apply, check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist on the battlefield, taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it enters the battlefield, continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent's characteristics on the stack (see rule 400.7a), and continuous effects from the permanent's own static abilities, but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put onto the battlefield, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk enters the battlefield tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put onto the battlefield from a graveyard enters the battlefield tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents enter the battlefield tapped." It will not affect itself, so Orb of Dreams enters the battlefield untapped.

613.13.614.13.

An object may have one ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be exiled, and another ability that refers either to "the exiled cards" or to cards "exiled with [this object]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the exile zone that were put there as a direct result of the replacement event caused by the first. If another object gains a pair of linked abilities, the abilities will be similarly linked on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past. See rule 606, "Linked Abilities."

An object may have one ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be exiled, and another ability that refers either to "the exiled cards" or to cards "exiled with [this object]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the exile zone that were put there as a direct result of the replacement event caused by the first. If another object gains a pair of linked abilities, the abilities will be similarly linked on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

613.14.614.14.

Some replacement effects are not continuous effects. Rather, they are an effect of a resolving spell or ability that replace part or all of that spell or ability's own effect(s). Such effects are called self-replacement effects. When applying replacement effects to an event, self-replacement effects are applied before other replacement effects.

Some replacement effects are not continuous effects. Rather, they are an effect of a resolving spell or ability that replace part or all of that spell or ability's own effect(s). Such effects are called self-replacement effects. When applying replacement effects to an event, self-replacement effects are applied before other replacement effects.

614.615.

Prevention Effects

Prevention Effects

614.1.615.1.

Some continuous effects are prevention effects. Like replacement effects (see rule 613), prevention effects apply continuously as events happen—they aren't locked in ahead of time. Such effects watch for a damage event that would happen and completely or partially prevent the damage that would be dealt. They act like "shields" around whatever they're affecting.

Some continuous effects are prevention effects. Like replacement effects (see rule 614), prevention effects apply continuously as events happen—they aren't locked in ahead of time. Such effects watch for a damage event that would happen and completely or partially prevent the damage that would be dealt. They act like "shields" around whatever they're affecting.

614.1a.615.1a.

Effects that use the word "prevent" are prevention effects. Prevention effects use "prevent" to indicate what damage will not be dealt.

Effects that use the word "prevent" are prevention effects. Prevention effects use "prevent" to indicate what damage will not be dealt.

614.2.615.2.

Many preventions effects apply to damage from a source. See rule 608.7.

Many preventions effects apply to damage from a source. See rule 609.7.

614.3.615.3.

There are no special restrictions on casting a spell or activating an ability that generates a prevention effect. Such effects last until they're used up or their duration has expired.

There are no special restrictions on casting a spell or activating an ability that generates a prevention effect. Such effects last until they're used up or their duration has expired.

614.4.615.4.

Prevention effects must exist before the appropriate damage event occurs—they can't "go back in time" and change something that's already happened. Spells or abilities that generate these effects are often cast or activated in response to whatever would produce the event and thus resolve before that event would occur.

Example: A player can activate an ability that prevents damage in response to a spell that would deal damage. Once the spell resolves, though, it's too late to prevent the damage.

Prevention effects must exist before the appropriate damage event occurs—they can't "go back in time" and change something that's already happened. Spells or abilities that generate these effects are often cast or activated in response to whatever would produce the event and thus resolve before that event would occur.

Example: A player can activate an ability that prevents damage in response to a spell that would deal damage. Once the spell resolves, though, it's too late to prevent the damage.

614.5.615.5.

Some prevention effects also include an additional effect, which may refer to the amount of damage that was prevented. The prevention takes place at the time the original event would have happened; the rest of the effect takes place immediately afterward.

Some prevention effects also include an additional effect, which may refer to the amount of damage that was prevented. The prevention takes place at the time the original event would have happened; the rest of the effect takes place immediately afterward.

614.6.615.6.

If damage that would be dealt is prevented, it never happens. A modified event may occur instead, which may in turn trigger abilities. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the impossible instruction is simply ignored.

If damage that would be dealt is prevented, it never happens. A modified event may occur instead, which may in turn trigger abilities. Note that the modified event may contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the impossible instruction is simply ignored.

614.7.615.7.

Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to a specific amount of damage—for example, "Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn." These work like shields. Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the "shielded" creature or player is prevented. Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1. If damage would be dealt to the shielded creature or player by two or more applicable sources at the same time, the player or the controller of the creature chooses which damage the shield prevents. Once the shield has been reduced to 0, any remaining damage is dealt normally. Such effects count only the amount of damage; the number of events or sources dealing it doesn't matter.

Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to a specific amount of damage—for example, "Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn." These work like shields. Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the "shielded" creature or player is prevented. Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1. If damage would be dealt to the shielded creature or player by two or more applicable sources at the same time, the player or the controller of the creature chooses which damage the shield prevents. Once the shield has been reduced to 0, any remaining damage is dealt normally. Such effects count only the amount of damage; the number of events or sources dealing it doesn't matter.

614.8.615.8.

Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to the next time a specific source would deal damage. These effects prevent the next instance of damage from that source, regardless of how much damage that is. Once an instance of damage from that source has been prevented, any subsequent instances of damage that would be dealt by that source are dealt normally.

Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to the next time a specific source would deal damage. These effects prevent the next instance of damage from that source, regardless of how much damage that is. Once an instance of damage from that source has been prevented, any subsequent instances of damage that would be dealt by that source are dealt normally.

614.9.615.9.

Some prevention effects generated by static abilities refer to a specific amount of damage—for example, "If a source would deal damage to you, prevent 1 of that damage." Such an effect prevents only the indicated amount of damage in any applicable damage event at any given time. It will apply separately to damage from other applicable events that would happen at the same time, or at a different time.

Example: Daunting Defender says "If a source would deal damage to a Cleric creature you control, prevent 1 of that damage." Pyroclasm says "Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature." Pyroclasm will deal 1 damage to each Cleric creature controlled by Daunting Defender's controller. It will deal 2 damage to each other creature that player controls.

Some prevention effects generated by static abilities refer to a specific amount of damage—for example, "If a source would deal damage to you, prevent 1 of that damage." Such an effect prevents only the indicated amount of damage in any applicable damage event at any given time. It will apply separately to damage from other applicable events that would happen at the same time, or at a different time.

Example: Daunting Defender says "If a source would deal damage to a Cleric creature you control, prevent 1 of that damage." Pyroclasm says "Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature." Pyroclasm will deal 1 damage to each Cleric creature controlled by Daunting Defender's controller. It will deal 2 damage to each other creature that player controls.

614.10.615.10.

Some prevention effects prevent the next N damage that would be dealt to each of a number of untargeted creatures. Such an effect creates a prevention shield for each applicable creature when the spell or ability that generates that effect resolves.

Example: Wojek Apothecary has an ability that says "{T}: Prevent the next 1 damage that would be dealt to target creature and each other creature that shares a color with it this turn." When the ability resolves, it gives the target creature and each other creature on the battlefield that shares a color with it at that time a shield preventing the next 1 damage that would be dealt to it. Changing creatures' colors after the ability resolves doesn't add or remove shields, and creatures that enter the battlefield later in the turn don't get the shield.

Some prevention effects prevent the next N damage that would be dealt to each of a number of untargeted creatures. Such an effect creates a prevention shield for each applicable creature when the spell or ability that generates that effect resolves.

Example: Wojek Apothecary has an ability that says "{T}: Prevent the next 1 damage that would be dealt to target creature and each other creature that shares a color with it this turn." When the ability resolves, it gives the target creature and each other creature on the battlefield that shares a color with it at that time a shield preventing the next 1 damage that would be dealt to it. Changing creatures' colors after the ability resolves doesn't add or remove shields, and creatures that enter the battlefield later in the turn don't get the shield.

614.11.615.11.

Some effects state that damage "can't be prevented." If unpreventable damage would be dealt, any applicable prevention effects are still applied to it. Those effects won't prevent any damage, but any additional effects they have will take place.

Some effects state that damage "can't be prevented." If unpreventable damage would be dealt, any applicable prevention effects are still applied to it. Those effects won't prevent any damage, but any additional effects they have will take place.

614.11a.615.11a.

A prevention effect is applied to any particular unpreventable damage event just once. It won't invoke itself repeatedly trying to prevent that damage.

A prevention effect is applied to any particular unpreventable damage event just once. It won't invoke itself repeatedly trying to prevent that damage.

615.616.

Interaction of Replacement and/or Prevention Effects

Interaction of Replacement and/or Prevention Effects

615.1.616.1.

If two or more replacement and/or prevention effects are attempting to modify the way an event affects an object or player, the affected object's controller (or its owner if it has no controller) or the affected player chooses one to apply, following the steps listed below. If two or more players have to make these choices at the same time, choices are made in APNAP order (see rule 101.4).

If two or more replacement and/or prevention effects are attempting to modify the way an event affects an object or player, the affected object's controller (or its owner if it has no controller) or the affected player chooses one to apply, following the steps listed below. If two or more players have to make these choices at the same time, choices are made in APNAP order (see rule 101.4).

615.1a.616.1a.

If any of the replacement and/or prevention effects are self-replacement effects (see rule 613.14), one of them must be chosen. If not, proceed to rule 615.1b.

If any of the replacement and/or prevention effects are self-replacement effects (see rule 614.14), one of them must be chosen. If not, proceed to rule 616.1b.

615.1b.616.1b.

If any of the replacement and/or prevention effects would modify under whose control an object would enter the battlefield, one of them must be chosen. If not, proceed to rule 615.1c.

If any of the replacement and/or prevention effects would modify under whose control an object would enter the battlefield, one of them must be chosen. If not, proceed to rule 616.1c.

615.1c.616.1c.

Any of the applicable replacement and/or prevention effects may be chosen.

Any of the applicable replacement and/or prevention effects may be chosen.

615.1d.616.1d.

Once the chosen effect has been applied, this process is repeated (taking into account only replacement or prevention effects that would now be applicable) until there are no more left to apply.

Example: Two permanents are on the battlefield. One is an enchantment that reads "If a card would be put into a graveyard from anywhere, instead exile it," and the other is a creature that reads "If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from the battlefield, instead shuffle it into its owner's library." The controller of the creature that would be destroyed decides which replacement to apply first; the other does nothing.

Once the chosen effect has been applied, this process is repeated (taking into account only replacement or prevention effects that would now be applicable) until there are no more left to apply.

Example: Two permanents are on the battlefield. One is an enchantment that reads "If a card would be put into a graveyard from anywhere, instead exile it," and the other is a creature that reads "If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from the battlefield, instead shuffle it into its owner's library." The controller of the creature that would be destroyed decides which replacement to apply first; the other does nothing.

615.2.616.2.

A replacement or prevention effect can become applicable to an event as the result of another replacement or prevention effect that modifies the event.

Example: One effect reads "If you would gain life, draw that many cards instead," and another reads "If you would draw a card, return a card from your graveyard to your hand instead." Both effects combine (regardless of the order they came into existence): Instead of gaining 1 life, the player puts a card from his or her graveyard into his or her hand.

A replacement or prevention effect can become applicable to an event as the result of another replacement or prevention effect that modifies the event.

Example: One effect reads "If you would gain life, draw that many cards instead," and another reads "If you would draw a card, return a card from your graveyard to your hand instead." Both effects combine (regardless of the order they came into existence): Instead of gaining 1 life, the player puts a card from his or her graveyard into his or her hand.

702.11d.

At this time, there are no cards with intimidate. It has been added to the rulebook in advance.

702.23e.702.23e.

Continuous effects that affect a phased-out permanent may expire while that permanent is phased out. If so, they will no longer affect that permanent once it's phased in. In particular, effects with "for as long as" durations that track that permanent (see rule 610.2b) end when that permanent phases out because they can no longer see it.

Continuous effects that affect a phased-out permanent may expire while that permanent is phased out. If so, they will no longer affect that permanent once it's phased in. In particular, effects with "for as long as" durations that track that permanent (see rule 611.2b) end when that permanent phases out because they can no longer see it.

702.30c.702.30c.

Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if it was kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. See rule 606, "Linked Abilities."

Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if it was kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

702.34b.702.34b.

To cast a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card's characteristics) are applied to casting this card. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 612, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 706, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use morph to cast a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it enters the battlefield with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

To cast a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card's characteristics) are applied to casting this card. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 706, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use morph to cast a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it enters the battlefield with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

702.69b.702.69b.

The two abilities represented by champion are linked. See rule 606, "Linked Abilities."

The two abilities represented by champion are linked. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

704.5t.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, if a team has 0 or less life, that team loses the game.

704.5u.

In an EDH game, a player that's been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same general over the course of the game loses the game. (See rule 903.)

706.2.706.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics and, for an object on the stack, choices made when casting or activating it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values derived from the text printed on the object (that text being name, mana cost, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, toughness, and/or loyalty), as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . enters the battlefield" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics and, for an object on the stack, choices made when casting or activating it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether it was kicked, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values derived from the text printed on the object (that text being name, mana cost, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, toughness, and/or loyalty), as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . enters the battlefield" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

706.7.706.7.

If a pair of linked abilities are copied, those abilities will be similarly linked to one another on the object that copied them. One ability refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the other. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the copy may currently have or may have had in the past. See rule 606, "Linked Abilities."

If a pair of linked abilities are copied, those abilities will be similarly linked to one another on the object that copied them. One ability refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the other. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the copy may currently have or may have had in the past. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

707.2.707.2.

Face-down spells and face-down permanents have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the spell or permanent to be face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 612, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 706, "Copying Objects.")

Face-down spells and face-down permanents have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the spell or permanent to be face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 706, "Copying Objects.")

710.1.710.1.

One card (Mindslaver) allows a player's turn to be controlled by another player. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes. The entire turn is controlled; the effect doesn't end until the beginning of the next turn.

Two cards (Mindslaver and Sorin Markov) allow a player's turn to be controlled by another player. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes. The entire turn is controlled; the effect doesn't end until the beginning of the next turn.

711.1.711.1.

One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when it resolves. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 607, "Resolving Spells and Abilities").

One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when it resolves. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities").

711.1a.711.1a.

Exile every object on the stack, including the object that's resolving. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures, if any, from combat. Remove all planeswalkers from combat. All objects not on the battlefield that aren't represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based actions are checked (see rule 704, "State-Based Actions").

Exile every object on the stack, including the object that's resolving. Remove all creatures and planeswalkers (including those that are phased out) from combat. All objects not on the battlefield that aren't represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based actions are checked (see rule 704, "State-Based Actions").

801.15.801.15.

Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 613, "Replacement Effects," and rule 614, "Prevention Effects."

Replacement and prevention effects watch for a particular event to happen and then completely or partially replace that event. The limited range of influence option can cause the modified event to contain instructions that can't be carried out, in which case the player simply ignores the impossible instructions. See rule 614, "Replacement Effects," and rule 615, "Prevention Effects."

805.4.

Free-for-All games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rules 801.16 and 801.17.

806.6a.806.6a.

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. First, each player on the starting team declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult during this process, but a player can't see the result of his or her teammate's mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her deck, then draws a new hand. In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, his or her new hand is seven cards; each subsequent mulligan that player takes results in a hand of one fewer cards than the last. If a player kept his or her hand of cards, those cards become the player's opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player's hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.)

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. First, each player on the starting team declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult during this process, but a player can't see the result of his or her teammate's mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her library, then draws a new hand. In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, his or her new hand is seven cards; each subsequent mulligan that player takes results in a hand of one fewer cards than the last. If a player kept his or her hand of cards, those cards become the player's opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player's hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.)

806.8.806.8.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 104), with the following additions.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 104), with the following additions and specifications.

806.8b.806.8a.

Players win and lose the game only as a team, not as individuals. If either player on a team loses the game, the team loses the game. If either player on a team wins the game, the entire team wins the game. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game, that player's team can't win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game, that player's team can't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Transcendence, which reads, in part, "You don't lose the game for having 0 or less life." If that player's team's life total is 0 or less, that team doesn't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player's library. That player loses the game, so that player's entire team loses the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Platinum Angel, which reads, "You can't lose the game and your opponents can't win the game." Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is on the battlefield, and neither player on the opposing team can win the game.

Players win and lose the game only as a team, not as individuals. If either player on a team loses the game, the team loses the game. If either player on a team wins the game, the entire team wins the game. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game, that player's team can't win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game, that player's team can't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Transcendence, which reads, in part, "You don't lose the game for having 0 or less life." If that player's team's life total is 0 or less, that team doesn't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player's library. That player loses the game, so that player's entire team loses the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Platinum Angel, which reads, "You can't lose the game and your opponents can't win the game." Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is on the battlefield, and neither player on the opposing team can win the game.

806.8c.806.8b.

If a player concedes, his or her team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.

If a player concedes, his or her team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.

806.8a.806.8c.

If a team's life total is 0 or less, the team loses the game the next time a team would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

If a team's life total is 0 or less, the team loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

807.5.807.5.

The Emperor variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rules 801.16 and 801.17, and with the following additions.

The Emperor variant includes the following specifications for winning and losing the game. All other rules for winning and losing the game also apply. (See rule 104.)

808.6.

The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rules 801.16 and 801.17.

809.5.

Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rules 801.16 and 801.17.

809.6.809.5.

In the Teams variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates can't review each other's hands unless they are sitting next to each other. Teammates may discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

In the Teams variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates can't review each other's hands unless they are sitting next to each other. Teammates may discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

901.11.

Two-player Planar Magic games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), while Free-for-All Planar Magic games use the normal Free-for-All rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 805.4).

901.12.901.11.

A Two-Headed Giant Planar Magic game uses all the rules for the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant and all the rules for the Planar Magic casual variant, with the following additions.

A Two-Headed Giant Planar Magic game uses all the rules for the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant and all the rules for the Planar Magic casual variant, with the following additions.

901.12a.901.11a.

Each player has his or her own planar deck.

Each player has his or her own planar deck.

901.12b.901.11b.

The planar controller is normally the primary player of the active team. However, if the current planar controller's team would leave the game, instead the primary player of the next team in turn order that wouldn't leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller's team leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different team becomes the active team, whichever comes first.

The planar controller is normally the primary player of the active team. However, if the current planar controller's team would leave the game, instead the primary player of the next team in turn order that wouldn't leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller's team leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different team becomes the active team, whichever comes first.

901.12c.901.11c.

Even though the face-up plane is controlled by just one player, any ability of that plane that refers to "you" applies to both members of the planar controller's team.

Even though the face-up plane is controlled by just one player, any ability of that plane that refers to "you" applies to both members of the planar controller's team.

901.12d.901.11d.

Since each member of the active team is an active player, each of them may roll the planar die. Each player's cost to roll the planar die is based on the number of times that particular player has already rolled the planar die that turn.

Since each member of the active team is an active player, each of them may roll the planar die. Each player's cost to roll the planar die is based on the number of times that particular player has already rolled the planar die that turn.

901.13.901.12.

In multiplayer formats other than Grand Melee, plane cards are exempt from the limited range of influence option. Their abilities, and the effects of those abilities, affect all applicable objects and players in the game. (See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option.")

In multiplayer formats other than Grand Melee, plane cards are exempt from the limited range of influence option. Their abilities, and the effects of those abilities, affect all applicable objects and players in the game. (See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option.")

901.14.901.13.

In Grand Melee Planar Magic games, multiple plane cards may be face up at the same time.

In Grand Melee Planar Magic games, multiple plane cards may be face up at the same time.

901.14a.901.13a.

Before the first turn of the game of the game, each player who will start the game with a turn marker moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. Each of them is a planar controller.

Before the first turn of the game of the game, each player who will start the game with a turn marker moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. Each of them is a planar controller.

901.14b.901.13b.

If a player would leave the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game, that player first ceases to be a planar controller (but no other player becomes a planar controller), then that player leaves the game. The face-up plane card that player controlled is put on the bottom of its owner's planar deck. No player is considered to have planeswalked.

If a player would leave the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game, that player first ceases to be a planar controller (but no other player becomes a planar controller), then that player leaves the game. The face-up plane card that player controlled is put on the bottom of its owner's planar deck. No player is considered to have planeswalked.

901.15.901.14.

Single Planar Deck Option

Single Planar Deck Option

901.15a.901.14a.

As an alternative option, a Planar Magic game may be played with just a single communal planar deck. In that case, the number of cards in the planar deck must be at least forty or at least ten times the number of players in the game, whichever is smaller. Each card in the planar deck must have a different English name.

As an alternative option, a Planar Magic game may be played with just a single communal planar deck. In that case, the number of cards in the planar deck must be at least forty or at least ten times the number of players in the game, whichever is smaller. Each card in the planar deck must have a different English name.

901.15b.901.14b.

In a Planar Magic game using the single planar deck option, the planar controller is considered to be the owner of all the plane cards.

In a Planar Magic game using the single planar deck option, the planar controller is considered to be the owner of all the plane cards.

901.15c.901.14c.

If any rule or ability refers to a player's planar deck, the communal planar deck is used.

If any rule or ability refers to a player's planar deck, the communal planar deck is used.

902.

Vanguard

902.1.

In the Vanguard variant, a vanguard card allows each player to play the role of a famous character. Each player will have one face-up vanguard card whose abilities and other characteristics affect the game. The Vanguard variant uses all the normal rules for a Magic game, with the following additions.

902.2.

A Vanguard game may be a two-player game or a multiplayer game.

902.3.

In addition to the normal game materials, each player needs a vanguard card. Each vanguard card is placed face up next to its owner's library before the game begins. All vanguard cards remain in the command zone throughout the game.

902.4.

Each player's starting life total is 20, as modified by the life modifier of his or her vanguard card.

Example: The life modifier of a player's vanguard card is -3. That player starts the game with 17 life.

902.5.

Each player draws a hand of seven cards, as modified by the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.

902.5a.

If a player takes a mulligan in a Vanguard game, just like in a normal game, that player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her library, then draws a new hand of one fewer cards than he or she had before. (In a multiplayer game, a player's first mulligan is for the same number of cards as he or she had before.)

Example: The hand modifier of a player's vanguard card is +2. That player starts the game with a hand of 9 cards. If the player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of 8 cards. The next mulligan is for 7 cards, and so on.

902.5b.

A player's maximum hand size is seven, as modified by the hand modifier of his or her vanguard card.

Example: The hand modifier of a player's vanguard card is -1. That player's maximum hand size is six. If that player has more than six cards in his or her hand as the cleanup step begins, he or she will discard all but six of them.

902.6.

The owner of a vanguard card is the player who started the game with it in the command zone. The controller of a face-up vanguard card is its owner.

902.7.

Any abilities of a face-up vanguard card in the command zone function from that zone. The card's static abilities affect the game, its triggered abilities may trigger, and its activated abilities may be activated.

903.

EDH

903.1.

In the EDH variant, each deck is led by a legendary creature designated as that deck's general. The EDH variant uses all the normal rules for a Magic game, with the following additions.

903.2.

An EDH game may be a two-player game or a multiplayer game. The default multiplayer setup is the Free-for-All variant with the attack multiple players option and without the limited range of influence option. See rule 805, "Free-for-All Variant."

903.3.

Each deck has a legendary creature card designated as its general. This designation is not a characteristic of the object represented by the card; rather, it is an attribute of the card itself. The card retains this designation even when it changes zones.

Example: A general that's been turned face down (due to Ixidron's effect, for example) is still a general. A general that's copying another card (due to Cytoshape's effect, for example) is still a general. A permanent that's copying a general (such as a Body Double, for example, copying a general in a player's graveyard) is not a general.

903.4.

Each EDH deck is subject to the following deck construction rules.

903.4a.

Each deck must contain exactly 100 cards, including its general.

903.4b.

Other than basic lands, each card in an EDH deck must have a different English name.

903.4c.

A card may be included in an EDH deck only if each mana symbol contained within its mana cost or rules text is colorless or is a color or colors that's in the general's mana cost.

Example: A deck has a white-blue general. Each mana symbol in each card in that deck must be white, blue, white-blue hybrid, or colorless.

903.4d.

A basic land card may be included in an EDH deck only if it could produce a color of mana that's in the general's mana cost.

Example: A deck has a white-blue general. It may include basic Plains and basic Islands, but not basic Swamps, basic Mountains, or basic Forests.

903.5.

At the start of the game, each player puts his or her general face up next to his or her library. The generals start the game in the command zone. Then each player shuffles the remaining 99 cards of his or her deck so that the cards are in a random order. Those cards become the player's library.

903.6.

Once the starting player has been determined, each player sets his or her life total to 40 and draws a hand of seven cards.

903.7.

The EDH casual variant uses an alternate mulligan rule. Each time a player takes a mulligan, rather than shuffling his or her entire hand of cards into his or her library, that player exiles any number of cards from his or her hand. Then the player draws a number of cards equal to one less than the number of cards he or she exiled this way. Once a player keeps an opening hand, that player shuffles all cards he or she exiled this way into his or her library.

903.8.

If a player would add mana to his or her mana pool of a color that isn't in the mana cost of his or her deck's general, that player adds colorless mana to his or her mana pool instead.

903.9.

A player may cast a general he or she owns from the command zone. Doing so costs that player an additional {2} for each previous time he or she cast that general from the command zone that game.

903.10.

If a general would be put into its owner's graveyard from anywhere, that player may put it into the command zone instead.

903.11.

If a general would be put into the exile zone from anywhere, its owner may put it into the command zone instead.

903.12.

The EDH variant includes the following specification for winning and losing the game. All other rules for winning and losing the game also apply. (See rule 104.)

903.12a.

A player that's been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same general over the course of the game loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

As ThoughAs Though

Text used to indicate that the game, for some specific purpose, treats a condition as true even though it's not. See rule 608.4.

Text used to indicate that the game, for some specific purpose, treats a condition as true even though it's not. See rule 609.4.

Collector NumberCollector Number

A number printed on most cards that has no effect on game play. See rule 209, "Information Below the Text Box."

A number printed on most cards that has no effect on game play. See rule 211, "Information Below the Text Box."

Continuous EffectContinuous Effect

An effect that modifies characteristics of objects, modifies control of objects, or affects players or the rules of the game, for a fixed or indefinite period. See rule 610, "Continuous Effects."

An effect that modifies characteristics of objects, modifies control of objects, or affects players or the rules of the game, for a fixed or indefinite period. See rule 611, "Continuous Effects."

DependencyDependency

A system that may be used to determine in which order continuous effects in the same layer or sublayer are applied. See rule 612.7. See also Timestamp Order.

A system that may be used to determine in which order continuous effects in the same layer or sublayer are applied. See rule 613.7. See also Timestamp Order.

EDH

A casual variant in which each deck is led by a legendary general. See rule 903, "EDH."

EffectEffect

Something that happens in the game as a result of a spell or ability. See rule 608, "Effects."

Something that happens in the game as a result of a spell or ability. See rule 609, "Effects."

Enters the BattlefieldEnters the Battlefield

A nontoken permanent "enters the battlefield" when it's moved onto the battlefield from another zone. A token "enters the battlefield" when it's created. See rules 403.3, 603.6a, 603.6e, and 613.12.

A nontoken permanent "enters the battlefield" when it's moved onto the battlefield from another zone. A token "enters the battlefield" when it's created. See rules 403.3, 603.6a, 603.6e, and 614.12.

GeneralGeneral

Any player in the Emperor multiplayer variant who isn't an emperor. See rule 807, "Emperor Variant."

1. Any player in the Emperor multiplayer variant who isn't an emperor. See rule 807, "Emperor Variant." 2. A designation given to a card in the EDH casual variant. See rule 903, "EDH."

Hand Modifier

A characteristic that only vanguards have. See rule 209, "Hand Modifier."

Illegal TargetIllegal Target

A target that no longer exists or no longer meets the specifications stated by the spell or ability that's targeting it. See rule 607.2b.

A target that no longer exists or no longer meets the specifications stated by the spell or ability that's targeting it. See rule 608.2b.

Illustration CreditIllustration Credit

Information printed directly below the text box that has no effect on game play. See rule 209, "Information Below the Text Box."

Information printed directly below the text box that has no effect on game play. See rule 211, "Information Below the Text Box."

InsteadInstead

Effects that use the word "instead" are replacement effects. The word "instead" indicates what an event will be replaced with. See rule 613, "Replacement Effects."

Effects that use the word "instead" are replacement effects. The word "instead" indicates what an event will be replaced with. See rule 614, "Replacement Effects."

Last Known InformationLast Known Information

Information about an object that's no longer in the zone it's expected to be in, or information about a player that's no longer in the game. This information captures that object's last existence in that zone or that player's last existence in the game. See rules 112.6a, 607.2b, 607.2g, and 800.4f.

Information about an object that's no longer in the zone it's expected to be in, or information about a player that's no longer in the game. This information captures that object's last existence in that zone or that player's last existence in the game. See rules 112.7a, 608.2b, 608.2g, and 800.4f.

LayerLayer

A system used to determine in which order continuous effects are applied. See rule 612, "Interaction of Continuous Effects." See also Dependency, Timestamp Order.

A system used to determine in which order continuous effects are applied. See rule 613, "Interaction of Continuous Effects." See also Dependency, Timestamp Order.

Legal TextLegal Text

Information printed directly below the text box that has no effect on game play. See rule 209, "Information Below the Text Box."

Information printed directly below the text box that has no effect on game play. See rule 211, "Information Below the Text Box."

Life Modifier

A characteristic that only vanguards have. See rule 210, "Life Modifier."

Linked AbilitiesLinked Abilities

Two abilities printed on the same object such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. See rule 606, "Linked Abilities."

Two abilities printed on the same object such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

Loyalty Ability

An activated ability with a loyalty symbol in its cost. See rule 606, "Loyalty Abilities."

One-Shot EffectOne-Shot Effect

An effect that does something just once and doesn't have a duration. See rule 609, "One-Shot Effects." See also Continuous Effects.

An effect that does something just once and doesn't have a duration. See rule 610, "One-Shot Effects." See also Continuous Effects.

PreventPrevent

A word used by prevention effects to indicate what damage will not be dealt. See rule 614, "Prevention Effects."

A word used by prevention effects to indicate what damage will not be dealt. See rule 615, "Prevention Effects."

Prevention EffectPrevention Effect

A kind of continuous effect that watches for a damage event that would happen and completely or partially prevents the damage that would be dealt. See rule 614, "Prevention Effects."

A kind of continuous effect that watches for a damage event that would happen and completely or partially prevents the damage that would be dealt. See rule 615, "Prevention Effects."

Redirection EffectRedirection Effect

A kind of replacement effect that causes damage that would be dealt to one creature, planeswalker, or player to be dealt instead to another creature, planeswalker, or player. See rule 613.9.

A kind of replacement effect that causes damage that would be dealt to one creature, planeswalker, or player to be dealt instead to another creature, planeswalker, or player. See rule 614.9.

Replacement EffectReplacement Effect

A kind of continuous effect that watches for a particular event that would happen and completely or partially replaces that event with a different event. See rule 613, "Replacement Effects."

A kind of continuous effect that watches for a particular event that would happen and completely or partially replaces that event with a different event. See rule 614, "Replacement Effects."

ResolveResolve

When the spell or ability on top of the stack "resolves," its instructions are followed and it has its effect. See rule 607, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

When the spell or ability on top of the stack "resolves," its instructions are followed and it has its effect. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

SkipSkip

Effects that use the word "skip" are replacement effects. The word "skip" indicates what events, steps, phases, or turns will be replaced with nothing. See rule 613, "Replacement Effects."

Effects that use the word "skip" are replacement effects. The word "skip" indicates what events, steps, phases, or turns will be replaced with nothing. See rule 614, "Replacement Effects."

Source of an AbilitySource of an Ability

The object that generated that ability. See rule 112.6.

The object that generated that ability. See rule 112.7.

Source of DamageSource of Damage

The object that dealt that damage. See rule 608.7.

The object that dealt that damage. See rule 609.7.

Text-Changing EffectText-Changing Effect

A continuous effect that changes the text that appears in an object's text box and/or type line. See rule 611, "Text-Changing Effects."

A continuous effect that changes the text that appears in an object's text box and/or type line. See rule 612, "Text-Changing Effects."

Timestamp OrderTimestamp Order

A system used to determine in which order continuous effects in the same layer or sublayer are applied. See rule 612.6. See also Dependency.

A system used to determine in which order continuous effects in the same layer or sublayer are applied. See rule 613.6. See also Dependency.

Type-Changing EffectType-Changing Effect

An effect that changes an object's card type, subtype, and/or supertype. See rule 612.1d.

An effect that changes an object's card type, subtype, and/or supertype. See rule 613.1d.

Vanguard

1. A casual variant in which each player plays the role of a famous character. See rule 902, "Vanguard." 2. A card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards in the Vanguard casual variant. A vanguard card is not a permanent. See rule 310, "Vanguards."