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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Lorwyn to Morningtide

General changes

Old rule (Lorwyn) New rule (Morningtide)

103.4a.

If an effect has each player choose a card in a hidden zone, such as his or her hand or library, those cards may remain face down as they're chosen. However, each player must clearly indicate which face-down card he or she is choosing.

103.4a.

A player knows the choices made by the previous players when he or she makes his or her choice.

103.4b.

A player knows the choices made by the previous players when he or she makes his or her choice, except as specified in 103.4a.

103.4b.

If a player would make more than one choice at the same time, the player makes the choices in the order written, or in the order he or she chooses if the choices aren't ordered.

103.4c.

If a player would make more than one choice at the same time, the player makes the choices in the order written, or in the order he or she chooses if the choices aren't ordered.

212.4j.

If an Aura is coming into play by any means other than by being played and the effect putting it into play doesn't specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, the player putting it into play chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura's enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If the player can't make a legal choice, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play.

212.4j.

If an Aura is coming into play under a player's control by any means other than by being played, and the effect putting it into play doesn't specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, that player chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura's enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If the player can't make a legal choice, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play.

217.1a.

If an object would go to any library, graveyard, or hand other than its owner's, it goes to the corresponding zone of its owner's instead. If an instant or sorcery card would come into play, it remains in its previous zone instead.

217.1a.

If an object would go to any library, graveyard, or hand other than its owner's, it goes to its owner's corresponding zone. If an instant or sorcery card would come into play, it remains in its previous zone.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are four exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (4) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are four exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects from spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (4) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

300.2.

A phase or step ends when the stack is empty and all players pass in succession. No game events can occur between turns, phases, or steps. Simply having the stack become empty doesn't cause the phase or step to end; all players have to pass with the stack empty. Because of this, each player gets a chance to add new things to the stack before the current phase or step ends.

300.2.

A phase or step in which players receive priority ends when the stack is empty and all players pass in succession. No game events can occur between turns, phases, or steps. Simply having the stack become empty doesn't cause such a phase or step to end; all players have to pass with the stack empty. Because of this, each player gets a chance to add new things to the stack before that phase or step ends. A step in which no players receive priority ends when all specified actions that take place during that step are completed. The only such steps are the untap step (see rule 302) and certain cleanup steps (see rule 314).

308.2a.

For each untapped creature the active player controls that he or she has controlled continuously since the beginning of the turn or that has haste, that player either chooses not to attack with it, or chooses an opponent or a planeswalker controlled by an opponent for that creature to attack. Then he or she determines whether this set of attackers is legal. (See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks.")

308.2a.

The active player chooses which creatures that he or she controls, if any, will attack. The chosen creatures must be untapped, and each one must either have haste or have been controlled by the active player continuously since the beginning of the turn. For each of the chosen creatures, the active player chooses an opponent or a planeswalker controlled by an opponent for that creature to attack. Then he or she determines whether this set of attackers is legal. (See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks.")

309.2a.

For each untapped creature the defending player controls, that player either chooses not to block with it, or chooses one creature for it to block that's attacking him, her, or a planeswalker he or she controls. Then he or she determines whether this set of blocks is legal. (See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks.")

309.2a.

The defending player chooses which creatures that he or she controls, if any, will block. The chosen creatures must be untapped. For each of the chosen creatures, the defending player chooses one creature for it to block that's attacking him, her, or a planeswalker he or she controls. Then he or she determines whether this set of blocks is legal. (See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks.")

310.4b.

The source of the combat damage is the creature as it currently exists, if it's still in play. If it's no longer in play, its last known information is used to determine its characteristics.

310.4b.

The source of the combat damage is the creature as it currently exists, if it's still in play. If it's no longer in play, its last known information is used.

405.2.

Some objects have intrinsic static abilities that define the object's colors, subtypes, power, or toughness. These abilities are characteristic-defining abilities, and they function in all zones. Abilities of an object that affect the characteristics of another object are not characteristic-defining abilities. Neither are abilities that an object grants to itself, or abilities that set the values of such characteristics only if certain conditions are met. See rule 201, "Characteristics," and rule 418.5a.

405.2.

A characteristic-defining ability is a kind of static ability. It conveys information about an object's characteristics that would normally be found elsewhere on that object (such as in its mana cost, type line, or power/toughness box). Characteristic-defining abilities function in all zones.

405.2a.

A static ability is a characteristic-defining ability if it meets the following criteria: 1) It defines an object's colors, subtypes, power, or toughness; 2) It is printed on the card it affects, it was granted to the token it affects by the effect that created the token, or it was acquired by the object it affects as the result of a copy effect; 3) It does not directly affect the characteristics of any other objects; 4) It is not an ability that an object grants to itself; and 5) It does not set the values of such characteristics only if certain conditions are met.

409.1a.

The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability. It moves from the zone it's in to the stack and remains there until it's countered or resolves. In the case of spells, the physical card goes onto the stack. In the case of activated abilities, the ability goes onto the stack without any card associated with it. If the ability is being played from a hidden zone, the card with that ability is revealed. Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the player who played the spell. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability.

409.1a.

The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability. If a spell is being played, that card (or that copy of a card) physically moves from the zone it's in to the stack. It has all the characteristics of the card (or the copy of a card) associated with it, and its controller is the player who played it. If an activated ability is being played, it's created on the stack as an object that's not a card. If an activated ability is being played from a hidden zone, the card that has that ability is revealed. On the stack, the ability has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. Its controller is the player who played the ability. The spell or ability remains on the stack until it's countered or resolves.

410.2.

Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability's trigger event, that ability triggers. When a phase or step begins, all abilities that trigger "at the beginning of" that phase or step trigger. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered,unless it's a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. The ability doesn't do anything when it triggers, but it's automatically put on the stack by its controller as soon as a player would receive priority. Each triggered ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics.

410.2.

Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability's trigger event, that ability triggers. When a phase or step begins, all abilities that trigger "at the beginning of" that phase or step trigger. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. The ability doesn't do anything when it triggers, but it's automatically put on the stack by its controller as soon as a player would receive priority. Each triggered ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics.

413.2a.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's moved out of the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process to determine its characteristics. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally, affecting only the targets that are still legal. If a target is illegal, the spell or ability can't perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left play), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell.

413.2a.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's moved out of the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally, affecting only the targets that are still legal. If a target is illegal, the spell or ability can't perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left play), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell.

413.2c.

If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible. (For example, a player can't avoid the consequences of not taking an optional action if he or she can't meet all the immediate requirements of that action.) Drawing a card is never considered an impossible action, even if there are no cards in the affected player's library.

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

413.2c.

If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible. (For example, if a player can't meet all the immediate requirements of an optional action, then he or she can't take that action, regardless of the consequences for not doing it.) Note that as an exception, having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action. See rule 423.3.

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

418.3d.

Some effects from activated or triggered abilities have durations worded "as long as . . . ." If the "as long as" duration ends between the end of playing the activated ability or putting the triggered ability onto the stack and the moment when the effect would first be applied, the effect does nothing. It doesn't start and immediately stop again, and it doesn't last forever.

Example: Endoskeleton is an artifact with an activated ability that reads "{2}, {T}: Target creature gets +0/+3 as long as Endoskeleton remains tapped." If you play this ability and then Endoskeleton becomes untapped before the ability resolves, it does nothing, because its duration-remaining tapped-was over before the effect began.

418.3d.

Some effects from activated or triggered abilities have durations worded "as long as . . . ." If the "as long as" duration ends before the moment the effect would first be applied, the effect does nothing. It doesn't start and immediately stop again, and it doesn't last forever.

Example: Endoskeleton is an artifact with an activated ability that reads "{2}, {T}: Target creature gets +0/+3 as long as Endoskeleton remains tapped." If you play this ability and then Endoskeleton becomes untapped before the ability resolves, it does nothing, because its duration-remaining tapped-was over before the effect began.

419.6i.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent would be put into play. (See rules 419.1b-c.) Such effects check only the copiable values of the characteristics of that permanent as it would exist in play. Continuous effects that affected its characteristics in its previous zone or that will affect its characteristics once it's in play are not taken into account. Replacement effects that have already modified how it would be put into play are taken into account, however. (See rule 503.5.) Some permanents have static abilities that modify how a general subset of permanents would be put into play; such an ability doesn't affect the permanent itself or any permanents coming into play at the same time as it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put into play, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk is put into play tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put into play from a graveyard is put into play tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents come into play tapped." It will not affect itself, so Orb of Dreams is put into play untapped.

419.6i.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent comes into play. (See rules 419.1b-c.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. To determine how and whether these replacement effects apply, check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist in play, taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it comes into play, continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent's characteristics on the stack (see rule 217.1c), and continuous effects from the permanent's own static abilities, but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put into play, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk is put into play tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put into play from a graveyard is put into play tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents come into play tapped." It will not affect itself, so Orb of Dreams is put into play untapped.

419.8a.

Some effects apply to damage from a source-for example, "The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn, prevent that damage." If an effect requires a player to choose a source, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including an artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker spell); any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack; or a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack, even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the prevention will apply to the next damage from that permanent, regardless of whether it's from one of that permanent's abilities or combat damage dealt by it. If the player chooses an artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker spell, the prevention will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves.

419.8a.

Some effects apply to damage from a source-for example, "The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn, prevent that damage." If an effect requires a player to choose a source, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including an artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker spell); any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack; or a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack, even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage from that permanent, regardless of whether it's from one of that permanent's abilities or combat damage dealt by it. If the player chooses an artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker spell, the effect will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves.

420.5j.

A copy of a spell in a zone other than the stack ceases to exist. A copy of a card in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone ceases to exist.

420.5j.

If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack, it ceases to exist. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone, it ceases to exist.

423.3.

If there are no cards in a player's library and an effect offers that player the choice to draw a card, that player may choose to do so. See rule 413.2c.

423.3.

If there are no cards in a player's library and an effect offers that player the choice to draw a card, that player may choose to do so.

424.1.

A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action.

424.1.

A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place.

502.76.

Prowl

502.76a.

Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. "Prowl [cost]" means "You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell's mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that, at the time it dealt that damage, was under your control and had any of this spell's creature types." Paying a spell's prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

502.76b.

If a source that assigned combat damage left play before combat damage resolved, its last known information is used to determine its controller and its creature types.

502.77.

Reinforce

502.77a.

Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player's hand. "Reinforce N-[cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature."

502.77b.

Although the reinforce ability is playable only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. Therefore objects with reinforce will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

503.10.

To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack; a copy of a spell or ability isn't "played." A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made when it was played, including mode, targets, the value of X, and optional additional costs such as buyback. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, even though it has no spell card associated with it. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

503.10.

To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack; a copy of a spell or ability isn't "played." A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made when it was played, including modes, targets, the value of X, and additional or alternative costs. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, even though it has no spell card associated with it. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

503.10a.

A copy of a spell in a zone other than the stack ceases to exist. A copy of a card in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone ceases to exist. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.

503.10a.

If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack, it ceases to exist. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the in-play zone, it ceases to exist. These are state-based effects. See rule 420.

505.7.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a split card, the player must name both halves of the split card.

505.7.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a split card, the player must name both halves of the split card. An object has the chosen name if it has at least one of the two names chosen this way.

508.2.

In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says "search your library for a legendary card" can't find this flip card. An effect that says "legendary creatures get +2/+2" doesn't affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.

508.2.

In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the card. Once a permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, its normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says "search your library for a legendary card" can't find this flip card. An effect that says "legendary creatures get +2/+2" doesn't affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.

508.3.

If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects.

508.3.

You must ensure that it's clear at all times whether a permanent you control is flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects.

508.5.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card and the player wants to name a flip card's alternative name, the player may do so.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Lorwyn (tm) set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Morningtide (tm) set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Change a Target

The target of a spell or ability can change only to another legal target. If the target can't change to another legal target, the original target is unchanged. Changing a spell or ability's target can't change its mode. You can change the target of a spell or ability only if an effect tells you to change its target. See rule 415.7, "Changing Targets."

Change a Target

The target of a spell or ability can change only to another legal target. If the target can't change to another legal target, the original target is unchanged. Changing a spell or ability's target can't change its modes. You can change the target of a spell or ability only if an effect tells you to change its target. See rule 415.7, "Changing Targets."

Characteristic-Defining Ability

Some objects have intrinsic static abilities that define the object's colors, subtypes, power, or toughness. These abilities are characteristic-defining abilities, and they function in all zones. See rule 405.2.

Characteristic-Defining Ability

A characteristic-defining ability is a kind of static ability that conveys information about an object's characteristics that would normally be found elsewhere on that object (such as in its mana cost, type line, or power/toughness box). Characteristic-defining abilities function in all zones. See rule 405.2.

Cost

Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost. Most costs are paid in mana, but costs may also include paying life, tapping or sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 424, "Costs," rule 203, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 403, "Activated Abilities." Some spells and abilities have no cost. In such instances, the cost can't be paid.

Cost

A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost. Most costs are paid in mana, but costs may also include paying life, tapping or sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 424, "Costs," rule 203, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 403, "Activated Abilities." Some spells and abilities have no cost. In such instances, the cost can't be paid.

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Advisor, Anemone, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Morningtide set, is as follows: Advisor, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Morningtide set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Flip Cards

Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card's normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. See rule 508, "Flip Cards." The top half of a flip card contains the card's normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to "flip" if certain conditions are met. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply. In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it's impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if flipped permanent leaves play, it retains no memory of its status.

Flip Cards

Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card's normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. See rule 508, "Flip Cards." The top half of a flip card contains the card's normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to "flip" if certain conditions are met. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply. In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it's impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if flipped permanent leaves play, it retains no memory of its status. If an effect tells you to name a card, you may name a flip card's alternative name.

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Morningtide set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Ajani, Chandra, Garruk, Jace, Liliana.

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Morningtide set, is as follows: Ajani, Chandra, Garruk, Jace, Liliana.

Prowl

Prowl is a static ability that functions on the stack. "Prowl [cost]" means "You may pay [cost] rather than pay this spell's mana cost if a player was dealt combat damage this turn by a source that, at the time it dealt that damage, was under your control and had any of this spell's creature types." Paying a spell's prowl cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.76, "Prowl."

Reinforce

Reinforce is an activated ability that functions only while the card with reinforce is in a player's hand. "Reinforce N-[cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Put N +1/+1 counters on target creature." See rule 502.77, "Reinforce."

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Arcane.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Morningtide set, is as follows: Arcane.

Split Cards

Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal, full-size Magic card back. Split cards have two sets of characteristics (two names, two mana costs, and so on) and two converted mana costs. They always have both sets, except when they're spells on the stack. When you play a split card, you announce which side you're playing. While it's on the stack, the other side is ignored completely. See rule 505, "Split Cards." If a split card's two mana costs have different colors of mana in them, it's a multicolored card while it's not on the stack. A split card is a multicolored card on the stack only if the half that's been played is multicolored. If an effect tells you to name a card, you must name all of a split card's names. An effect that asks for a split card's characteristic while it's in a zone other than the stack gets both answers. An effect that performs a positive comparison or a relative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of those split cards would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. An effect that performs a negative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a "no" answer.

Split Cards

Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal, full-size Magic card back. Split cards have two sets of characteristics (two names, two mana costs, and so on) and two converted mana costs. They always have both sets, except when they're spells on the stack. When you play a split card, you announce which side you're playing. While it's on the stack, the other side is ignored completely. See rule 505, "Split Cards." If a split card's two mana costs have different colors of mana in them, it's a multicolored card while it's not on the stack. A split card is a multicolored card on the stack only if the half that's been played is multicolored. If an effect tells you to name a card, you must name all of a split card's names. An object has the chosen name if it has at least one of the two names chosen this way. An effect that asks for a split card's characteristic while it's in a zone other than the stack gets both answers. An effect that performs a positive comparison or a relative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of those split cards would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. An effect that performs a negative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a "no" answer.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Morningtide set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.