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Magic Rules Changes

Magic 2010 to Planechase

General

Magic 2010Planechase
1.1.

The Game

Game Concepts

100.2.100.2.

To play, each player needs his or her own deck, small items to represent any tokens and counters, and some way to clearly track life totals.

To play, each player needs his or her own deck of traditional Magic cards, small items to represent any tokens and counters, and some way to clearly track life totals.

100.2b.100.2b.

In limited play (a way of playing in which each player gets a quantity of unopened Magic product and creates his or her own deck on the spot), each deck must contain at least forty cards. A deck may contain as many duplicates of a card as a player has.

In limited play (a way of playing in which each player gets a quantity of unopened Magic product and creates his or her own deck on the spot), each deck must contain at least forty cards. A limited deck may contain as many duplicates of a card as a player has.

100.3.

Some casual variants (either constructed or limited) require additional items, such as specially designated cards, nontraditional Magic cards, and dice. See section 9, "Casual Variants."

100.3.100.4.

Each player may also have a sideboard, which is a group of additional cards the player may use to modify his or her deck between games of a match.

Each player may also have a sideboard, which is a group of additional cards the player may use to modify his or her deck between games of a match.

100.3a.100.4a.

In constructed play, a sideboard (if used) must contain exactly fifteen cards. The four-card limit (see rule 100.2a) applies to the combined deck and sideboard.

In constructed play, a sideboard (if used) must contain exactly fifteen cards. The four-card limit (see rule 100.2a) applies to the combined deck and sideboard.

100.3b.100.4b.

In limited play involving individual players, all cards a player opens but doesn't include in his or her deck are in that player's sideboard.

In limited play involving individual players, all cards a player opens but doesn't include in his or her deck are in that player's sideboard.

100.3c.100.4c.

In limited play involving the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, all cards a team opens but doesn't include in either player's deck are in that team's sideboard.

In limited play involving the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, all cards a team opens but doesn't include in either player's deck are in that team's sideboard.

100.3d.100.4d.

In limited play involving other multiplayer team variants, each card a team opens but doesn't include in any player's deck is assigned to the sideboard of one of those players. Each player has his or her own sideboard; cards may not be transferred between players.

In limited play involving other multiplayer team variants, each card a team opens but doesn't include in any player's deck is assigned to the sideboard of one of those players. Each player has his or her own sideboard; cards may not be transferred between players.

100.4.100.5.

There is no maximum deck size.

There is no maximum deck size.

100.5.100.6.

Most Magic tournaments (organized play activities where players compete against other players to win prizes) have additional rules covered in the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules (found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home). These rules may limit the use of some cards, including barring all cards from some older sets.

Most Magic tournaments (organized play activities where players compete against other players to win prizes) have additional rules covered in the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules (found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home). These rules may limit the use of some cards, including barring all cards from some older sets.

100.5a.100.6a.

Tournaments usually consist of a series of matches. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games, or sometimes the best three of five. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game.

Tournaments usually consist of a series of matches. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games, or sometimes the best three of five. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game.

100.5b.100.6b.

Players can use the Magic Locator at http://locator.wizards.com to find tournaments in their area by selecting "Events" and typing in the name of their city.

Players can use the Magic Locator at www.wizards.com/locator to find tournaments in their area by selecting "Events" and typing in the name of their city.

103.6.

In a Planar Magic game, the starting player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. (See rule 901, "Planar Magic.")

103.6.103.7.

The starting player takes his or her first turn.

The starting player takes his or her first turn.

103.6a.103.7a.

In a two-player game, the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 504, "Draw Step") of his or her first turn.

In a two-player game, the player who plays first skips the draw step (see rule 504, "Draw Step") of his or her first turn.

103.6b.103.7b.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn.

103.6c.103.7c.

In all other multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn.

In all other multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn.

104.2a.104.2a.

A player still in the game wins the game if all of that player's opponents have lost the game.

A player still in the game wins the game if all of that player's opponents have left the game.

104.2c.104.2c.

In a multiplayer game between teams, a team with at least one player still in the game wins the game if all other teams have lost the game. Each player on the winning team wins the game, even if one or more of those players had previously lost that game.

In a multiplayer game between teams, a team with at least one player still in the game wins the game if all other teams have left the game. Each player on the winning team wins the game, even if one or more of those players had previously lost that game.

104.3i.104.3i.

In a tournament game, a player can be awarded a Game Loss or a Match Loss by a judge. See rule 100.5.

In a tournament game, a player can be awarded a Game Loss or a Match Loss by a judge. See rule 100.6.

104.4e.

In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option, the effect of a spell or ability that states that the game is a draw causes the game to be a draw for that spell or ability's controller and all players within his or her range of influence. Only those players leave the game; the game continues for all other players.

104.4f.

In a multiplayer game between teams, the game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for all remaining players on that team.

104.5.104.5.

If a player loses the game, he or she leaves the game. Likewise, if a player leaves the game, he or she loses the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leaves the game; see rule 800.4.

If a player loses the game, he or she leaves the game. If the game is a draw for a player, he or she leaves the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leaves the game; see rule 800.4.

106.4.106.4.

When an effect produces mana, that mana goes into a player's mana pool. From there, it can be used to pay costs immediately, or it can stay in the player's mana pool. Each player's mana pool is cleared at the end of each step and phase.

When an effect produces mana, that mana goes into a player's mana pool. From there, it can be used to pay costs immediately, or it can stay in the player's mana pool. Each player's mana pool empties at the end of each step and phase.

106.6.106.6.

Some spells or abilities that produce mana restrict how that mana can be spent, or have an additional effect that affects the spell or ability that mana is spent on. This doesn't affect the mana's type.

Example: A player's mana pool contains {1}{U} which can be spent only to pay cumulative upkeep costs. That player activates Doubling Cube's ability, which reads "{3}, {T}, Double the amount of each type of mana in your mana pool." The player's mana pool now has {2}{U}{U} in it, {1}{U} of which can be spent on anything.

Some spells or abilities that produce mana restrict how that mana can be spent, or have an additional effect that affects the spell or ability that mana is spent on. This doesn't affect the mana's type.

Example: A player's mana pool contains {1}{U} which can be spent only to pay cumulative upkeep costs. That player activates Doubling Cube's ability, which reads "{3}, {T}: Double the amount of each type of mana in your mana pool." The player's mana pool now has {2}{U}{U} in it, {1}{U} of which can be spent on anything.

107.3a.107.3a.

If a spell or activated ability has a mana cost, alternative cost, additional cost, and/or activation cost with an {X} or an X in it, and the value of X isn't defined by the text of that spell or ability, the controller of that spell or ability chooses and announces the value of X as part of casting the spell or activating the ability. (See rule 601, "Casting Spells.") While a spell is on the stack, any {X} in its mana cost equals the announced value. While an activated ability is on the stack, any {X} in its activation cost equals the announced value.

If a spell or activated ability has a mana cost, alternative cost, additional cost, and/or activation cost with an {X}, [-X], or X in it, and the value of X isn't defined by the text of that spell or ability, the controller of that spell or ability chooses and announces the value of X as part of casting the spell or activating the ability. (See rule 601, "Casting Spells.") While a spell is on the stack, any X in its mana cost equals the announced value. While an activated ability is on the stack, any X in its activation cost equals the announced value.

107.3c.107.3c.

If a spell or activated ability has an {X} or an X in its cost and/or its text, and the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability, then that's the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. The controller of that spell or ability doesn't get to choose the value. Note that the value of X may change while that spell or ability is on the stack.

If a spell or activated ability has an {X}, [-X], or X in its cost and/or its text, and the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability, then that's the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. The controller of that spell or ability doesn't get to choose the value. Note that the value of X may change while that spell or ability is on the stack.

107.4e.107.4e.

Hybrid mana symbols are also colored mana symbols. Each one represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways, as represented by the two halves of the symbol. A hybrid symbol such as {W/U} be paid with either white or blue mana, and a monocolored hybrid symbol such as {2/B} can be paid with either one black mana or two mana of any type of mana. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors.

Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}.

Hybrid mana symbols are also colored mana symbols. Each one represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways, as represented by the two halves of the symbol. A hybrid symbol such as {W/U} can be paid with either white or blue mana, and a monocolored hybrid symbol such as {2/B} can be paid with either one black mana or two mana of any type. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors.

Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}.

107.10.

The planeswalker symbol is {P}. It appears on one face of the planar die used in the Planar Magic casual variant. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

107.11.

The chaos symbol is {C}. It appears on one face of the planar die used in the Planar Magic casual variant, as well as in triggered abilities that refer to the results of rolling the planar die. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

108.2.108.2.

When a rule or text on a card refers to a "card," it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back. Tokens aren't considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn't considered a card for rules purposes.

When a rule or text on a card refers to a "card," it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and a Magic card back. This includes both traditional Magic cards, which measure approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 cm) by 3.5 inches (8.8 cm) and have a "Deckmaster" back, and nontraditional Magic cards, which are oversized and have different backs. Tokens aren't considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn't considered a card for rules purposes.

108.3.108.3.

A card's owner is the player who started the game with it in his or her deck or, for cards that didn't start the game in a player's deck, the player who brought the card into the game. (Legal ownership of a card is irrelevant to the game rules except for the rules for ante; see rule 407.)

A card's owner is the player who started the game with it in his or her deck. If a card is brought into the game from outside the game rather than starting in a player's deck, its owner is the player who brought it into the game. If a card starts the game in the command zone, its owner is the player who put it into the command zone to start the game. (Legal ownership of a card is irrelevant to the game rules except for the rules for ante; see rule 407.)

108.3a.

In a Planar Magic game using the single planar deck option, the planar controller is considered to be the owner of all the plane cards. See rule 901.6.

108.5.108.5.

For more information about cards, see Section 2, "Parts of a Card."

Nontraditional Magic cards can't start the game in any zone other than the command zone (see rule 408). If an effect would bring a nontraditional Magic card into the game from outside the game, it doesn't; that card remains outside the game.

108.6.

For more information about cards, see Section 2, "Parts of a Card."

110.6c.110.6c.

A permanent retains its status until a spell, ability, or turn-based action changes it, even if that status is not relevant to it.

Example: Dimir Doppelganger says "{1}{U}{B}: Exile target creature card from a graveyard. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability." It becomes a copy of Jushi Apprentice, a flip card. Through use of Jushi Apprentice's ability, this creature flips, making it a copy of Tomoya the Revealer with the Dimir Doppelganger ability. If this permanent then becomes a copy of Grizzly Bears, it will retain its flipped status even though that has no relevance to Grizzly Bears. If its copy ability is activated again, this time targeting a Nezumi Shortfang card (another flip card), this permanent's flipped status means it will have the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious (the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang) with the Dimir Doppelganger ability.

A permanent retains its status until a spell, ability, or turn-based action changes it, even if that status is not relevant to it.

Example: Dimir Doppelganger says "{1}{U}{B}: Exile target creature card from a graveyard. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability." It becomes a copy of Jushi Apprentice, a flip card. Through use of Jushi Apprentice's ability, this creature flips, making it a copy of Tomoya the Revealer with the Dimir Doppelganger ability. If this permanent then becomes a copy of Runeclaw Bear, it will retain its flipped status even though that has no relevance to Runeclaw Bear. If its copy ability is activated again, this time targeting a Nezumi Shortfang card (another flip card), this permanent's flipped status means it will have the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious (the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang) with the Dimir Doppelganger ability.

112.2c.112.2c.

An object may have multiple abilities. Aside from certain defined abilities that may be strung together on a single line (see rule 702, "Keyword Abilities"), each paragraph break in a card's text marks a separate ability. An object may also have multiple instances of the same ability. Each instance functions independently. This may or may not produce more effects than a single instance; refer to the specific ability for more information.

An object may have multiple abilities. If the object is represented by a card, then aside from certain defined abilities that may be strung together on a single line (see rule 702, "Keyword Abilities"), each paragraph break in a card's text marks a separate ability. If the object is not represented by a card, the effect that created it may have given it multiple abilities. An object may also be granted additional abilities by a spell or ability. If an object has multiple instances of the same ability, each instance functions independently. This may or may not produce more effects than a single instance; refer to the specific ability for more information.

112.5k.

Abilities of plane cards function in the command zone. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

112.6.112.6.

The source of an ability on the stack is the object that generated that ability. For an activated ability, it's the object whose ability was activated. For a triggered ability, it's the object whose ability triggered.

The source of an ability on the stack is the object that generated that ability. For an activated ability, it's the object whose ability was activated. For a triggered ability (other than a delayed triggered ability), it's the object whose ability triggered. For a delayed triggered ability created by a spell, it's that spell. For a delayed triggered ability created by another ability, it's the source of that other ability.

113.2.113.2.

Only permanents are legal targets for spells and abilities, unless a spell or ability (a) specifies that it can target an object in another zone or a player or (b) targets an object that can't exist on the battlefield, such as a spell or ability.

Only permanents are legal targets for spells and abilities, unless a spell or ability (a) specifies that it can target an object in another zone or a player, (b) targets an object that can't exist on the battlefield, such as a spell or ability, or (c) targets a zone.

114.2.114.2.

There are five special actions:

There are six special actions:

114.2f.

In a Planar Magic game, rolling the planar die is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

115.7.115.7.

If a player with priority casts an instant spell or activates an activated ability while another spell or ability is already on the stack, the new spell or ability has been cast or activated "in response to" the earlier spell or ability. The new spell or ability will resolve first. See rule 607, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

If a player with priority casts a spell or activates an activated ability while another spell or ability is already on the stack, the new spell or ability has been cast or activated "in response to" the earlier spell or ability. The new spell or ability will resolve first. See rule 607, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

116.7.116.7.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it is considered to be {0}. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

Example: You cast a spell with mana cost {W} that has kicker {1}. You choose to pay the kicker, but a cost reduction effect means you spend only {W} when paying for the spell. The spell's "if the kicker cost was paid" effect will be applied.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it is considered to be {0}. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

116.9a.116.9a.

Only one alternative cost can be applied to any one spell as it's being cast. The controller of the spell or ability announces his or her intentions to pay that cost as described in rule 601.2b.

Only one alternative cost can be applied to any one spell as it's being cast. The controller of the spell announces his or her intentions to pay that cost as described in rule 601.2b.

116.12.116.12.

Some spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities read, "[Do something]. If [a player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." or "[A player] may [do something]. If [that player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." The action [do something] is a cost, paid when the spell or ability resolves. The "If [a player] [does or doesn't]" clause checks whether the player chose to pay an optional cost or started to pay a mandatory cost, regardless of what events actually occurred.

Example: You control Hesitation, an enchantment that says "When a spell is played, sacrifice Hesitation. If you do, counter that spell." A spell is cast, causing Hesitation's ability to trigger. Then an ability is played that exiles Hesitation. When Hesitation's ability resolves, you're unable to pay the "sacrifice Hesitation" cost. The spell is not countered.

Example: Your opponent has cast Gather Specimens, a spell that says "If a creature would enter the battlefield under an opponent's control this turn, it enters the battlefield under your control instead." You control a face-down Dermoplasm, a creature with morph that says "When Dermoplasm is turned face up, you may put a creature card with morph from your hand onto the battlefield face up. If you do, return Dermoplasm to its owner's hand." You turn Dermoplasm face up, and you choose to put a creature card with morph from your hand onto the battlefield. Due to Gather Specimens, it enters the battlefield under your opponent's control instead of yours. However, since you chose to pay the cost, Dermoplasm is still returned to its owner's hand.

Some spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities read, "[Do something]. If [a player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." or "[A player] may [do something]. If [that player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." The action [do something] is a cost, paid when the spell or ability resolves. The "If [a player] [does or doesn't]" clause checks whether the player chose to pay an optional cost or started to pay a mandatory cost, regardless of what events actually occurred.

Example: You control Hesitation, an enchantment that says "When a player casts a spell, sacrifice Hesitation. If you do, counter that spell." A spell is cast, causing Hesitation's ability to trigger. Then an ability is activated that exiles Hesitation. When Hesitation's ability resolves, you're unable to pay the "sacrifice Hesitation" cost. The spell is not countered.

Example: Your opponent has cast Gather Specimens, a spell that says "If a creature would enter the battlefield under an opponent's control this turn, it enters the battlefield under your control instead." You control a face-down Dermoplasm, a creature with morph that says "When Dermoplasm is turned face up, you may put a creature card with morph from your hand onto the battlefield face up. If you do, return Dermoplasm to its owner's hand." You turn Dermoplasm face up, and you choose to put a creature card with morph from your hand onto the battlefield. Due to Gather Specimens, it enters the battlefield under your opponent's control instead of yours. However, since you chose to pay the cost, Dermoplasm is still returned to its owner's hand.

118.1.118.1.

Objects can deal damage to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. This generally has a detrimental effect on the object or player that receives that damage. An object that deals damage is the source of that damage.

Objects can deal damage to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. This is generally detrimental to the object or player that receives that damage. An object that deals damage is the source of that damage.

118.3.118.3.

Damage may have one or more of the following results, depending on the characteristics of the damage's source and recipient.

Damage may have one or more of the following results, depending on whether the recipient of the damage is a player or permanent, the characteristics of the damage's source, and the characteristics of the damage's recipient (if it's a permanent).

118.7.118.7.

The source of damage is the object that dealt it. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent, a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell), or any object referred to by an object on the stack or a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in). A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. See rule 608.7, "Sources of Damage."

The source of damage is the object that dealt it. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a prevention or replacement effect that's waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or, in certain casual variant games, a face-up card in the command zone. A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. See rule 608.7, "Sources of Damage."

119.5.119.5.

If an effect moves cards from a player's library to that player's hand without using the word "draw," the player has not drawn those cards. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws, as well as if the player's library is empty.

If an effect moves cards from a player's library to that player's hand without using the word "draw," the player has not drawn those cards. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards and effects that replace card draws, as well as if the player's library is empty.

120.3.

If a permanent with an ability that says it can't have more than N counters of a certain kind on it has more than N counters of that kind on it, all but N of those counters are removed from it as a state-based action. See rule 704.

120.3.120.4.

If an effect says to "move" a counter, it means to take that counter from the object it's currently on and put it onto a second object. If the first and second objects are the same object, nothing happens. If the first object has no counters, nothing happens; the second object doesn't get a counter put on it. If the second object (or any possible second objects) are no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter, nothing happens; a counter isn't removed from the first object.

If an effect says to "move" a counter, it means to take that counter from the object it's currently on and put it onto a second object. If the first and second objects are the same object, nothing happens. If the first object has no counters, nothing happens; the second object doesn't get a counter put on it. If the second object (or any possible second objects) are no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter, nothing happens; a counter isn't removed from the first object.

120.4.120.5.

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being "placed" on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's on the battlefield, or that permanent entering the battlefield with a counter on it.

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being "placed" on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's on the battlefield, or that permanent entering the battlefield with a counter on it.

202.1b.202.1b.

Some objects have no mana cost. This normally includes all land cards, any other cards that have no mana symbols where their mana cost would appear, and tokens (unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise). Having no mana cost represents an unpayable cost (see rule 116.6). Note that lands are played without paying any costs (see rule 305, "Lands").

Some objects have no mana cost. This normally includes all land cards, any other cards that have no mana symbols where their mana cost would appear, tokens (unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise), and nontraditional Magic cards. Having no mana cost represents an unpayable cost (see rule 116.6). Note that lands are played without paying any costs (see rule 305, "Lands").

204.1a.204.1a.

When an object's card type changes, the new card type(s) replaces any existing card types. Counters, effects, and damage affecting the object remain with it, even if they are meaningless to the new card type. Similarly, when one or more of an object's subtypes changes, the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types, land types, artifact types, enchantment types, planeswalker types, or spell types). If an object's card type is removed, the subtypes correlated with that card type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a card type the object currently has; otherwise, they are also removed for the entire time the object's card type is removed. Removing an object's subtype doesn't affect its card types at all.

When an object's card type changes, the new card type(s) replaces any existing card types. Counters, effects, and damage marked on the object remain with it, even if they are meaningless to the new card type. Similarly, when one or more of an object's subtypes changes, the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types, land types, artifact types, enchantment types, planeswalker types, or spell types). If an object's card type is removed, the subtypes correlated with that card type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a card type the object currently has; otherwise, they are also removed for the entire time the object's card type is removed. Removing an object's subtype doesn't affect its card types at all.

204.2a.204.2a.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal. See section 3, "Card Types."

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal. See section 3, "Card Types."

204.3b.204.3b.

Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Objects may have multiple subtypes.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype. "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. "Artifact — Equipment" means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment.

Subtypes of each card type except plane are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype; such objects may have multiple types. Subtypes of planes are also listed after a long dash, but may be multiple words. Each word after the dash is, collectively, a single subtype.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the subtype Mountain. "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. "Artifact — Equipment" means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment.

204.3m.

Planes have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planar types. The planar types are Alara, Arkhos, Bolas's Meditation Realm, Dominaria, Equilor, Iquatana, Ir, Kaldheim, Kamigawa, Lorwyn, Mercadia, Mirrodin, Moag, Muraganda, Phyrexia, Rabiah, Rath, Ravnica, Segovia, Serra's Realm, Shadowmoor, Shandalar, Ulgrotha, Valla, Wildfire, and Zendikar.

205.2.205.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, with the exception of the Chinese Fifth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

206.4.

The chaos symbol {C} appears in the text box of each plane card to the left of a triggered ability that triggers whenever {C} is rolled on the planar die. The symbol itself has no special rules meaning.

207.2a.207.2a.

The card may a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power and/or toughness according to some stated condition. (See rule 604.3.) Such an ability is worded "[This creature's] [power or toughness] is equal to . . ." or "[This creature's] power and toughness are each equal to . . ." This ability functions everywhere, even outside the game. If the ability needs to use a number that can't be determined, use 0 instead of that number.

Example: Lost Order of Jarkeld has power and toughness each equal to 1+*. It says "As Lost Order of Jarkeld enters the battlefield, choose an opponent" and "Lost Order of Jarkeld's power and toughness are each equal to 1 plus the number of creatures that opponent controls." While Lost Order of Jarkeld isn't on the battlefield, there won't be a chosen opponent. Its power and toughness will each be equal to 1 plus 0, so it's 1/1.

The card may have a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power and/or toughness according to some stated condition. (See rule 604.3.) Such an ability is worded "[This creature's] [power or toughness] is equal to . . ." or "[This creature's] power and toughness are each equal to . . ." This ability functions everywhere, even outside the game. If the ability needs to use a number that can't be determined, use 0 instead of that number.

Example: Lost Order of Jarkeld has power and toughness each equal to 1+*. It says "As Lost Order of Jarkeld enters the battlefield, choose an opponent" and "Lost Order of Jarkeld's power and toughness are each equal to 1 plus the number of creatures that opponent controls." While Lost Order of Jarkeld isn't on the battlefield, there won't be a chosen opponent. Its power and toughness will each be equal to 1 plus 0, so it's 1/1.

301.8.301.8.

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Rules 301.7a-d apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 702.64, "Fortify.")

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Rules 301.7a-d apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures, with one clarification relating to rule 301.7b: a Fortification that's also a creature (not a land) can't equip a land. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 702.64, "Fortify.")

303.4e.303.4e.

An Aura's controller is separate from the enchanted object's controller; the two need not be the same. Changing control of the object doesn't change control of the Aura, and vice versa. Only the Aura's controller can activate its abilities. However, if the Aura grants an ability to the enchanted object (with "gains" or "has"), the enchanted object's controller is the only one who can activate that ability.

An Aura's controller is separate from the enchanted object's controller or the enchanted player; the two need not be the same. If an Aura enchants an object, changing control of the object doesn't change control of the Aura, and vice versa. Only the Aura's controller can activate its abilities. However, if the Aura grants an ability to the enchanted object (with "gains" or "has"), the enchanted object's controller is the only one who can activate that ability.

305.1.305.1.

A player who has priority may play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a land card is a special action; it doesn't use the stack (see rule 114). Rather, the player simply puts the land card onto the battlefield. Since the land card doesn't go on the stack, it is never a spell, and players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

A player who has priority may play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a land is a special action; it doesn't use the stack (see rule 114). Rather, the player simply puts the land onto the battlefield. Since the land doesn't go on the stack, it is never a spell, and players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

305.2.305.2.

A player may normally play only one land card during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number. If any such effects exist, the player announces which effect, or this rule, applies to each land play as it happens.

A player may normally play only one land during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number. If any such effects exist, the player announces which effect, or this rule, applies to each land play as it happens.

306.7.306.7.

A player may activate an ability of a planeswalker any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of its activated abilities have been activated that turn.

A player may activate an ability of a planeswalker he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of its activated abilities have been activated that turn.

309.

Planes

309.1.

Plane is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Planar Magic casual variant uses plane cards. See Section 901, "Planar Magic."

309.2.

Plane cards remain in the command zone throughout the game, both while they're part of a planar deck and while they're face up. They're not permanents. They can't be cast. If a plane card would leave the command zone, it remains in the command zone.

309.3.

Plane subtypes are listed after a long dash, and may be multiple words: "Plane — Serra's Realm." Each word after the dash is, collectively, a single subtype. Planar subtypes are called planar types. A plane can have only one subtype. See rule 204.3m for the complete list of planar types.

309.4.

A plane card may have any number of static, triggered, and/or activated abilities. As long as a plane card is face up in the command zone, its static abilities affect the game, its triggered abilities may trigger, and its activated abilities may be activated.

309.5.

The controller of a face-up plane card is the player designated as the planar controller. Normally, the planar controller is whoever the active player is. However, if the current planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn't leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different player becomes the active player, whichever comes first.

309.6.

A plane card is treated as if its text box included "When you roll {P}, put this card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck face up." This is called the "planeswalking ability." A face-up plane card that's turned face down becomes a new object.

309.7.

Each plane card has a triggered ability that triggers "Whenever you roll {C}." These are called "chaos abilities." Each one is indicated by a {C} to its left, though the symbol itself has no special rules meaning.

400.1.400.1.

A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. There are normally six zones: library, hand, battlefield, graveyard, stack, and exile. Some older cards also use the ante zone. Each player has his or her own library, hand, and graveyard. The other zones are shared by all players.

A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. There are normally six zones: library, hand, battlefield, graveyard, stack, and exile. Some older cards also use the ante zone. Some casual variants use the command zone. (See Section 9, "Casual Variants.") Each player has his or her own library, hand, and graveyard. The other zones are shared by all players.

400.2.400.2.

Public zones are zones in which all players can see the cards, except for those cards that some rule or effect specifically allow to be face down. Graveyard, battlefield, stack, exile, and ante are public zones. Hidden zones are zones in which not all players can be expected to see the cards. Library and hand are hidden zones, even if all the cards in one such zone happen to be revealed.

Public zones are zones in which all players can see the cards' faces, except for those cards that some rule or effect specifically allow to be face down. Graveyard, battlefield, stack, exile, ante, and command are public zones. Hidden zones are zones in which not all players can be expected to see the cards' faces. Library and hand are hidden zones, even if all the cards in one such zone happen to be revealed.

400.4.

Cards with certain card types can't enter certain zones.

400.4.400.4a.

If an instant or sorcery card would enter the battlefield, it remains in its previous zone.

If an instant or sorcery card would enter the battlefield, it remains in its previous zone.

400.4b.

If a plane card would leave the command zone, it remains in the command zone.

400.5.400.5.

The order of objects in a library, in a graveyard, or on the stack can't be changed except when effects or rules allow it. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish, although who controls those objects, whether they're tapped or flipped, and what other objects are attached to them must remain clear to all players.

The order of objects in a library, in a graveyard, or on the stack can't be changed except when effects or rules allow it. The same is true for objects arranged in face-down piles in other zones. Other objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish, although who controls those objects, whether they're tapped or flipped, and what other objects are attached to them must remain clear to all players.

400.9.

If a face-up object in the command zone is turned face down, it becomes a new object.

400.9.400.10.

An object is outside the game if it isn't in any of the game's zones. Outside the game is not a zone.

An object is outside the game if it isn't in any of the game's zones. Outside the game is not a zone.

400.9a.400.10a.

Cards in a player's sideboard are outside the game. See rules 100.2 and 100.3.

Cards in a player's sideboard are outside the game. See rules 100.4.

400.10.400.11.

Some effects instruct a player to do something to a zone (such as "Shuffle your hand into your library.") That action is performed on all cards in that zone. The zone itself is not affected.

Some effects instruct a player to do something to a zone (such as "Shuffle your hand into your library"). That action is performed on all cards in that zone. The zone itself is not affected.

401.6.401.6.

Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. If the top card of the player's library changes while a spell is being cast, the new top card won't be revealed until the spell becomes cast (see rule 602.1i). The same is true with relation to an ability being activated.

Some effects tell a player to play with the top card of his or her library revealed. If the top card of the player's library changes while a spell is being cast, the new top card won't be revealed until the spell becomes cast (see rule 601.2h). The same is true with relation to an ability being activated.

403.5.403.5.

For many years, the battlefield was called the "in-play zone." Cards that were printed with text that contains the phrases "in play," "from play," "into play," or the like are referring to the battlefield.

For many years, the battlefield was called the "in-play zone." Cards that were printed with text that contains the phrases "in play," "from play," "into play," or the like are referring to the battlefield. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

405.6c.405.6c.

Mana abilities resolve immediately. If a mana ability produces both mana and another effect, both the mana and the other effect happen immediately. If a player had priority before a mana ability was played, that player gets priority after it resolves. (See rule 605, "Mana Abilities.")

Mana abilities resolve immediately. If a mana ability produces both mana and another effect, both the mana and the other effect happen immediately. If a player had priority before a mana ability was activated, that player gets priority after it resolves. (See rule 605, "Mana Abilities.")

405.6e.405.6e.

Turn-based actions don't use the stack; they happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin. They're dealt with before a player would receive priority see rule 115.3a). Turn-based actions also happen automatically when each step and phase ends; no player receives priority afterward. See rule 703.

Turn-based actions don't use the stack; they happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin. They're dealt with before a player would receive priority (see rule 115.3a). Turn-based actions also happen automatically when each step and phase ends; no player receives priority afterward. See rule 703.

406.4.406.4.

Cards that might return to the battlefield or any other zone should be kept in separate piles to keep track of their respective ways of returning.

Exiled cards that might return to the battlefield or any other zone should be kept in separate piles to keep track of their respective ways of returning. Exiled cards that may have an impact on the game due to their own abilities (such as cards with haunt) or the abilities of the cards that exiled them should likewise be kept in separate piles.

406.7.406.7.

For many years, the exile zone was called the "removed-from-the-game zone." Cards that were printed with text that "removes [an object] from the game" exiles that object. The same is true for cards printed with text that "sets [an object] aside."

For many years, the exile zone was called the "removed-from-the-game zone." Cards that were printed with text that "removes [an object] from the game" exiles that object. The same is true for cards printed with text that "sets [an object] aside." Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

408.

Command

408.1.

In certain casual variants, nontraditional Magic cards start the game in the command zone. Each variant has its own rules regarding such cards. See Section 9, "Casual Variants."

500.2.500.2.

A phase or step in which players receive priority ends when the stack is empty and all players pass in succession. Simply having the stack become empty doesn't cause such a phase or step to end; all players have to pass with the stack empty. Because of this, each player gets a chance to add new things to the stack before that phase or step ends.

A phase or step in which players receive priority ends when the stack is empty and all players pass in succession. Simply having the stack become empty doesn't cause such a phase or step to end; all players have to pass in succession with the stack empty. Because of this, each player gets a chance to add new things to the stack before that phase or step ends.

500.4.500.4.

When a step or phase ends, any unused mana left in a player's mana pool is lost. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

When a step or phase ends, any unused mana left in a player's mana pool empties. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

502.3.502.3.

No player receives priority during the untap step, so no spells or abilities can be played or resolved. Any ability that triggers during this step will be held until the next time a player would receive priority, which is usually during the upkeep step. (See rule 503, "Upkeep Step.")

No player receives priority during the untap step, so no spells can be cast or resolve and no abilities can be activated or resolve. Any ability that triggers during this step will be held until the next time a player would receive priority, which is usually during the upkeep step. (See rule 503, "Upkeep Step.")

506.2a.506.2a.

During the combat phase of a multiplayer game, there may be one or more defending players, depending on the variant being played and the options chosen for it. Unless all the attacking player's opponents automatically become defending players during the combat step, the attacking player chooses one of his or her opponents as a turn-based action during the beginning of combat step. (Note that the choice may be dictated by the variant being played or the options chosen for it.) That player becomes the defending player. See rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option," rule 803, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 807, "Emperor Variant."

During the combat phase of a multiplayer game, there may be one or more defending players, depending on the variant being played and the options chosen for it. Unless all the attacking player's opponents automatically become defending players during the combat phase, the attacking player chooses one of his or her opponents as a turn-based action during the beginning of combat step. (Note that the choice may be dictated by the variant being played or the options chosen for it.) That player becomes the defending player. See rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option," rule 803, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 807, "Emperor Variant."

509.1g.509.1g.

Each chosen creature still controlled by the defending player becomes a blocking creature. Each one is blocking the attacking creatures chosen for it. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat, an effect says that it becomes unblocked, or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 506.4.

Each chosen creature still controlled by the defending player becomes a blocking creature. Each one is blocking the attacking creatures chosen for it. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 506.4.

509.1h.509.1h.

An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature; one with no creatures declared as blockers for it becomes an unblocked creature. This remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. A creature remains blocked even if all the creatures blocking it are removed from combat. (Some effects can change whether a creature is blocked or unblocked.)

An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature; one with no creatures declared as blockers for it becomes an unblocked creature. This remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat, an effect says that it becomes blocked or unblocked, or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. A creature remains blocked even if all the creatures blocking it are removed from combat.

509.2.509.2.

Second, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active player announces its damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. (During the combat damage step, an attacking creature can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless each creature ahead of that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.)

Example: Craw Wurm is blocked by Llanowar Elves, Grizzly Bears, and Serra Angel. The Craw Wurm's controller announces the Craw Wurm's damage assignment order as Serra Angel, then Grizzly Bears, then Llanowar Elves.

Second, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active player announces its damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. (During the combat damage step, an attacking creature can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless each creature ahead of that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.)

Example: Craw Wurm is blocked by Llanowar Elves, Runeclaw Bear, and Serra Angel. The Craw Wurm's controller announces the Craw Wurm's damage assignment order as Serra Angel, then Runeclaw Bear, then Llanowar Elves.

509.2a.509.2a.

During the declare blockers step, if a blocking creature is removed from combat or a spell or ability causes it to stop blocking an attacking creature, the blocking creature is removed from the attacking creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged.

During the declare blockers step, if a blocking creature is removed from combat or a spell or ability causes it to stop blocking an attacking creature, the blocking creature is removed from all relevant damage assignment orders. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged.

509.3a.509.3a.

During the declare blockers step, if an attacking creature is removed from combat, that creature is removed from all relevant damage assignment orders. The relative order among the remaining attacking creatures is unchanged.

During the declare blockers step, if an attacking creature is removed from combat or a spell or ability causes it to stop being blocked by a blocking creature, the attacking creature is removed from all relevant damage assignment orders. The relative order among the remaining attacking creatures is unchanged.

509.4c.509.4c.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked, . . ." generally triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it's blocked by multiple creatures. It will trigger if that creature becomes blocked by at least one creature declared as a blocker. It will also trigger if that creature becomes blocked by an effect or by a creature that's put onto the battlefield as a blocker, , but only if the attacking creature was an unblocked creature at that time. (See rule 509.1h.)

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked, . . ." generally triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it's blocked by multiple creatures. It will trigger if that creature becomes blocked by at least one creature declared as a blocker. It will also trigger if that creature becomes blocked by an effect or by a creature that's put onto the battlefield as a blocker, but only if the attacking creature was an unblocked creature at that time. (See rule 509.1h.)

509.4d.509.4d.

An ability that reads "Whenever a creature blocks [this creature], . . ." triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature, even if it had already been blocked that combat. It won't trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature, . . ." triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature, even if it had already been blocked that combat. It won't trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.

509.6.509.6.

If a spell or ability causes a creature on the battlefield to block an attacking creature, the active player announces the blocking creature's placement in the attacking creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. Then the defending player announces the attacking creature's placement in the blocking creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. This is done as part of the blocking effect.

If a spell or ability causes a creature on the battlefield to block an attacking creature, the active player announces the blocking creature's placement in the attacking creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. Then the defending player announces the attacking creature's placement in the blocking creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining attacking creatures is unchanged. This is done as part of the blocking effect.

509.7.509.7.

If a creature is put onto the battlefield blocking, its controller chooses which attacking creature it's blocking as it enters the battlefield (unless the effect that put it onto the battlefield specifies what it's blocking), then the active player announces the new creature's placement in the blocked creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. A creature put onto the battlefield this way is "blocking" but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, it never "blocked."

Example: Lumengrid Warden is blocked by Grizzly Bears. The defending player casts Flash Foliage, which puts a Saproling token onto the battlefield blocking the Lumengrid Warden. Lumengrid Warden's controller announces the Lumengrid Warden's damage assignment order as the Saproling token, then Grizzly Bears.

If a creature is put onto the battlefield blocking, its controller chooses which attacking creature it's blocking as it enters the battlefield (unless the effect that put it onto the battlefield specifies what it's blocking), then the active player announces the new creature's placement in the blocked creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. A creature put onto the battlefield this way is "blocking" but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, it never "blocked."

Example: Lumengrid Warden is blocked by Runeclaw Bear. The defending player casts Flash Foliage, which puts a Saproling token onto the battlefield blocking the Lumengrid Warden. Lumengrid Warden's controller announces the Lumengrid Warden's damage assignment order as the Saproling token, then Runeclaw Bear.

510.1c.510.1c.

A blocked creature assigns its combat damage to the creatures blocking it. If no creatures are currently blocking it (if, for example, they were destroyed or removed from combat), it assigns no combat damage. If exactly one creature is blocking it, it assigns all its combat damage to that creature. If two or more creatures are blocking it, it assigns its combat damage to those creatures according to the damage assignment order announced for it. This may allow the blocked creature to divide its combat damage. However, it can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless each creature that precedes that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. An amount of damage that's greater than a creature's lethal damage may be assigned to it.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). Craw Wurm can assign 3 damage to the Wall and 3 damage to the Cadet, 4 damage to the Wall and 2 damage to the Cadet, 5 damage to the Wall and 1 damage to the Cadet, or 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Giant Growth targeting Wall of Wood, which gives it +3/+3 until end of turn. Craw Wurm must assign its 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Mending Hands targeting Wall of Wood, which prevents the next 4 damage that would be dealt to it. Craw Wurm can assign 3 damage to the Wall and 3 damage to the Cadet, 4 damage to the Wall and 2 damage to the Cadet, 5 damage to the Wall and 1 damage to the Cadet, or 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Enormous Baloth (a 7/7 creature) is Trained Armodon (a 3/3 creature) that's already been dealt 2 damage this turn, then Foriysian Brigade (a 2/4 creature that can block an additional creature), then Silverback Ape (a 5/5 creature). The damage assignment order of an attacking Durkwood Boars (a 4/4 creature) is the same Foriysian Brigade, then Goblin Piker (a 2/1 creature). Among other possibilities, the active player may have the Wurm assign 1 damage to the Armodon, 1 damage to the Brigade, and 5 damage to the Ape, and have the Boars assign 3 damage to the Brigade and 1 damage to the Piker.

A blocked creature assigns its combat damage to the creatures blocking it. If no creatures are currently blocking it (if, for example, they were destroyed or removed from combat), it assigns no combat damage. If exactly one creature is blocking it, it assigns all its combat damage to that creature. If two or more creatures are blocking it, it assigns its combat damage to those creatures according to the damage assignment order announced for it. This may allow the blocked creature to divide its combat damage. However, it can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless each creature that precedes that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. An amount of damage that's greater than a creature's lethal damage may be assigned to it.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). Craw Wurm can assign 3 damage to the Wall and 3 damage to the Cadet, 4 damage to the Wall and 2 damage to the Cadet, 5 damage to the Wall and 1 damage to the Cadet, or 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Giant Growth targeting Wall of Wood, which gives it +3/+3 until end of turn. Craw Wurm must assign its 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Mending Hands targeting Wall of Wood, which prevents the next 4 damage that would be dealt to it. Craw Wurm can assign 3 damage to the Wall and 3 damage to the Cadet, 4 damage to the Wall and 2 damage to the Cadet, 5 damage to the Wall and 1 damage to the Cadet, or 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Enormous Baloth (a 7/7 creature) is Trained Armodon (a 3/3 creature) that already has 2 damage marked on it, then Foriysian Brigade (a 2/4 creature that can block an additional creature), then Silverback Ape (a 5/5 creature). The damage assignment order of an attacking Durkwood Boars (a 4/4 creature) is the same Foriysian Brigade, then Goblin Piker (a 2/1 creature). Among other possibilities, the active player may have the Baloth assign 1 damage to the Armodon, 1 damage to the Brigade, and 5 damage to the Ape, and have the Boars assign 3 damage to the Brigade and 1 damage to the Piker.

510.5.510.5.

If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike (see rule 702.4) as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that didn't have first strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.

If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike (see rule 702.4) as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that had neither first strike nor double strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.

513.3.513.3.

If a permanent with an ability that triggers "at the beginning of the end step" enters the battlefield during this step, that ability won't go on the stack until the next turn's end step. Likewise, if a delayed triggered ability that triggers "at the beginning of the next end step" is created during this step, that ability won't go on the stack until the next turn's end step. In other words, the step doesn't "back up" so those abilities can go on the stack. This rule applies only to triggered abilities; it doesn't apply to continuous effects whose durations say "until end of turn" or "this turn." (See rule 514, "Cleanup Step.")

If a permanent with an ability that triggers "at the beginning of the end step" enters the battlefield during this step, that ability won't trigger until the next turn's end step. Likewise, if a delayed triggered ability that triggers "at the beginning of the next end step" is created during this step, that ability won't trigger until the next turn's end step. In other words, the step doesn't "back up" so those abilities can go on the stack. This rule applies only to triggered abilities; it doesn't apply to continuous effects whose durations say "until end of turn" or "this turn." (See rule 514, "Cleanup Step.")

514.3a.514.3a.

At this point, the game checks to see if any state-based actions would be performed and/or any triggered abilities are waiting to be put onto the stack (including those that trigger "at the beginning of the next cleanup step"). If so, those state-based actions are performed, then those triggered abilities are put on the stack, then the active player gets priority. Players may cast spells and activate abilities. Once the stack is empty and all players pass, another cleanup step begins.

At this point, the game checks to see if any state-based actions would be performed and/or any triggered abilities are waiting to be put onto the stack (including those that trigger "at the beginning of the next cleanup step"). If so, those state-based actions are performed, then those triggered abilities are put on the stack, then the active player gets priority. Players may cast spells and activate abilities. Once the stack is empty and all players pass in succession, another cleanup step begins.

601.2a.601.2a.

The player announces that he or she is casting the spell. That card (or that copy of a card) physically moves from the zone it's in to the stack. It becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has all the characteristics of the card (or the copy of a card) associated with it, and that player becomes its controller. The spell remains on the stack until it's countered or resolves.

The player announces that he or she is casting the spell. That card (or that copy of a card) moves from the zone it's in to the stack. It becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has all the characteristics of the card (or the copy of a card) associated with it, and that player becomes its controller. The spell remains on the stack until it's countered, it resolves, or an effect moves it elsewhere.

601.4.601.4.

Casting a spell that alters costs won't do anything to spells and abilities that are already on the stack.

Casting a spell that alters costs won't affect spells and abilities that are already on the stack.

602.1.602.1.

Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation restriction (if any).]" The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). An ability's activation cost must be paid by the player who is activating it.

Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads "{2}, {T}: You gain 1 life" is two mana of any color plus tapping the permanent that has the ability.

Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation restriction (if any).]" The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). An ability's activation cost must be paid by the player who is activating it.

Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads "{2}, {T}: You gain 1 life" is two mana of any type plus tapping the permanent that has the ability.

602.2a.602.2a.

The player announces that he or she is activating the ability. If an activated ability is being played from a hidden zone, the card that has that ability is revealed. That ability is created on the stack as an object that's not a card. It becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. Its controller is the player who played the ability. The ability remains on the stack until it's countered or resolves.

The player announces that he or she is activating the ability. If an activated ability is being activated from a hidden zone, the card that has that ability is revealed. That ability is created on the stack as an object that's not a card. It becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. Its controller is the player who activated the ability. The ability remains on the stack until it's countered or resolves.

602.4.602.4.

Activating an ability that alters costs won't do anything to spells and abilities that are already on the stack.

Activating an ability that alters costs won't affect spells and abilities that are already on the stack.

603.3.603.3.

Once an ability has triggered, its controller puts it on the stack as an object that's not a card the next time a player would receive priority. See rule 115, "Timing and Priority." The ability becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. It remains on the stack until it's countered or resolves.

Once an ability has triggered, its controller puts it on the stack as an object that's not a card the next time a player would receive priority. See rule 115, "Timing and Priority." The ability becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. It remains on the stack until it's countered, it resolves, or an effect moves it elsewhere.

603.6d.603.6d.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be on the battlefield, may have moved to a hand or library, or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Leaves-the-battlefield abilities, abilities that trigger when a permanent phases out, abilities that trigger when an object that all players can see is put into a hand or library, abilities that trigger specifically when an object becomes unattached, and abilities that trigger when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are on the battlefield along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be on the battlefield, may have moved to a hand or library, or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Leaves-the-battlefield abilities, abilities that trigger when a permanent phases out, abilities that trigger when an object that all players can see is put into a hand or library, abilities that trigger specifically when an object becomes unattached, abilities that trigger when a player loses control of an object, and abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks away from a plane will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are on the battlefield along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

603.9.603.9.

Some triggered abilities trigger specifically when a player loses the game. These abilities trigger when a player loses or leaves the game, regardless of the reason. See rule 104.3.

Some triggered abilities trigger specifically when a player loses the game. These abilities trigger when a player loses or leaves the game, regardless of the reason, unless that player leaves the game as the result of a draw. See rule 104.3.

606.3.606.3.

An ability may be part of more than one pair of linked abilities.

Example: Paradise Plume has the following three abilities: "As Paradise Plume comes into play, choose a color," "Whenever a player plays a spell of the chosen color, you may gain 1 life," and "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." The first and second abilities are linked. The first and third abilities are linked.

An ability may be part of more than one pair of linked abilities.

Example: Paradise Plume has the following three abilities: "As Paradise Plume enters the battlefield, choose a color," "Whenever a player casts a spell of the chosen color, you may gain 1 life," and "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." The first and second abilities are linked. The first and third abilities are linked.

607.2g.607.2g.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures on the battlefield), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself or a target that's become illegal, the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn't changed zones; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. See rule 112.6a. (Note that if an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among some number of creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put onto the stack rather than at this time; see rule 601.2d). If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it, not the ability.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures on the battlefield), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself or a target that's become illegal, the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn't changed zones; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. See rule 112.6a. (Note that if an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among some number of target creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put onto the stack rather than at this time; see rule 601.2d). If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it, not the ability.

608.7a.608.7a.

If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent, a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell), or any object referred to by an object on the stack or a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in). A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage dealt by that permanent, regardless of whether it's combat damage or damage dealt as the result of a spell or ability. If the player chooses an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell, the effect will apply to any damage dealt by that spell and any damage dealt by the permanent that spell becomes when it resolves.

If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a replacement or prevention effect that's waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or, for certain casual variant games, a face-up card in the command zone. A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the effect will apply to the next damage dealt by that permanent, regardless of whether it's combat damage or damage dealt as the result of a spell or ability. If the player chooses a permanent spell, the effect will apply to any damage dealt by that spell and any damage dealt by the permanent that spell becomes when it resolves.

612.1.612.1.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object. For a card, that means the values of the characteristics printed on that card. For a token or a copy of a spell or card, that means the characteristics defined by the effect that created it. Then all applicable continuous effects are applied in a series of layers in the following order:

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object. For a card, that means the values of the characteristics printed on that card. For a token or a copy of a spell or card, that means the values of the characteristics defined by the effect that created it. Then all applicable continuous effects are applied in a series of layers in the following order:

612.2.612.2.

Within layers 1-6, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first (see rule 604.3), then all other effects in timestamp order (see rule 612.6). Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. (See rule 612.7.)

Within layers 1-6, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first (see rule 604.3), then all other effects in timestamp order (see rule 612.6). Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer. (See rule 612.7.)

612.3.612.3.

Within layer 7, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the order described below. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. (See rule 612.6.) Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. (See rule 612.7.)

Within layer 7, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the order described below. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. (See rule 612.6.) Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a sublayer. (See rule 612.7.)

612.6c.612.6c.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, unless it's an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that's attached to another object or player.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, unless it's an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that's attached to another object or player, or it's a face-up plane card.

612.6e.

A face-up plane card receives a timestamp at the time it's turned face up.

612.6e.612.6f.

If two or more objects would receive a timestamp simultaneously, such as by entering a zone simultaneously or becoming attached simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at that time.

If two or more objects would receive a timestamp simultaneously, such as by entering a zone simultaneously or becoming attached simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at that time.

614.9.614.9.

Some prevention effects generated by static abilities refer to a specific amount of damage—for example, "If a source would deal damage to you, prevent 1 of that damage." Such an effect prevents only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time. It will apply separately to damage from other applicable sources, or to damage that would be dealt by the same source at a different time.

Some prevention effects generated by static abilities refer to a specific amount of damage—for example, "If a source would deal damage to you, prevent 1 of that damage." Such an effect prevents only the indicated amount of damage in any applicable damage event at any given time. It will apply separately to damage from other applicable events that would happen at the same time, or at a different time.

Example: Daunting Defender says "If a source would deal damage to a Cleric creature you control, prevent 1 of that damage." Pyroclasm says "Pyroclasm deals 2 damage to each creature." Pyroclasm will deal 1 damage to each Cleric creature controlled by Daunting Defender's controller. It will deal 2 damage to each other creature that player controls.

700.2d.700.2d.

Some spells and abilities specify that a player other than their controller chooses a mode for it. In that case, the other player does so when the spell's controller normally would do so. If there is more than one other player who could make such a choice, the spell's controller decides which of those players will make the choice.

Some spells and abilities specify that a player other than their controller chooses a mode for it. In that case, the other player does so when the spell or ability's controller normally would do so. If there is more than one other player who could make such a choice, the spell or ability's controller decides which of those players will make the choice.

701.11c.

Neither activating an ability that creates a regeneration shield nor casting a spell that creates a regeneration shield is the same as regenerating a permanent. Effects that say that a permanent can't be regenerated don't prevent such abilities from being activated or such spells from being cast; rather, they prevent regeneration shields from having any effect.

701.15a.701.15a.

To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position.

To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.

701.15b.701.15b.

To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position.

To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.

701.19.

Planeswalk

701.19a.

A player may planeswalk only during a Planar Magic game. Only the planar controller may planeswalk. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

701.19b.

To planeswalk is to put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up.

701.19c.

A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 309.6) or because the owner of the face-up plane card leaves the game (see rule 901.9).

701.19d.

The plane card that's turned face up is the plane the player planeswalks to. The plane card that's turned face down, or that leaves the game, is the plane the player planeswalks away from.

702.2d.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had deathtouch.

702.2e.

The deathtouch rules function no matter what zone an object with deathtouch deals damage from.

702.2d.702.2f.

Multiple instances of deathtouch on the same object are redundant.

Multiple instances of deathtouch on the same object are redundant.

702.4b.702.4b.

If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that didn't have first strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.

If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that had neither first strike nor double strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.

702.4d.702.4d.

Giving double strike to a creature with first strike after it has already put first strike combat damage onto the stack in the first combat damage step will allow the creature to assign combat damage in the second combat damage step.

Giving double strike to a creature with first strike after it has already dealt combat damage in the first combat damage step will allow the creature to assign combat damage in the second combat damage step.

702.7b.702.7b.

If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 702.4) as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that didn't have first strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.

If at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike or double strike (see rule 702.4) as the combat damage step begins, the only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are those with first strike or double strike. After that step, instead of proceeding to the end of combat step, the phase gets a second combat damage step. The only creatures that assign combat damage in that step are the remaining attackers and blockers that had neither first strike nor double strike as the first combat damage step began, as well as the remaining attackers and blockers that currently have double strike. After that step, the phase proceeds to the end of combat step.

702.7c.702.7c.

Adding or removing first strike any time after combat damage has been put on the stack in the first combat damage step won't prevent a creature from dealing combat damage or allow it to deal combat damage twice.

Giving first strike to a creature without it after combat damage has already been dealt in the first combat damage step won't prevent that creature from assigning combat damage in the second combat damage step. Removing first strike from a creature after it has already dealt combat damage in the first combat damage step won't allow it to also assign combat damage in the second combat damage step (unless the creature has double strike).

702.12a.702.12a.

Landwalk is a generic term that appears within an object's rules text as "[type]walk," where [type] is usually a subtype (as in "islandwalk"), but can be the card type land, any land type, any supertype, or any combination thereof (as in "snow swampwalk" or "legendary landwalk").

Landwalk is a generic term that appears within an object's rules text as "[type]walk," where [type] is usually a subtype, but can be the card type land, any land type, any supertype, or any combination thereof.

702.12b.702.12b.

Landwalk is an evasion ability. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one land with the specified subtype and/or supertype. (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

Landwalk is an evasion ability. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one land with the specified subtype (as in "islandwalk"), with the specified supertype (as in "legendary landwalk"), without the specified supertype (as in "nonbasic landwalk"), or with both the specified supertype and the specified subtype (as in "snow swampwalk"). (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.13b.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had lifelink.

702.13c.

The lifelink rules function no matter what zone an object with lifelink deals damage from.

702.13b.702.13d.

Multiple instances of lifelink on the same object are redundant.

Multiple instances of lifelink on the same object are redundant.

702.19k.702.19k.

During the combat damage step, if a blocking creature is blocking a creature with banding, by both a [quality] creature with "bands with other [quality]" and another [quality] creature, the active player (rather than the defending player) chooses how the blocking creature's damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature's combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures it's blocking. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1d.

During the combat damage step, if a blocking creature is blocking a creature with banding, or both a [quality] creature with "bands with other [quality]" and another [quality] creature, the active player (rather than the defending player) chooses how the blocking creature's damage is assigned. That player can divide that creature's combat damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures it's blocking. This is an exception to the procedure described in rule 510.1d.

702.30b.

If a spell's controller declares the intention to pay any of that spell's kicker costs, that spell has been "kicked." See rule 601.2b.

702.30b.702.30c.

Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if the kicker cost is paid. These abilities refer to whether the player who cast the object as a spell chose to pay the kicker costs; they don't check what that player actually spent to do so. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. They can't refer to any other kicker costs that may have been paid when the object was cast. See rule 606, "Linked Abilities."

Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if it was kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. See rule 606, "Linked Abilities."

702.30c.702.30d.

Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if the [A] kicker cost was paid" and "if the [B] kicker cost was paid," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. This text just refers to one kicker cost or the other, regardless of what the spell's controller actually spent when paying the cost. In other words, read "if the [A] kicker cost was paid" as "if the first listed kicker cost was paid," and read "if the [B] kicker cost was paid" as "if the second listed kicker cost was paid." Each of those abilities is linked to the kicker ability.

Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if it was kicked with its [A] kicker" and "if it was kicked with its [B] kicker," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. Each of those abilities is linked to the appropriate kicker ability.

702.30d.702.30e.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if a kicker cost was paid, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if he or she declared the intention to pay that kicker cost. Otherwise, the spell is cast as if it did not have those targets. See rule 601.2c.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if that spell was kicked, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if that spell was kicked. Otherwise, the spell is cast as if it did not have those targets. See rule 601.2c.

702.73b.

If a source that assigned combat damage left the battlefield before combat damage resolved, its last known information is used to determine its controller and its creature types.

702.77a.702.77a.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 118.3.

Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 118.3.

702.77b.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had wither.

702.77c.

The wither rules function no matter what zone an object with wither deals damage from.

702.77b.702.77d.

Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant.

Multiple instances of wither on the same object are redundant.

703.4n.703.4n.

When each step or phase ends, any unused mana left in a player's mana pool is lost. See rule 500.4.

When each step or phase ends, any unused mana left in a player's mana pool empties. See rule 500.4.

704.5q.704.5q.

If a permanent that's neither an Aura, an Equipment, nor a Fortification is attached to another permanent, it becomes unattached from that permanent. It remains on the battlefield.

If a creature is attached to an object or player, it becomes unattached and remains on the battlefield. Similarly, if a permanent that's neither an Aura, an Equipment, nor a Fortification is attached to an object or player, it becomes unattached and remains on the battlefield.

704.5s.

If a permanent with an ability that says it can't have more than N counters of a certain kind on it has more than N counters of that kind on it, all but N of those counters are removed from it.

706.3.706.3.

The copy's copiable values become the copied information, as modified by the copy's status (see rule 110.6). Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, "You may have Vesuvan Doppelganger enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield except it doesn't copy that creature's color and it gains 'At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except it doesn't copy that creature's color. If you do, this creature gains this ability.'" A Vesuvan Doppelganger enters the battlefield as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). Then a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger's upkeep-triggered ability.

Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Tomoya's characteristics become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious, which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). The Demon's characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. However, since the creature is face down, it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. It can be turned face up for {G}. If it's turned face up, it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn't have morph). It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. Its controller can't turn it face up as a special action. If an effect turns it face up, it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.

The copy's copiable values become the copied information, as modified by the copy's status (see rule 110.6). Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, "You may have Vesuvan Doppelganger enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield except it doesn't copy that creature's color and it gains 'At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except it doesn't copy that creature's color. If you do, this creature gains this ability.'" A Vesuvan Doppelganger enters the battlefield as a copy of Runeclaw Bear (a 2/2 green Bear creature with no abilities). Then a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Runeclaw Bear that has the Doppelganger's upkeep-triggered ability.

Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Tomoya's characteristics become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious, which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). The Demon's characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. However, since the creature is face down, it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. It can be turned face up for {G}. If it's turned face up, it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn't have morph). It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. Its controller can't turn it face up as a special action. If an effect turns it face up, it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.

710.4.710.4.

The controller of another player's turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make or is told to make during that turn by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which spells the active player casts and what those spells target, and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which of active player's creatures attack, and how those creatures assign their combat damage.

The controller of another player's turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make or is told to make during that turn by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which spells the active player casts and what those spells target, and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which of the active player's creatures attack, which player or planeswalker each one attacks, what the damage assignment order of the creatures that block them is (if any of the attacking creatures are blocked by multiple creatures), and how those attacking creatures assign their combat damage.

712.1a.712.1a.

A "subgame" is a completely separate Magic game created by an effect. Essentially, it's a game within a game. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.

A "subgame" is a completely separate Magic game created by an effect. Essentially, it's a game within a game. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was cast or activated. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.

713.3.713.3.

Sometimes a loop can be fragmented, meaning that each player performs an independent action that results in the same game state being reached multiple times. If that happens, the active player must then make a different game choice so the loop does not continue.

Example: In a two-player game, the active player controls a creature with the ability "{0}: [This creature] gains flying," the nonactive player controls a permanent with the ability "{0}: Target creature loses flying," and nothing in the game cares how many times an ability has been activated. Say the active player activates his creature's ability, it resolves, then the nonactive player activates her permanent's ability targeting that creature, and it resolves. This returns the game to a game state it was at before. The active player must make a different game choice (in other words, anything other than activating that creature's ability again). The creature doesn't have flying. Note that the nonactive player could have prevented the fragmented loop simply by not activating her permanent's ability, in which case the creature would have had flying. The nonactive player always has the final choice and is therefore able to determine whether the creature has flying.

Sometimes a loop can be fragmented, meaning that each player involved in the loop performs an independent action that results in the same game state being reached multiple times. If that happens, the active player (or, if the active player is not involved in the loop, the first player in turn order who is involved) must then make a different game choice so the loop does not continue.

Example: In a two-player game, the active player controls a creature with the ability "{0}: [This creature] gains flying," the nonactive player controls a permanent with the ability "{0}: Target creature loses flying," and nothing in the game cares how many times an ability has been activated. Say the active player activates his creature's ability, it resolves, then the nonactive player activates her permanent's ability targeting that creature, and it resolves. This returns the game to a game state it was at before. The active player must make a different game choice (in other words, anything other than activating that creature's ability again). The creature doesn't have flying. Note that the nonactive player could have prevented the fragmented loop simply by not activating her permanent's ability, in which case the creature would have had flying. The nonactive player always has the final choice and is therefore able to determine whether the creature has flying.

800.4i.

In a Planar Magic game, if the player designated as the planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn't leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. See rule 309.5.

801.7.801.7.

A triggered ability doesn't trigger unless its trigger event happens entirely within the range of influence of its source's controller.

Example: In a game in which all players have range of influence 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob. Rob controls two Auras attached to Alex's Grizzly Bears: One with the trigger condition "Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked," and one with the trigger condition "Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked by a creature." Alex's Grizzly Bears attacks the player to Alex's left and becomes blocked. The ability of Rob's first Aura triggers because the entire event (Grizzly Bears becomes blocked) happens within Rob's range of influence. The ability of Rob's second Aura doesn't trigger, however, because that event includes the blocking creature, which is out of Rob's range.

A triggered ability doesn't trigger unless its trigger event happens entirely within the range of influence of its source's controller.

Example: In a game in which all players have range of influence 1, Alex is seated to the left of Rob. Rob controls two Auras attached to Alex's Runeclaw Bear: One with the trigger condition "Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked," and one with the trigger condition "Whenever enchanted creature becomes blocked by a creature." Alex's Runeclaw Bear attacks the player to Alex's left and becomes blocked. The ability of Rob's first Aura triggers because the entire event (Runeclaw Bear becomes blocked) happens within Rob's range of influence. The ability of Rob's second Aura doesn't trigger, however, because that event includes the blocking creature, which is out of Rob's range.

801.17.

If the effect of a spell or ability states that the game is a draw, the game is a draw for that spell or ability's controller and all players within his or her range of influence. They leave the game. All remaining players continue to play the game.

801.18.

In multiplayer Planar Magic games other than Grand Melee games, plane cards are exempt from the limited range of influence option. Their abilities, and the effects of those abilities, affect all applicable objects and players in the game. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

802.2a.802.2a.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. This will usually be the defending player that the creature with the ability is attacking; if there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the ability chooses one.

Example: Rob attacks Alex with Grizzly Bears and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If the source of an ability that refers to a defending player is an attacking creature, it will usually refer to the player it's attacking or the controller of the planeswalker it's attacking. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the ability chooses one.

Example: Rob attacks Alex with Runeclaw Bear and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.

805.4.805.4.

Free-for-All games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rule 801.16.

Free-for-All games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rules 801.16 and 801.17.

806.2.806.2.

No other multiplayer options are used in Two-Headed Giant games.

No multiplayer options are used in Two-Headed Giant games.

807.5.807.5.

The Emperor variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rule 801.16, and with the following addition.

The Emperor variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rules 801.16 and 801.17, and with the following additions.

807.5b.

The game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor.

808.6.808.6.

The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rule 801.16.

The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rules 801.16 and 801.17.

809.5.809.5.

Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rule 801.16.

Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), as modified by rules 801.16 and 801.17.

9.

Casual Variants

900.

General

900.1.

This section contains additional optional rules that can be used for certain casual game variants. It is by no means comprehensive.

900.2.

The casual variants detailed here use supplemental zones, rules, cards, and other game implements not used in traditional Magic games.

901.

Planar Magic

901.1.

In the Planar Magic variant, plane cards add additional abilities and randomness to the game. At any given time, one plane card will be face up and its abilities will affect the game. The Planar Magic variant uses all the normal rules for a Magic game, with the following additions.

901.2.

A Planar Magic game may be a two-player game or a multiplayer game. The default multiplayer setup is the Free-for-All variant with the attack multiple players option and without the limited range of influence option. See rule 805, "Free-for-All Variant."

901.3.

In addition to the normal game materials, each player needs a planar deck of at least ten plane cards and the game needs one planar die. Each card in a planar deck must have a different English name. (See rule 309, "Planes.")

901.3a.

A planar die is a six-sided die. One face has the planeswalker symbol {P}. One face has the chaos symbol {C}. The other faces are blank.

901.4.

At the start of the game, each player shuffles his or her planar deck so that the cards are in a random order. Each deck is placed face down next to its owner's library. All plane cards remain in the command zone throughout the game, both while they're part of a planar deck and while they're face up.

901.5.

Once all players have kept their opening hands and used the abilities of cards that allow them to start the game with those cards on the battlefield, the starting player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. (See rule 103.6.) No abilities of that card trigger as a result.

901.6.

The owner of a plane card is the player who started the game with it in his or her planar deck. The controller of a face-up plane card is the player designated as the planar controller. Normally, the planar controller is whoever the active player is. However, if the current planar controller would leave the game, instead the next player in turn order that wouldn't leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different player becomes the active player, whichever comes first.

901.7.

Any abilities of a face-up plane card in the command zone function from that zone. The card's static abilities affect the game, its triggered abilities may trigger, and its activated abilities may be activated.

901.7a.

Each plane card is treated as if its text box included "When you roll {P}, put this card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off your planar deck and turn it face up." This is called the "planeswalking ability." A face-up plane card that's turned face down becomes a new object.

901.8.

Any time the active player has priority and the stack is empty, but only during a main phase of his or her turn, that player may roll the planar die. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. This is a special action and doesn't use the stack. (See rule 114.2f.)

901.8a.

If the die roll is a blank face, nothing happens. The active player gets priority.

901.8b.

If the die roll is the chaos symbol {C}, any ability of the plane that starts "When you roll {C}" triggers and is put on the stack. The active player gets priority.

901.8c.

If the die roll is the planeswalker symbol {P}, the plane's "planeswalking ability" triggers and is put on the stack. The active player gets priority.

901.9.

When a player leaves the game, all objects owned by that player leave the game. (See rule 800.4a.) If that includes the face-up plane card, the planar controller turns the top card of his or her planar deck face up. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game.

901.9a.

If a plane leaves the game while a "planeswalking ability" for which it was the source is on the stack, that ability ceases to exist.

901.10.

After the game has started, if a player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up, that player has "planeswalked." Continuous effects with durations that last until a player planeswalks end. Abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks trigger. See rule 701.19.

901.10a.

A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 309.6) or because the owner of the face-up plane card leaves the game (see rule 901.9).

901.10b.

The plane card that's turned face up is the plane the player planeswalks to. The plane card that's turned face down, or that leaves the game, is the plane the player planeswalks away from.

901.11.

Two-player Planar Magic games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 104), while Free-for-All Planar Magic games use the normal Free-for-All rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 805.4).

901.12.

A Two-Headed Giant Planar Magic game uses all the rules for the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant and all the rules for the Planar Magic casual variant, with the following additions.

901.12a.

Each player has his or her own planar deck.

901.12b.

The planar controller is normally the primary player of the active team. However, if the current planar controller's team would leave the game, instead the primary player of the next team in turn order that wouldn't leave the game becomes the planar controller, then the old planar controller's team leaves the game. The new planar controller retains that designation until he or she leaves the game or a different team becomes the active team, whichever comes first.

901.12c.

Even though the face-up plane is controlled by just one player, any ability of that plane that refers to "you" applies to both members of the planar controller's team.

901.12d.

Since each member of the active team is an active player, each of them may roll the planar die. Each player's cost to roll the planar die is based on the number of times that particular player has already rolled the planar die that turn.

901.13.

In multiplayer formats other than Grand Melee, plane cards are exempt from the limited range of influence option. Their abilities, and the effects of those abilities, affect all applicable objects and players in the game. (See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option.")

901.14.

In Grand Melee Planar Magic games, multiple plane cards may be face up at the same time.

901.14a.

Before the first turn of the game of the game, each player who will start the game with a turn marker moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up. Each of them is a planar controller.

901.14b.

If a player would leave the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game, that player first ceases to be a planar controller (but no other player becomes a planar controller), then that player leaves the game. The face-up plane card that player controlled is put on the bottom of its owner's planar deck. No player is considered to have planeswalked.

901.15.

Single Planar Deck Option

901.15a.

As an alternative option, a Planar Magic game may be played with just a single communal planar deck. In that case, the number of cards in the planar deck must be at least forty or at least ten times the number of players in the game, whichever is smaller. Each card in the planar deck must have a different English name.

901.15b.

In a Planar Magic game using the single planar deck option, the planar controller is considered to be the owner of all the plane cards.

901.15c.

If any rule or ability refers to a player's planar deck, the communal planar deck is used.

Ability WordAbility Word

An italicized word with no rules meaning that ties together abilities on different cards that have similar functionality. See rule 206.3.

An italicized word with no rules meaning that ties together abilities on different cards that have similar functionality. See rule 206.2c.

Additional CostAdditional Cost

A cost a spell may have that its controller must pay in addition to its mana cost to cast that spell. See rule 116, "Costs," and rule 601, "Casting Spells."

A cost a spell may have that its controller may pay (or, in some cases, must pay) in addition to its mana cost to cast that spell. See rule 116, "Costs," and rule 601, "Casting Spells."

Banding, "Bands with Other"Banding, "Bands with Other"

Banding is a keyword ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. "Bands with other" is a specialized version of the ability. See rule 702.20, "Banding."

Banding is a keyword ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. "Bands with other" is a specialized version of the ability. See rule 702.19, "Banding."

CardCard

The standard component of the game: a Magic card with a Magic card front and the Magic card back. Tokens aren't considered cards. In the text of spells or abilities, the term "card" is used only to refer to a card that's not on the battlefield or on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. See rule 108, "Cards."

The standard component of the game: a Magic card with a Magic card front and a Magic card back. Cards may be traditional or nontraditional. Tokens aren't considered cards. In the text of spells or abilities, the term "card" is used only to refer to a card that's not on the battlefield or on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. See rule 108, "Cards."

Chaos Ability

An ability of a plane card that triggers "Whenever you roll {C}" on the planar die in the Planar Magic casual variant. See rule 309.7.

Chaos Symbol

The chaos symbol {C} appears on the planar die and in some triggered abilities of plane cards in the Planar Magic casual variant. See rule 107.11.

Command

A zone used for nontraditional Magic cards in certain casual variants. See rule 408, "Command."

ConstructedConstructed

A way of playing in which each player creates his or her own deck ahead of time. See rule 100.2.

A way of playing in which each player creates his or her own deck ahead of time. See rule 100.2a.

DamageDamage

Objects can deal "damage" to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. This generally has a detrimental effect on the object or player that receives that damage. See rule 118, "Damage."

Objects can deal "damage" to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. This is generally detrimental to the object or player that receives that damage. See rule 118, "Damage."

ForecastForecast

A keyword that allows an activated ability to be activated from a player's hand. See rule 702.54, "Forecast."

A keyword ability that allows an activated ability to be activated from a player's hand. See rule 702.54, "Forecast."

Hidden ZoneHidden Zone

A zone in which not all players can be expected to see the cards. See rule 400.2. See also Public Zone.

A zone in which not all players can be expected to see the cards' faces. See rule 400.2. See also Public Zone.

HideawayHideaway

A keyword ability that lets a player store a secret card. See rule702.72, "Hideaway."

A keyword ability that lets a player store a secret card. See rule 702.72, "Hideaway."

KickerKicker, Kicked

A keyword ability that represents an optional additional cost. See rule 702.30, "Kicker."

Kicker is a keyword ability that represents an optional additional cost. A spell has been kicked if its controller declared the intention to pay any or all of its kicker costs. See rule 702.30, "Kicker."

LimitedLimited

A way of playing in which each player gets a quantity of unopened Magic product and creates his or her own deck on the spot. See rule 100.3.

A way of playing in which each player gets a quantity of unopened Magic product and creates his or her own deck on the spot. See rule 100.2.

MatchMatch

A multiplayer game or a two-player series of games (usually best-two-of-three) played in a tournament. See rule 100.5.

A multiplayer game or a two-player series of games (usually best-two-of-three) played in a tournament. See rule 100.6.

MoveMove

To remove a counter from one object and put it on a different object. See rule 120.3. Some older cards used "move" with respect to Auras; those cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference and now use the word "attach."

To remove a counter from one object and put it on a different object. See rule 120.4. Some older cards used "move" with respect to Auras; those cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference and now use the word "attach."

Nontraditional Magic Card

An oversized Magic card that has a Magic back but not a "Deckmaster" back. See rule 108.2.

Outside the GameOutside the Game

An object is "outside the game" if it isn't in any of the game's zones. See rule 400.9.

An object is "outside the game" if it isn't in any of the game's zones. See rule 400.10.

Planar Deck

A deck of at least ten plane cards needed to play the Planar Magic casual variant. See rule 901.3.

Planar Die

A specialized six-sided die needed to play the Planar Magic casual variant. See rule 901.3.

Planar Magic

A casual variant in which plane cards add additional abilities and randomness to the game. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

Plane

A card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards in the Planar Magic casual variant. A plane card is not a permanent. See rule 309, "Planes."

Planeswalk

To put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up in a Planar Magic game. See rule 701.19, "Planeswalk."

Planeswalker Symbol

The planeswalker symbol {P} appears on the planar die in the Planar Magic casual variant. See rule 107.10.

Public ZonePublic Zone

A zone in which all players can be expected to see the cards. See rule 400.2. See also Hidden Zone.

A zone in which all players can be expected to see the cards' faces. See rule 400.2. See also Hidden Zone.

SideboardSideboard

Extra cards that may be used to modify a deck between games of a match. See rules 100.2a and 100.3a.

Extra cards that may be used to modify a deck between games of a match. See rules 100.4.

TournamentTournament

An organized play activity where players compete against other players to win prizes. See rule 100.5.

An organized play activity where players compete against other players to win prizes. See rule 100.6.

Tournament RulesTournament Rules

Additional rules that apply to games played in a DCI-sanctioned tournament. See rule 100.5.

Additional rules that apply to games played in a DCI-sanctioned tournament. See rule 100.6.

Traditional Magic Card

A Magic card that measures approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 centimeters) by 3.5 inches (8.8 centimeters) and has a "Deckmaster" back. See rule 108.2.

Turn-Based ActionTurn-Based Actions

Game actions that happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin, or when each step or phase ends. See rule 703, "Turn-Based Actions."

Game actions that happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin, or when each step or phase ends. See rule 703, "Turn-Based Actions."