Yawgatog.com

Resources

Magic Rules Changes

Magic 2012 to Innistrad

General

Magic 2012Innistrad
103.1a.

If a player is using a sideboard (see rule 100.4) or double-faced cards being represented by checklist cards (see rule 711.9), those cards are set aside before shuffling.

103.1a.103.1b.

In a Commander game, each player puts his or her commander from his or her deck face up into the command zone before shuffling. See rule 903.6.

In a Commander game, each player puts his or her commander from his or her deck face up into the command zone before shuffling. See rule 903.6.

104.6.104.6.

One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. All players still in the game when it restarts then immediately begin a new game. See rule 713, "Restarting the Game."

One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. All players still in the game when it restarts then immediately begin a new game. See rule 714, "Restarting the Game."

105.2.105.2.

An object can be one or more of the five colors, or it can be no color at all. An object is the color or colors of the mana symbols in its mana cost, regardless of the color of its frame. See rule 202.2.

An object can be one or more of the five colors, or it can be no color at all. An object is the color or colors of the mana symbols in its mana cost, regardless of the color of its frame. An object's color or colors may also be defined by a color indicator or a characteristic-defining ability. See rule 202.2.

107.1b.107.1b.

Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers and zero. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison needs to use a negative value, it does so. If a calculation that would determine the result of an effect yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player's life total to a specific value, doubles a player's life total, sets a creature's power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature's power or toughness.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0 damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says "{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner's power." An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool.

Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers and zero. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison needs to use a negative value, it does so. If a calculation that would determine the result of an effect yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player's life total to a specific value, doubles a player's life total, sets a creature's power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature's power or toughness.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0 damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature with the ability "{T}: Add to your mana pool an amount of {G} equal to Viridian Joiner's power." An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool.

107.4h.107.4h.

The snow mana symbol {S} represents one generic mana in a cost. This generic mana can be paid with one mana of any type produced by a snow permanent (see rule 204.4f). Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don't affect {S} costs. (There is no such thing as "snow mana"; "snow" is not a type of mana.)

The snow mana symbol {S} represents one generic mana in a cost. This generic mana can be paid with one mana of any type produced by a snow permanent (see rule 205.4f). Effects that reduce the amount of generic mana you pay don't affect {S} costs. (There is no such thing as "snow mana"; "snow" is not a type of mana.)

107.13.

The sun symbol appears in the upper left corner of the front face of double-faced cards. See rule 711, "Double-Faced Cards."

107.14.

The moon symbol appears in the upper left corner of the back face of double-faced cards. See rule 711, "Double-Faced Cards."

107.15.

A color indicator is a circular symbol that appears to the left of the type line on some cards. The color of the symbol defines the card's color or colors. See rule 202, "Mana Cost and Color."

108.2.108.2.

When a rule or text on a card refers to a "card," it means only a Magic card. This includes both traditional Magic cards, which measure approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 cm) by 3.5 inches (8.8 cm) and have a "Deckmaster" back, and nontraditional Magic cards, which are oversized and have different backs. Tokens aren't considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn't considered a card for rules purposes.

When a rule or text on a card refers to a "card," it means only a Magic card. Most Magic games use only traditional Magic cards, which measure approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 cm) by 3.5 inches (8.8 cm). Certain formats also use nontraditional Magic cards, oversized cards that may have different backs. Tokens aren't considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn't considered a card for rules purposes.

109.3.109.3.

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, toughness, loyalty, hand modifier, and life modifier. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn't a characteristic. For example, characteristics don't include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell's target, an object's owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, color indicator, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, toughness, loyalty, hand modifier, and life modifier. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn't a characteristic. For example, characteristics don't include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell's target, an object's owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

110.5b.110.5b.

The spell or ability that creates a token may define the values of any number of characteristics for the token. This becomes the token's "text." The characteristic values defined this way are functionally equivalent to the characteristic values that are printed on a card; for example, they define the token's copiable values. A token doesn't have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it.

Example: Sprout is an instant that says "Put a 1/1 green Saproling creature token onto the battlefield." The resulting token has no mana cost, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, or abilities.

The spell or ability that creates a token may define the values of any number of characteristics for the token. This becomes the token's "text." The characteristic values defined this way are functionally equivalent to the characteristic values that are printed on a card; for example, they define the token's copiable values. A token doesn't have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it.

Example: Jade Mage has the ability "{2}{G}: Put a 1/1 green Saproling creature token onto the battlefield." The resulting token has no mana cost, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, or abilities.

110.5g.110.5g.

A token that has left the battlefield can't come back onto the battlefield. If such a token would return to the battlefield, it remains in its current zone instead. It ceases to exist the next time state-based actions are checked; see rule 704.

A token that has left the battlefield can't move to another zone or come back onto the battlefield. If such a token would change zones, it remains in its current zone instead. It ceases to exist the next time state-based actions are checked; see rule 704.

111.1a.111.1a.

A copy of a spell is also a spell, even if it has no card associated with it. See rule 706.9.

A copy of a spell is also a spell, even if it has no card associated with it. See rule 706.10.

111.1b.111.1b.

Some effects allow a player to cast a copy of a card; if the player does, that copy is a spell as well. See rule 706.11.

Some effects allow a player to cast a copy of a card; if the player does, that copy is a spell as well. See rule 706.12.

112.6k.112.6k.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to the battlefield. Activate this ability only during your upkeep." A player may activate this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Reassembling Skeleton says "{1}{B}: Return Reassembling Skeleton from your graveyard to the battlefield tapped." A player may activate this ability only if Reassembling Skeleton is in his or her graveyard.

112.7a.112.7a.

Once activated or triggered, an ability exists on the stack independently of its source. Destruction or removal of the source after that time won't affect the ability. Note that some abilities cause a source to do something (for example, "Prodigal Sorcerer deals 1 damage to target creature or player") rather than the ability doing anything directly. In these cases, any activated or triggered ability that references information about the source because the effect needs to be divided checks that information when the ability is put onto the stack. Otherwise, it will check that information when it resolves. In both instances, if the source is no longer in the zone it's expected to be in at that time, its last known information is used. The source can still perform the action even though it no longer exists.

Once activated or triggered, an ability exists on the stack independently of its source. Destruction or removal of the source after that time won't affect the ability. Note that some abilities cause a source to do something (for example, "Prodigal Pyromancer deals 1 damage to target creature or player") rather than the ability doing anything directly. In these cases, any activated or triggered ability that references information about the source because the effect needs to be divided checks that information when the ability is put onto the stack. Otherwise, it will check that information when it resolves. In both instances, if the source is no longer in the zone it's expected to be in at that time, its last known information is used. The source can still perform the action even though it no longer exists.

114.6e.114.6e.

When changing targets or choosing new targets for a spell or ability, only the final set of targets is evaluated to determine whether the change is effective.

Example: Arc Trail is an instant that reads "Arc Trail deals 2 damage to target creature or player and 1 damage to another target creature or player." The current targets of Arc Trail are Runeclaw Bear and Llanowar Elves, in that order. You cast Redirect, an instant that reads "You may choose new targets for target spell," targeting Arc Trail. You can change the first target to Llanowar Elves and change the second target to Runeclaw Bear.

When changing targets or choosing new targets for a spell or ability, only the final set of targets is evaluated to determine whether the change is legal.

Example: Arc Trail is a sorcery that reads "Arc Trail deals 2 damage to target creature or player and 1 damage to another target creature or player." The current targets of Arc Trail are Runeclaw Bear and Llanowar Elves, in that order. You cast Redirect, an instant that reads "You may choose new targets for target spell," targeting Arc Trail. You can change the first target to Llanowar Elves and change the second target to Runeclaw Bear.

117.3c.117.3c.

Activating mana abilities is not mandatory, even if paying a cost is.

Example: A player controls Thorn of Amethyst, which says "Noncreature spells cost {1} more to cast." Another player removes the last time counter from a suspended sorcery card. That player must cast that spell if able, but doing so costs {1}. The player is forced to spend {1} if enough mana is in his or her mana pool, but the player isn't forced to activate a mana ability to produce that {1}. If he or she doesn't, the card simply remains exiled.

Activating mana abilities is not mandatory, even if paying a cost is.

Example: A player controls Lodestone Golem, which says "Nonartifact spells cost {1} more to cast." Another player removes the last time counter from a suspended sorcery card. That player must cast that spell if able, but doing so costs {1}. The player is forced to spend {1} if enough mana is in his or her mana pool, but the player isn't forced to activate a mana ability to produce that {1}. If he or she doesn't, the card simply remains exiled.

119.4b.119.4b.

Next, damage that's been dealt is transformed into its results, as modified by replacement effects that interact with those results (such as life loss or counters).

Next, damage that's been dealt is processed into its results, as modified by replacement effects that interact with those results (such as life loss or counters).

119.4c.119.4c.

Finally, the damage event occurs.

Example: A player who controls Boon Reflection, an enchantment that says "If you would gain life, you gain twice that much life instead," attacks with a 3/3 creature with wither and lifelink. It's blocked by a 2/2 creature, and the defending player casts a spell that prevents the next 2 damage that would be dealt to the blocking creature. The damage event starts out as [3 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. The prevention effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [1 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 1 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Boon Reflection's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 2 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Then the damage event occurs.

Example: The defending player controls a creature and Worship, an enchantment that says "If you control a creature, damage that would reduce your life total to less than 1 reduces it to 1 instead." That player is at 2 life, and is being attacked by two unblocked 5/5 creatures. The player casts Awe Strike, which says "The next time target creature would deal damage this turn, prevent that damage. You gain life equal to the damage prevented this way," targeting one of the attackers. The damage event starts out as [10 damage is dealt to the defending player]. Awe Strike's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [5 damage is dealt to the defending player, the defending player gains 5 life]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [the defending player loses 5 life, the defending player gains 5 life]. Worship's effect sees that the damage event would not reduce the player's life total to less than 1, so Worship's effect is not applied. Then the damage event occurs.

Finally, the damage event occurs.

Example: A player who controls Boon Reflection, an enchantment that says "If you would gain life, you gain twice that much life instead," attacks with a 3/3 creature with wither and lifelink. It's blocked by a 2/2 creature, and the defending player casts a spell that prevents the next 2 damage that would be dealt to the blocking creature. The damage event starts out as [3 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. The prevention effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [1 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. That's processed into its results, so the damage event is now [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 1 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Boon Reflection's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 2 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Then the damage event occurs.

Example: The defending player controls a creature and Worship, an enchantment that says "If you control a creature, damage that would reduce your life total to less than 1 reduces it to 1 instead." That player is at 2 life, and is being attacked by two unblocked 5/5 creatures. The player casts Awe Strike, which says "The next time target creature would deal damage this turn, prevent that damage. You gain life equal to the damage prevented this way," targeting one of the attackers. The damage event starts out as [10 damage is dealt to the defending player]. Awe Strike's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [5 damage is dealt to the defending player, the defending player gains 5 life]. That's processed into its results, so the damage event is now [the defending player loses 5 life, the defending player gains 5 life]. Worship's effect sees that the damage event would not reduce the player's life total to less than 1, so Worship's effect is not applied. Then the damage event occurs.

119.6.119.6.

Damage marked on a creature remains until the cleanup step, even if that permanent stops being a creature. If the total damage marked on a creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a permanent is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.11, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).

Damage marked on a creature remains until the cleanup step, even if that permanent stops being a creature. If the total damage marked on a creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a permanent is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.12, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).

201.3.201.3.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card, the player must choose the name of a card that exists in the Oracle card reference (see rule 108.1) and is legal in the format of the game the player is playing. (See rule 100.6.) If the player wants to name a split card, the player must name both halves of the split card. (See rule 708.) If the player wants to name a flip card's alternative name, the player may do so. (See rule 709.) A player may not choose the name of a token unless it's also the name of a card.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card, the player must choose the name of a card that exists in the Oracle card reference (see rule 108.1) and is legal in the format of the game the player is playing. (See rule 100.6.) If the player wants to name a split card, the player must name both halves of the split card. (See rule 708.) If the player wants to name a flip card's alternative name, the player may do so. (See rule 709.) If the player wants to name the back face of a double-faced card, the player may do so. (See rule 711.) A player may not choose the name of a token unless it's also the name of a card.

201.4a.201.4a.

If an ability's effect grants another ability to an object, and that second ability refers to that first ability's source by name, the name refers only to the specific object that is that first ability's source, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads "Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token onto the battlefield. It has 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.'" The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token, not at any other Saproling Burst on the battlefield.

If an ability's effect grants another ability to an object, and that second ability refers to that first ability's source by name, the name refers only to the specific object that is that first ability's source, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Gutter Grime has an ability that reads "Whenever a nontoken creature you control dies, put a slime counter on Gutter Grime, then put a green Ooze creature token onto the battlefield with 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of slime counters on Gutter Grime.'" The ability granted to the token only looks at the Gutter Grime that created the token, not at any other Gutter Grime on the battlefield.

201.4b.201.4b.

If an ability of an object refers to that object by name, and an object with a different name gains that ability, all instances of the first name in the gained ability should be treated as the second name.

Example: Quicksilver Elemental says, in part, "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If it gains an ability that says "{B}: Regenerate Drudge Skeletons," activating that ability will regenerate Quicksilver Elemental, not the Drudge Skeletons it gained the ability from.

Example: Glacial Ray is an instant with "splice onto Arcane" that says "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." If it's spliced onto a Kodama's Reach, that Kodama's Reach deals 2 damage to the target creature or player.

Example: Dimir Doppelganger says "{1}{U}{B}: Exile target creature card from a graveyard. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability." Dimir Doppelganger's ability is activated targeting a Runeclaw Bear card. The Doppelganger becomes a copy of Runeclaw Bear and gains an ability that should be treated as saying "{1}{U}{B}: Exile target creature card from a graveyard. Runeclaw Bear becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability."

If an ability of an object refers to that object by name, and an object with a different name gains that ability, each instance of the first name in the gained ability that refers to the first object by name should be treated as the second name.

Example: Quicksilver Elemental says, in part, "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If it gains an ability that says "{G}: Regenerate Cudgel Troll," activating that ability will regenerate Quicksilver Elemental, not the Cudgel Troll it gained the ability from.

Example: Glacial Ray is an instant with "splice onto Arcane" that says "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." If it's spliced onto a Kodama's Reach, that Kodama's Reach deals 2 damage to the target creature or player.

Example: Dimir Doppelganger says "{1}{U}{B}: Exile target creature card from a graveyard. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability." Dimir Doppelganger's ability is activated targeting a Runeclaw Bear card. The Doppelganger becomes a copy of Runeclaw Bear and gains an ability that should be treated as saying "{1}{U}{B}: Exile target creature card from a graveyard. Runeclaw Bear becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability."

202.2e.

An object may have a color indicator printed to the left of the type line. That object is each color denoted by that color indicator. (See rule 204.)

202.2e.202.2f.

Effects may change an object's color, give a color to a colorless object, or make a colored object become colorless; see rule 105.3.

Effects may change an object's color, give a color to a colorless object, or make a colored object become colorless; see rule 105.3.

204.

Color Indicator

204.1.

The color indicator is printed to the left of the type line directly below the illustration. It consists of a circular symbol filled in with one or more colors. A color indicator is usually found on nonland cards without a mana cost.

204.2.

An object with a color indicator is each color denoted by that color indicator.

204.205.

Type Line

Type Line

204.1.205.1.

The type line is printed directly below the illustration. It contains the card's card type(s). It also contains the card's subtype(s) and supertype(s), if applicable.

The type line is printed directly below the illustration. It contains the card's card type(s). It also contains the card's subtype(s) and supertype(s), if applicable.

204.1a.205.1a.

Some effects set an object's card type. In such cases, the new card type(s) replaces any existing card types. Counters, effects, and damage marked on the object remain with it, even if they are meaningless to the new card type. Similarly, when an effect sets one or more of an object's subtypes, the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types, land types, artifact types, enchantment types, planeswalker types, or spell types). If an object's card type is removed, the subtypes correlated with that card type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a card type the object currently has; otherwise, they are also removed for the entire time the object's card type is removed. Removing an object's subtype doesn't affect its card types at all.

Some effects set an object's card type. In such cases, the new card type(s) replaces any existing card types. Counters, effects, and damage marked on the object remain with it, even if they are meaningless to the new card type. Similarly, when an effect sets one or more of an object's subtypes, the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types, land types, artifact types, enchantment types, planeswalker types, or spell types). If an object's card type is removed, the subtypes correlated with that card type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a card type the object currently has; otherwise, they are also removed for the entire time the object's card type is removed. Removing an object's subtype doesn't affect its card types at all.

204.1b.205.1b.

Some effects change an object's card type, supertype, or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior card type, supertype, or subtype. In such cases, all the object's prior card types, supertypes, and subtypes are retained. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase "in addition to its types" or that state that something is "still a [type, supertype, or subtype]." Some effects state that an object becomes an "artifact creature"; these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior card types and subtypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." The affected lands now have two card types: creature and land. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability's effect applied to them, those lands would become "artifact land creatures," not just "creatures," or "land creatures." The effect allows them to retain both the card type "artifact" and the card type "land." In addition, each land affected by the ability retains any land types and supertypes it had before the ability took effect.

Example: An ability reads, "All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures." If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment, it will become an "artifact enchantment creature."

Some effects change an object's card type, supertype, or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior card type, supertype, or subtype. In such cases, all the object's prior card types, supertypes, and subtypes are retained. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase "in addition to its types" or that state that something is "still a [type, supertype, or subtype]." Some effects state that an object becomes an "artifact creature"; these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior card types and subtypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." The affected lands now have two card types: creature and land. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability's effect applied to them, those lands would become "artifact land creatures," not just "creatures," or "land creatures." The effect allows them to retain both the card type "artifact" and the card type "land." In addition, each land affected by the ability retains any land types and supertypes it had before the ability took effect.

Example: An ability reads, "All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures." If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment, it will become an "artifact enchantment creature."

204.2.205.2.

Card Types

Card Types

204.2a.205.2a.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, scheme, sorcery, tribal, and vanguard. See section 3, "Card Types."

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, scheme, sorcery, tribal, and vanguard. See section 3, "Card Types."

204.2b.205.2b.

Some objects have more than one card type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects satisfy the criteria for any effect that applies to any of their card types.

Some objects have more than one card type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects satisfy the criteria for any effect that applies to any of their card types.

204.2c.205.2c.

Tokens have card types even though they aren't cards. The same is true of copies of spells and copies of cards.

Tokens have card types even though they aren't cards. The same is true of copies of spells and copies of cards.

204.3.205.3.

Subtypes

Subtypes

204.3a.205.3a.

A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line.

A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line.

204.3b.205.3b.

Subtypes of each card type except plane are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype; such objects may have multiple types. Subtypes of planes are also listed after a long dash, but may be multiple words; all words after the dash are, collectively, a single subtype.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the subtype Mountain. "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. "Artifact — Equipment" means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment.

Subtypes of each card type except plane are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype; such objects may have multiple types. Subtypes of planes are also listed after a long dash, but may be multiple words; all words after the dash are, collectively, a single subtype.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the subtype Mountain. "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. "Artifact — Equipment" means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment.

204.3c.205.3c.

If a card with multiple card types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate card type.

Example: Dryad Arbor's type line says "Land Creature — Forest Dryad." Forest is a land type, and Dryad is a creature type.

If a card with multiple card types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate card type.

Example: Dryad Arbor's type line says "Land Creature — Forest Dryad." Forest is a land type, and Dryad is a creature type.

205.3d.

An object can't gain a subtype that doesn't correspond to one of that object's types.

204.3d.205.3e.

If an effect instructs a player to choose a subtype, that player must choose one, and only one, existing subtype, and the subtype he or she chooses must be for the appropriate card type. For example, the player can't choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type.

Example: When choosing a creature type, "Merfolk" or "Wizard" is acceptable, but "Merfolk Wizard" is not. Words like "artifact," "opponent," "Swamp," or "truck" can't be chosen because they aren't creature types.

If an effect instructs a player to choose a subtype, that player must choose one, and only one, existing subtype, and the subtype he or she chooses must be for the appropriate card type. For example, the player can't choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type.

Example: When choosing a creature type, "Merfolk" or "Wizard" is acceptable, but "Merfolk Wizard" is not. Words like "artifact," "opponent," "Swamp," or "truck" can't be chosen because they aren't creature types.

204.3e.205.3f.

Many cards were printed with subtypes that are now obsolete. Many cards have retroactively received subtypes. Use the Oracle card reference to determine what a card's subtypes are. (See rule 108.1.)

Many cards were printed with subtypes that are now obsolete. Many cards have retroactively received subtypes. Use the Oracle card reference to determine what a card's subtypes are. (See rule 108.1.)

204.3f.205.3g.

Artifacts have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called artifact types. The artifact types are Contraption, Equipment (see rule 301.5), and Fortification (see rule 301.6).

Artifacts have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called artifact types. The artifact types are Contraption, Equipment (see rule 301.5), and Fortification (see rule 301.6).

204.3g.205.3h.

Enchantments have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called enchantment types. The enchantment types are Aura (see rule 303.4), and Shrine.

Enchantments have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called enchantment types. The enchantment types are Aura (see rule 303.4), Curse, and Shrine.

204.3h.205.3i.

Lands have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called land types. The land types are Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, and Urza's. Of that list, Forest, Island, Mountain, Plains, and Swamp are the basic land types. See rule 305.6.

Lands have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called land types. The land types are Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, and Urza's. Of that list, Forest, Island, Mountain, Plains, and Swamp are the basic land types. See rule 305.6.

204.3i.205.3j.

Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types. The planeswalker types are Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Elspeth, Garruk, Gideon, Jace, Karn, Koth, Liliana, Nissa, Sarkhan, Sorin, Tezzeret, and Venser. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based action. See rule 704.

Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types. The planeswalker types are Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Elspeth, Garruk, Gideon, Jace, Karn, Koth, Liliana, Nissa, Sarkhan, Sorin, Tezzeret, and Venser. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based action. See rule 704.

204.3j.205.3k.

Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. The spell types are Arcane and Trap.

Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. The spell types are Arcane and Trap.

204.3k.205.3m.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Ally, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Elder, Eldrazi, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Germ, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Hippogriff, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Praetor, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Ally, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Elder, Eldrazi, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Germ, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Hippogriff, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Praetor, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Werewolf, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

204.3m.205.3n.

Planes have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planar types. The planar types are Alara, Arkhos, Bolas's Meditation Realm, Dominaria, Equilor, Iquatana, Ir, Kaldheim, Kamigawa, Karsus, Kinshala, Lorwyn, Luvion, Mercadia, Mirrodin, Moag, Muraganda, Phyrexia, Pyrulea, Rabiah, Rath, Ravnica, Segovia, Serra's Realm, Shadowmoor, Shandalar, Ulgrotha, Valla, Wildfire, and Zendikar.

Planes have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planar types. The planar types are Alara, Arkhos, Bolas's Meditation Realm, Dominaria, Equilor, Iquatana, Ir, Kaldheim, Kamigawa, Karsus, Kinshala, Lorwyn, Luvion, Mercadia, Mirrodin, Moag, Muraganda, Phyrexia, Pyrulea, Rabiah, Rath, Ravnica, Segovia, Serra's Realm, Shadowmoor, Shandalar, Ulgrotha, Valla, Wildfire, and Zendikar.

204.3n.205.3p.

Neither vanguard cards nor scheme cards have subtypes.

Neither vanguard cards nor scheme cards have subtypes.

204.4.205.4.

Supertypes

Supertypes

204.4a.205.4a.

A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before its card types. The supertypes are basic, legendary, ongoing, snow, and world.

A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before its card types. The supertypes are basic, legendary, ongoing, snow, and world.

204.4b.205.4b.

An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype, even though some supertypes are closely identified with specific card types. Changing an object's card types or subtypes won't change its supertypes. Changing an object's supertypes won't change its card types or subtypes. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." If any of the affected lands were legendary, they are still legendary.

An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype, even though some supertypes are closely identified with specific card types. Changing an object's card types or subtypes won't change its supertypes. Changing an object's supertypes won't change its card types or subtypes. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." If any of the affected lands were legendary, they are still legendary.

204.4c.205.4c.

Any land with the supertype "basic" is a basic land. Any land that doesn't have this supertype is a nonbasic land, even if it has a basic land type. Cards printed in sets prior to the Eighth Edition core set didn't use the word "basic" to indicate a basic land. Cards from those sets with the following names are basic lands and have received errata in the Oracle card reference accordingly: Forest, Island, Mountain, Plains, Swamp, Snow-Covered Forest, Snow-Covered Island, Snow-Covered Mountain, Snow-Covered Plains, and Snow-Covered Swamp.

Any land with the supertype "basic" is a basic land. Any land that doesn't have this supertype is a nonbasic land, even if it has a basic land type. Cards printed in sets prior to the Eighth Edition core set didn't use the word "basic" to indicate a basic land. Cards from those sets with the following names are basic lands and have received errata in the Oracle card reference accordingly: Forest, Island, Mountain, Plains, Swamp, Snow-Covered Forest, Snow-Covered Island, Snow-Covered Mountain, Snow-Covered Plains, and Snow-Covered Swamp.

204.4d.205.4d.

Any permanent with the supertype "legendary" is subject to the state-based action for legendary permanents, also called the "legend rule" (see rule 704.5k).

Any permanent with the supertype "legendary" is subject to the state-based action for legendary permanents, also called the "legend rule" (see rule 704.5k).

204.4e.205.4e.

Any permanent with the supertype "world" is subject to the state-based action for world permanents, also called the "world rule" (see rule 704.5m).

Any permanent with the supertype "world" is subject to the state-based action for world permanents, also called the "world rule" (see rule 704.5m).

204.4f.205.4f.

Any permanent with the supertype "snow" is a snow permanent. Any permanent that doesn't have this supertype is a nonsnow permanent, regardless of its name.

Any permanent with the supertype "snow" is a snow permanent. Any permanent that doesn't have this supertype is a nonsnow permanent, regardless of its name.

204.4g.205.4g.

Any scheme card with the supertype "ongoing" is exempt from the state-based action for schemes (see rule 704.5w).

Any scheme card with the supertype "ongoing" is exempt from the state-based action for schemes (see rule 704.5w).

205.206.

Expansion Symbol

Expansion Symbol

205.1.206.1.

The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It's a small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration.

The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It's a small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration.

205.2.206.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, with the exception of the Simplified Chinese Fifth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, with the exception of the Simplified Chinese Fifth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

205.3.206.3.

A spell or ability that affects cards from a particular set checks only for that set's expansion symbol. A card reprinted in the core set or another expansion receives that set's expansion symbol. Any reprinted version of the card no longer counts as part of its original set unless it was reprinted with that set's expansion symbol.

A spell or ability that affects cards from a particular set checks only for that set's expansion symbol. A card reprinted in the core set or another expansion receives that set's expansion symbol. Any reprinted version of the card no longer counts as part of its original set unless it was reprinted with that set's expansion symbol.

205.4.206.4.

Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or those cards are specifically allowed by the Magic Tournament Rules). See the Magic Tournament Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (www.wizards.com/wpn/Events/Rules.aspx).

Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or those cards are specifically allowed by the Magic Tournament Rules). See the Magic Tournament Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (www.wizards.com/wpn/Events/Rules.aspx).

205.5.206.5.

The full list of expansions and expansion symbols can be found in the Magic Products section of the Wizards of the Coast website (www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Article.aspx?x=mtg/tcg/products/allproducts).

The full list of expansions and expansion symbols can be found in the Magic Products section of the Wizards of the Coast website (www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Article.aspx?x=mtg/tcg/products/allproducts).

206.207.

Text Box

Text Box

206.1.207.1.

The text box is printed on the lower half of the card. It usually contains rules text defining the card's abilities.

The text box is printed on the lower half of the card. It usually contains rules text defining the card's abilities.

206.2.207.2.

The text box may also contain italicized text that has no game function.

The text box may also contain italicized text that has no game function.

206.2a.207.2a.

Reminder text is italicized text within parentheses that summarizes a rule that applies to that card. It usually appears on the same line as the ability it's relevant to, but it may appear on its own line if it applies to an aspect of the card other than an ability.

Reminder text is italicized text within parentheses that summarizes a rule that applies to that card. It usually appears on the same line as the ability it's relevant to, but it may appear on its own line if it applies to an aspect of the card other than an ability.

206.2b.207.2b.

Flavor text is italicized text that, like the illustration, adds artistic appeal to the game. It appears below the rules text.

Flavor text is italicized text that, like the illustration, adds artistic appeal to the game. It appears below the rules text.

206.2c.207.2c.

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The ability words are channel, chroma, domain, grandeur, hellbent, imprint, join forces, kinship, landfall, metalcraft, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The ability words are channel, chroma, domain, grandeur, hellbent, imprint, join forces, kinship, landfall, metalcraft, morbid, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

206.3.207.3.

A guild icon appears in the text box of many Ravnica(r) block cards. These cards either have the specified guild's exclusive mechanic or somehow relate to the two colors associated with that guild. Guild icons have no effect on game play. Similarly, a faction icon appears in the text box of most Scars of Mirrodin (tm) block cards. These faction icons have no effect on game play.

A guild icon appears in the text box of many Ravnica(r) block cards. These cards either have the specified guild's exclusive mechanic or somehow relate to the two colors associated with that guild. Guild icons have no effect on game play. Similarly, a faction icon appears in the text box of most Scars of Mirrodin (tm) block cards. These faction icons have no effect on game play.

206.4.207.4.

The chaos symbol {C} appears in the text box of each plane card to the left of a triggered ability that triggers whenever {C} is rolled on the planar die. The symbol itself has no special rules meaning.

The chaos symbol {C} appears in the text box of each plane card to the left of a triggered ability that triggers whenever {C} is rolled on the planar die. The symbol itself has no special rules meaning.

207.208.

Power/Toughness

Power/Toughness

207.1.208.1.

A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed in its lower right corner. The first number is its power (the amount of damage it deals in combat); the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). For example, 2/3 means the object has power 2 and toughness 3. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects.

A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed in its lower right corner. The first number is its power (the amount of damage it deals in combat); the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). For example, 2/3 means the object has power 2 and toughness 3. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects.

207.2.208.2.

Rather than a fixed number, some creature cards have power and/or toughness that includes a star (*).

Rather than a fixed number, some creature cards have power and/or toughness that includes a star (*).

207.2a.208.2a.

The card may have a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power and/or toughness according to some stated condition. (See rule 604.3.) Such an ability is worded "[This creature's] [power or toughness] is equal to . . ." or "[This creature's] power and toughness are each equal to . . ." This ability functions everywhere, even outside the game. If the ability needs to use a number that can't be determined, including inside a calculation, use 0 instead of that number.

Example: Lost Order of Jarkeld has power and toughness each equal to 1+*. It says "As Lost Order of Jarkeld enters the battlefield, choose an opponent" and "Lost Order of Jarkeld's power and toughness are each equal to 1 plus the number of creatures that opponent controls." While Lost Order of Jarkeld isn't on the battlefield, there won't be a chosen opponent. Its power and toughness will each be equal to 1 plus 0, so it's 1/1.

The card may have a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power and/or toughness according to some stated condition. (See rule 604.3.) Such an ability is worded "[This creature's] [power or toughness] is equal to . . ." or "[This creature's] power and toughness are each equal to . . ." This ability functions everywhere, even outside the game. If the ability needs to use a number that can't be determined, including inside a calculation, use 0 instead of that number.

Example: Lost Order of Jarkeld has power and toughness each equal to 1+*. It has the abilities "As Lost Order of Jarkeld enters the battlefield, choose an opponent" and "Lost Order of Jarkeld's power and toughness are each equal to 1 plus the number of creatures the chosen player controls." While Lost Order of Jarkeld isn't on the battlefield, there won't be a chosen player. Its power and toughness will each be equal to 1 plus 0, so it's 1/1.

207.2b.208.2b.

The card may have a static ability that creates a replacement effect that sets the creature's power and toughness to one of a number of specific choices as it enters the battlefield or is turned face up. (See rule 614, "Replacement Effects.") Such an ability is worded "As [this creature] enters the battlefield . . . ," "As [this creature] is turned face up . . . ," or "[This creature] enters the battlefield as . . ." and lists two or more specific power and toughness values (and may also list additional characteristics). The characteristics chosen with these effects affect the creature's copiable values. (See rule 706.2.) While the card isn't on the battlefield, its power and toughness are each considered to be 0.

The card may have a static ability that creates a replacement effect that sets the creature's power and toughness to one of a number of specific choices as it enters the battlefield or is turned face up. (See rule 614, "Replacement Effects.") Such an ability is worded "As [this creature] enters the battlefield . . . ," "As [this creature] is turned face up . . . ," or "[This creature] enters the battlefield as . . ." and lists two or more specific power and toughness values (and may also list additional characteristics). The characteristics chosen with these effects affect the creature's copiable values. (See rule 706.2.) While the card isn't on the battlefield, its power and toughness are each considered to be 0.

207.3.208.3.

A noncreature permanent has no power or toughness, even if it's a card with a power and toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

A noncreature permanent has no power or toughness, even if it's a card with a power and toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

208.209.

Loyalty

Loyalty

208.1.209.1.

Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. This indicates its loyalty while it's not on the battlefield, and it also indicates that the planeswalker enters the battlefield with that many loyalty counters on it.

Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. This indicates its loyalty while it's not on the battlefield, and it also indicates that the planeswalker enters the battlefield with that many loyalty counters on it.

208.2.209.2.

An activated ability with a loyalty symbol in its cost is a loyalty ability. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of that permanent's loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, "Loyalty Abilities."

An activated ability with a loyalty symbol in its cost is a loyalty ability. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of that permanent's loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, "Loyalty Abilities."

209.210.

Hand Modifier

Hand Modifier

209.1.210.1.

Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the maximum hand size of the vanguard card's owner (normally seven) to determine both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and his or her maximum hand size.

Each vanguard card has a hand modifier printed in its lower left corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the maximum hand size of the vanguard card's owner (normally seven) to determine both how many cards that player draws at the beginning of the game and his or her maximum hand size.

210.211.

Life Modifier

Life Modifier

210.1.211.1.

Each vanguard card has a life modifier printed in its lower right corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting life total of the vanguard card's owner (normally 20) to determine how much life that player begins the game with.

Each vanguard card has a life modifier printed in its lower right corner. This is a number preceded by a plus sign, a number preceded by a minus sign, or a zero. This modifier is applied to the starting life total of the vanguard card's owner (normally 20) to determine how much life that player begins the game with.

211.212.

Information Below the Text Box

Information Below the Text Box

211.1.212.1.

Each card features text printed below the text box that has no effect on game play.

Each card features text printed below the text box that has no effect on game play.

211.1a.212.1a.

The illustration credit for a card is printed on the first line below the text box. It follows the paintbrush icon or, on older cards, the abbreviation "Illus."

The illustration credit for a card is printed on the first line below the text box. It follows the paintbrush icon or, on older cards, the abbreviation "Illus."

211.1b.212.1b.

Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information.

Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information.

211.1c.212.1c.

Some card sets feature collector numbers. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set], immediately following the legal text.

Some card sets feature collector numbers. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set], immediately following the legal text.

301.3.301.3.

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. Artifacts may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3f for the complete list of artifact types.

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. Artifacts may have multiple subtypes. See rule 205.3g for the complete list of artifact types.

302.3.302.3.

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3k for the complete list of creature types.

Example: "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard.

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. See rule 205.3m for the complete list of creature types.

Example: "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard.

302.7.302.7.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with neither wither nor infect is marked on that creature (see rule 119.3). If the total damage marked on that creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a creature is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.11, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with neither wither nor infect is marked on that creature (see rule 119.3). If the total damage marked on that creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a creature is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.12, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).

303.3.303.3.

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. Enchantments may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3g for the complete list of enchantment types.

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. Enchantments may have multiple subtypes. See rule 205.3h for the complete list of enchantment types.

304.3.304.3.

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of instant subtypes is the same as the set of sorcery subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Instants may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3j for the complete list of spell types.

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of instant subtypes is the same as the set of sorcery subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Instants may have multiple subtypes. See rule 205.3k for the complete list of spell types.

305.5.305.5.

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3h for the complete list of land types.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the subtype Mountain.

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. See rule 205.3i for the complete list of land types.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the subtype Mountain.

306.3.306.3.

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. Planeswalkers may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3i for the complete list of planeswalker types.

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. Planeswalkers may have multiple subtypes. See rule 205.3j for the complete list of planeswalker types.

307.3.307.3.

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of sorcery subtypes is the same as the set of instant subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3j for the complete list of spell types.

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of sorcery subtypes is the same as the set of instant subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes. See rule 205.3k for the complete list of spell types.

308.2.308.2.

Tribal subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Tribal Enchantment — Merfolk." The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. Tribals may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3k for the complete list of creature types.

Tribal subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Tribal Enchantment — Merfolk." The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. Tribals may have multiple subtypes. See rule 205.3m for the complete list of creature types.

309.3.309.3.

Plane subtypes are listed after a long dash, and may be multiple words: "Plane — Serra's Realm." All words after the dash are, collectively, a single subtype. Planar subtypes are called planar types. A plane can have only one subtype. See rule 204.3m for the complete list of planar types.

Plane subtypes are listed after a long dash, and may be multiple words: "Plane — Serra's Realm." All words after the dash are, collectively, a single subtype. Planar subtypes are called planar types. A plane can have only one subtype. See rule 205.3n for the complete list of planar types.

400.7.400.7.

An object that moves from one zone to another becomes a new object with no memory of, or relation to, its previous existence. There are six exceptions to this rule:

An object that moves from one zone to another becomes a new object with no memory of, or relation to, its previous existence. There are seven exceptions to this rule:

400.7g.

A resolving spell or activated ability can perform actions on an object that moved from one zone to another while that spell was being cast or that ability was being activated, if that object moved to a public zone.

505.3.505.3.

First, but only if the players are playing an Archenemy game (see rule 904), the active player is the archenemy, and it's the active player's precombat main phase, the active player sets the top card of his or her scheme deck in motion (see rule 701.21). This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

First, but only if the players are playing an Archenemy game (see rule 904), the active player is the archenemy, and it's the active player's precombat main phase, the active player sets the top card of his or her scheme deck in motion (see rule 701.22). This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

506.4.506.4.

A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves the battlefield, if its controller changes, if it phases out, if an effect specifically removes it from combat, if it's a planeswalker that's being attacked and stops being a planeswalker, or if it's an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 701.11) or stops being a creature. A creature that's removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that's removed from combat stops being attacked.

A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves the battlefield, if its controller changes, if it phases out, if an effect specifically removes it from combat, if it's a planeswalker that's being attacked and stops being a planeswalker, or if it's an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 701.12) or stops being a creature. A creature that's removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that's removed from combat stops being attacked.

508.1.508.1.

First, the active player declares attackers. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. To declare attackers, the active player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of attackers, the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 716, "Handling Illegal Actions").

First, the active player declares attackers. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. To declare attackers, the active player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of attackers, the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 717, "Handling Illegal Actions").

509.1.509.1.

First, the defending player declares blockers. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. To declare blockers, the defending player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of blockers, the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 716, "Handling Illegal Actions").

First, the defending player declares blockers. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. To declare blockers, the defending player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of blockers, the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 717, "Handling Illegal Actions").

509.2.509.2.

Second, for each attacking creature that's become blocked, the active player announces that creature's damage assignment order, which consists of the creatures blocking it in an order of that player's choice. (During the combat damage step, an attacking creature can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless each creature ahead of that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.) This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

Example: Craw Wurm is blocked by Llanowar Elves, Runeclaw Bear, and Serra Angel. The Craw Wurm's controller announces the Craw Wurm's damage assignment order as Serra Angel, then Runeclaw Bear, then Llanowar Elves.

Second, for each attacking creature that's become blocked, the active player announces that creature's damage assignment order, which consists of the creatures blocking it in an order of that player's choice. (During the combat damage step, an attacking creature can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless each creature ahead of that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.) This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

Example: Vastwood Gorger is blocked by Llanowar Elves, Runeclaw Bear, and Serra Angel. Vastwood Gorger's controller announces the Vastwood Gorger's damage assignment order as Serra Angel, then Llanowar Elves, then Runeclaw Bear.

509.7.509.7.

If a creature is put onto the battlefield blocking, its controller chooses which attacking creature it's blocking as it enters the battlefield (unless the effect that put it onto the battlefield specifies what it's blocking), then the active player announces the new creature's placement in the blocked creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. A creature put onto the battlefield this way is "blocking" but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, it never "blocked."

Example: Lumengrid Warden is blocked by Runeclaw Bear. The defending player casts Flash Foliage, which puts a Saproling token onto the battlefield blocking the Lumengrid Warden. Lumengrid Warden's controller announces the Lumengrid Warden's damage assignment order as the Saproling token, then Runeclaw Bear.

If a creature is put onto the battlefield blocking, its controller chooses which attacking creature it's blocking as it enters the battlefield (unless the effect that put it onto the battlefield specifies what it's blocking), then the active player announces the new creature's placement in the blocked creature's damage assignment order. The relative order among the remaining blocking creatures is unchanged. A creature put onto the battlefield this way is "blocking" but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, it never "blocked."

Example: Giant Spider is blocked by Canyon Minotaur. The defending player casts Flash Foliage, which puts a Saproling token onto the battlefield blocking the Giant Spider. Giant Spider's controller announces the Giant Spider's damage assignment order as the Saproling token, then Canyon Minotaur.

510.1c.510.1c.

A blocked creature assigns its combat damage to the creatures blocking it. If no creatures are currently blocking it (if, for example, they were destroyed or removed from combat), it assigns no combat damage. If exactly one creature is blocking it, it assigns all its combat damage to that creature. If two or more creatures are blocking it, it assigns its combat damage to those creatures according to the damage assignment order announced for it. This may allow the blocked creature to divide its combat damage. However, it can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless, when combat damage assignments are complete, each creature that precedes that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. An amount of damage that's greater than a creature's lethal damage may be assigned to it.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). Craw Wurm can assign 3 damage to the Wall and 3 damage to the Cadet, 4 damage to the Wall and 2 damage to the Cadet, 5 damage to the Wall and 1 damage to the Cadet, or 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Giant Growth targeting Wall of Wood, which gives it +3/+3 until end of turn. Craw Wurm must assign its 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Craw Wurm (a 6/4 creature) is Wall of Wood (a 0/3 creature) then Eager Cadet (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Mending Hands targeting Wall of Wood, which prevents the next 4 damage that would be dealt to it. Craw Wurm can assign 3 damage to the Wall and 3 damage to the Cadet, 4 damage to the Wall and 2 damage to the Cadet, 5 damage to the Wall and 1 damage to the Cadet, or 6 damage to the Wall.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Enormous Baloth (a 7/7 creature) is Trained Armodon (a 3/3 creature) that already has 2 damage marked on it, then Foriysian Brigade (a 2/4 creature that can block an additional creature), then Silverback Ape (a 5/5 creature). The damage assignment order of an attacking Durkwood Boars (a 4/4 creature) is the same Foriysian Brigade, then Goblin Piker (a 2/1 creature). Among other possibilities, the active player may have the Baloth assign 1 damage to the Armodon, 1 damage to the Brigade, and 5 damage to the Ape, and have the Boars assign 3 damage to the Brigade and 1 damage to the Piker.

A blocked creature assigns its combat damage to the creatures blocking it. If no creatures are currently blocking it (if, for example, they were destroyed or removed from combat), it assigns no combat damage. If exactly one creature is blocking it, it assigns all its combat damage to that creature. If two or more creatures are blocking it, it assigns its combat damage to those creatures according to the damage assignment order announced for it. This may allow the blocked creature to divide its combat damage. However, it can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless, when combat damage assignments are complete, each creature that precedes that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. An amount of damage that's greater than a creature's lethal damage may be assigned to it.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Vastwood Gorger (a 5/6 creature) is Pride Guardian (a 0/3 creature) then Llanowar Elves (a 1/1 creature). Vastwood Gorger can assign 3 damage to the Guardian and 2 damage to the Elves, 4 damage to the Guardian and 1 damage to the Elves, or 5 damage to the Guardian.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Vastwood Gorger (a 5/6 creature) is Pride Guardian (a 0/3 creature) then Llanowar Elves (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Giant Growth targeting Pride Guardian, which gives it +3/+3 until end of turn. Vastwood Gorger must assign its 5 damage to the Guardian.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Vastwood Gorger (a 5/6 creature) is Pride Guardian (a 0/3 creature) then Llanowar Elves (a 1/1 creature). During the declare blockers step, the defending player casts Mending Hands targeting Pride Guardian, which prevents the next 4 damage that would be dealt to it. Vastwood Gorger can assign 3 damage to the Guardian and 2 damage to the Elves, 4 damage to the Guardian and 1 damage to the Elves, or 5 damage to the Guardian.

Example: The damage assignment order of an attacking Enormous Baloth (a 7/7 creature) is Trained Armodon (a 3/3 creature) that already has 2 damage marked on it, then Foriysian Brigade (a 2/4 creature that can block an additional creature), then Silverback Ape (a 5/5 creature). The damage assignment order of an attacking Durkwood Boars (a 4/4 creature) is the same Foriysian Brigade, then Goblin Piker (a 2/1 creature). Among other possibilities, the active player may have the Baloth assign 1 damage to the Armodon, 1 damage to the Brigade, and 5 damage to the Ape, and have the Boars assign 3 damage to the Brigade and 1 damage to the Piker.

510.1e.510.1e.

Once a player has assigned combat damage from each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls, the total damage assignment (not solely the damage assignment of any individual attacking or blocking creature) is checked to see if it complies with the above rules. If it doesn't, the combat damage assignment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that player began to assign combat damage. (See rule 716, "Handling Illegal Actions").

Once a player has assigned combat damage from each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls, the total damage assignment (not solely the damage assignment of any individual attacking or blocking creature) is checked to see if it complies with the above rules. If it doesn't, the combat damage assignment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that player began to assign combat damage. (See rule 717, "Handling Illegal Actions").

510.2.510.2.

Second, all combat damage that's been assigned is dealt simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. No player has the chance to cast spells or activate abilities between the time combat damage is assigned and the time it's dealt. This is a change from previous rules.

Example: Suntail Hawk (a 1/1 creature with flying) and Goblin Piker (a 2/1 creature) are attacking. Mogg Fanatic (a 1/1 creature with the ability "Sacrifice Mogg Fanatic: Mogg Fanatic deals 1 damage to target creature or player) blocks the Goblin Piker. The defending player sacrifices Mogg Fanatic during the declare blockers step to deal 1 damage to the Suntail Hawk. The Hawk is destroyed. The Piker deals and is dealt no combat damage this turn. If the defending player instead left Mogg Fanatic on the battlefield, the Fanatic and the Piker would have dealt lethal damage to one another, but the Suntail Hawk couldn't have been dealt damage.

Second, all combat damage that's been assigned is dealt simultaneously. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. No player has the chance to cast spells or activate abilities between the time combat damage is assigned and the time it's dealt. This is a change from previous rules.

Example: Squadron Hawk (a 1/1 creature with flying) and Goblin Piker (a 2/1 creature) are attacking. Mogg Fanatic (a 1/1 creature with the ability "Sacrifice Mogg Fanatic: Mogg Fanatic deals 1 damage to target creature or player) blocks the Goblin Piker. The defending player sacrifices Mogg Fanatic during the declare blockers step to deal 1 damage to the Squadron Hawk. The Hawk is destroyed. The Piker deals and is dealt no combat damage this turn. If the defending player instead left Mogg Fanatic on the battlefield, the Fanatic and the Piker would have dealt lethal damage to one another, but the Squadron Hawk couldn't have been dealt damage.

601.2.601.2.

To cast a spell is to take it from where it is (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Casting a spell follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the casting of a spell, a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the casting of the spell is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that spell started to be cast (see rule 716, "Handling Illegal Actions"). Announcements and payments can't be altered after they've been made.

To cast a spell is to take it from where it is (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Casting a spell follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the casting of a spell, a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the casting of the spell is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that spell started to be cast (see rule 717, "Handling Illegal Actions"). Announcements and payments can't be altered after they've been made.

601.2g.601.2g.

The player pays the total cost in any order. Partial payments are not allowed. Unpayable costs can't be paid.

Example: You cast Death Bomb, which costs {3}{B} and has an additional cost of sacrificing a creature. You sacrifice Thunderscape Familiar, whose effect makes your black spells cost {1} less to cast. Because a spell's total cost is "locked in" before payments are actually made, you pay {2}{B}, not {3}{B}, even though you're sacrificing the Familiar.

The player pays the total cost in any order. Partial payments are not allowed. Unpayable costs can't be paid.

Example: You cast Altar's Reap, which costs {1}{B} and has an additional cost of sacrificing a creature. You sacrifice Thunderscape Familiar, whose effect makes your black spells cost {1} less to cast. Because a spell's total cost is "locked in" before payments are actually made, you pay {B}, not {1}{B}, even though you're sacrificing the Familiar.

602.2.602.2.

To activate an ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object's controller (or its owner, if it doesn't have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. Activating an ability follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the activation of an ability, a player is unable to comply with any of those steps, the activation is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that ability started to be activated (see rule 716, "Handling Illegal Actions"). Announcements and payments can't be altered after they've been made.

To activate an ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object's controller (or its owner, if it doesn't have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. Activating an ability follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the activation of an ability, a player is unable to comply with any of those steps, the activation is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that ability started to be activated (see rule 717, "Handling Illegal Actions"). Announcements and payments can't be altered after they've been made.

603.6d.603.6d.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be on the battlefield, may have moved to a hand or library, or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Leaves-the-battlefield abilities, abilities that trigger when a permanent phases out, abilities that trigger when an object that all players can see is put into a hand or library, abilities that trigger specifically when an object becomes unattached, abilities that trigger when a player loses control of an object, and abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks away from a plane will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are on the battlefield along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be on the battlefield, may have moved to a hand or library, or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Leaves-the-battlefield abilities, abilities that trigger when a permanent phases out, abilities that trigger when an object that all players can see is put into a hand or library, abilities that trigger specifically when an object becomes unattached, abilities that trigger when a player loses control of an object, and abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks away from a plane will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are on the battlefield along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature dies, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

605.4a.605.4a.

A triggered mana ability doesn't go on the stack, so it can't be targeted, countered, or otherwise responded to. Rather, it resolves immediately after the mana ability that triggered it, without waiting for priority.

Example: An enchantment reads, "Whenever a player taps a land for mana, that player adds one mana of that type to his or her mana pool." If a player taps lands for mana while casting a spell, the additional mana is added to the player's mana pool immediately and can be used to pay for the spell.

A triggered mana ability doesn't go on the stack, so it can't be targeted, countered, or otherwise responded to. Rather, it resolves immediately after the mana ability that triggered it, without waiting for priority.

Example: An enchantment reads, "Whenever a player taps a land for mana, that player adds one mana to his or her mana pool of any type that land produced." If a player taps lands for mana while casting a spell, the additional mana is added to the player's mana pool immediately and can be used to pay for the spell.

608.2b.608.2b.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's no longer in the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally. However, if any of its targets are illegal, the part of the spell or ability's effect for which it is an illegal target can't perform any actions on that target or make that target perform any actions. The effect may still determine information about illegal targets, though, and other parts of the effect for which those targets are not illegal may still affect them.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left the battlefield), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell. The "destroy target nonblack creature" part of the spell won't affect that permanent, but the "destroy target land" part of the spell will still destroy it. It can't be regenerated.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's no longer in the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally. However, if any of its targets are illegal, the part of the spell or ability's effect for which it is an illegal target can't perform any actions on that target or make that target perform any actions. The effect may still determine information about illegal targets, though, and other parts of the effect for which those targets are not illegal may still affect them.

Example: Sorin's Thirst is a black instant that reads, "Sorin's Thirst deals 2 damage to target creature and you gain 2 life." If the creature isn't a legal target during the resolution of Sorin's Thirst (say, if the creature has gained protection from black or left the battlefield), then Sorin's Thirst is countered. Its controller doesn't gain any life.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell. The "destroy target nonblack creature" part of the spell won't affect that permanent, but the "destroy target land" part of the spell will still destroy it. It can't be regenerated.

608.3b.608.3b.

If a permanent spell resolves but its controller can't put it onto the battlefield, that player puts it into its owner's graveyard.

Example: Worms of the Earth says "If a land would enter the battlefield, instead it doesn't." Clone says "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." If a player casts Clone and chooses to copy Dryad Arbor (a land creature) while Worms of the Earth is on the battlefield, Clone can't enter the battlefield from the stack. It's put into its owner's graveyard.

If a permanent spell resolves but its controller can't put it onto the battlefield, that player puts it into its owner's graveyard.

Example: Worms of the Earth has the ability "Lands can't enter the battlefield." Clone says "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." If a player casts Clone and chooses to copy Dryad Arbor (a land creature) while Worms of the Earth is on the battlefield, Clone can't enter the battlefield from the stack. It's put into its owner's graveyard.

611.2b.611.2b.

Some continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability have durations worded "for as long as . . . ." If the "for as long as" duration never starts, or it ends before the moment the effect would first be applied, the effect does nothing. It doesn't start and immediately stop again, and it doesn't last forever.

Example: Endoskeleton is an artifact with an activated ability that reads "{2}, {T}: Target creature gets +0/+3 for as long as Endoskeleton remains tapped." If you activate this ability and then Endoskeleton becomes untapped before the ability resolves, it does nothing, because its duration—remaining tapped—was over before the effect began.

Some continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability have durations worded "for as long as . . . ." If the "for as long as" duration never starts, or it ends before the moment the effect would first be applied, the effect does nothing. It doesn't start and immediately stop again, and it doesn't last forever.

Example: Master Thief has the ability "When Master Thief enters the battlefield, gain control of target artifact for as long as you control Master Thief." If you lose control of Master Thief before the ability resolves, it does nothing, because its duration—as long as you control Master Thief—was over before the effect began.

612.5.612.5.

One card (Volrath's Shapeshifter) states that an object has the "full text" of another object. This changes not just the text that appears in the object's text box and type line, but also changes the text that represents its name, mana cost, expansion symbol, power, and toughness.

One card (Volrath's Shapeshifter) states that an object has the "full text" of another object. This changes not just the text that appears in the object's text box and type line, but also changes the text that represents its name, mana cost, color indicator, expansion symbol, power, and toughness.

613.4.613.4.

The application of continuous effects as described by the layer system is continually and automatically performed by the game. All resulting changes to an object's characteristics are instantaneous.

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are on the battlefield. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 7c), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is on the battlefield. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 7d), making it 3/3. A spell targeting it that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" resolves (layer 7c), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters the battlefield (layer 7c), making it 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 7b), making it 5/8 (0/1, plus +4/+4 from the resolved spell, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment, plus +1/+1 from the counter).

The application of continuous effects as described by the layer system is continually and automatically performed by the game. All resulting changes to an object's characteristics are instantaneous.

Example: Honor of the Pure is an enchantment that reads "White creatures you control get +1/+1." Honor of the Pure and a 2/2 black creature are on the battlefield under your control. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Honor of the Pure (layer 7c), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Honor of the Pure's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is on the battlefield. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 7d), making it 3/3. A spell targeting it that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" resolves (layer 7c), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters the battlefield (layer 7c), making it 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 7b), making it 5/8 (0/1, with +4/+4 from the resolved spell, +0/+2 from the enchantment, and +1/+1 from the counter).

613.5.613.5.

If an effect should be applied in different layers and/or sublayers, the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate ones. If an effect starts to apply in one layer and/or sublayer, it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer and/or sublayer, even if the ability generating the effect is removed during this process.

Example: An effect that reads "Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn" is both a power- and toughness-changing effect and a color-changing effect. The "becomes the color of your choice" part is applied in layer 5, and then the "gets +1/+1" part is applied in layer 7.

Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads "Until end of turn, you gain control of target creature and it gains haste." This is both a control-changing effect and an effect that adds an ability to an object. The "you gain control" part is applied in layer 2, and then the "it gains haste" part is applied in layer 6.

Example: An effect that reads "All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn" is both a type-changing effect and a power- and toughness-setting effect. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power- and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 7, even though those permanents aren't noncreature artifacts by then.

Example: Svogthos, the Restless Tomb, is on the battlefield. An effect that says "Until end of turn, target land becomes a 3/3 creature that's still a land" is applied to it (layers 4 and 7b). An effect that says "Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 7c), making it a 4/4 land creature. Then while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard, you activate Svogthos's ability: "Until end of turn, Svogthos, the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard.' It's still a land." (layers 4, 5, and 7b). It becomes an 11/11 land creature. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard, Svogthos's power and toughness will be modified accordingly. If the first effect is applied to it again, it will become a 4/4 land creature again.

If an effect should be applied in different layers and/or sublayers, the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate ones. If an effect starts to apply in one layer and/or sublayer, it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer and/or sublayer, even if the ability generating the effect is removed during this process.

Example: An effect that reads "Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn" is both a power- and toughness-changing effect and a color-changing effect. The "becomes the color of your choice" part is applied in layer 5, and then the "gets +1/+1" part is applied in layer 7c.

Example: Act of Treason has an effect that reads "Gain control of target creature until end of turn. Untap that creature. It gains haste until end of turn." This is both a control-changing effect and an effect that adds an ability to an object. The "gain control" part is applied in layer 2, and then the "it gains haste" part is applied in layer 6.

Example: An effect that reads "All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn" is both a type-changing effect and a power- and toughness-setting effect. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power- and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 7b, even though those permanents aren't noncreature artifacts by then.

Example: Svogthos, the Restless Tomb, is on the battlefield. An effect that says "Until end of turn, target land becomes a 3/3 creature that's still a land" is applied to it (layers 4 and 7b). An effect that says "Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 7c), making it a 4/4 land creature. Then while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard, you activate Svogthos's ability: "Until end of turn, Svogthos, the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard.' It's still a land." (layers 4, 5, and 7b). It becomes an 11/11 land creature. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard, Svogthos's power and toughness will be modified accordingly. If the first effect is applied to it again, it will become a 4/4 land creature again.

614.8.614.8.

Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. The word "instead" doesn't appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat." Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. See rule 701.11.

Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. The word "instead" doesn't appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat." Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. See rule 701.12.

614.12.614.12.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent enters the battlefield. (See rules 614.1c-d.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. To determine which replacement effects apply and how they apply, check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist on the battlefield, taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it enters the battlefield, continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent's characteristics on the stack (see rule 400.7a), and continuous effects from the permanent's own static abilities, but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put onto the battlefield, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk enters the battlefield tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put onto the battlefield from a graveyard enters the battlefield tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents enter the battlefield tapped." It won't affect itself, so Orb of Dreams enters the battlefield untapped.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent enters the battlefield. (See rules 614.1c-d.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. To determine which replacement effects apply and how they apply, check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist on the battlefield, taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it enters the battlefield, continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent's characteristics on the stack (see rule 400.7a), and continuous effects from the permanent's own static abilities, but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put onto the battlefield, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards lose all abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk enters the battlefield tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put onto the battlefield from a graveyard enters the battlefield tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents enter the battlefield tapped." It won't affect itself, so Orb of Dreams enters the battlefield untapped.

616.1c.616.1c.

Any of the applicable replacement and/or prevention effects may be chosen.

If any of the replacement and/or prevention effects would cause an object to become a copy of another object as it enters the battlefield, one of them must be chosen. If not, proceed to rule 616.1d.

616.1d.

Any of the applicable replacement and/or prevention effects may be chosen.

616.1d.616.1e.

Once the chosen effect has been applied, this process is repeated (taking into account only replacement or prevention effects that would now be applicable) until there are no more left to apply.

Example: Two permanents are on the battlefield. One is an enchantment that reads "If a card would be put into a graveyard from anywhere, instead exile it," and the other is a creature that reads "If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from the battlefield, instead shuffle it into its owner's library." The controller of the creature that would be destroyed decides which replacement to apply first; the other does nothing.

Once the chosen effect has been applied, this process is repeated (taking into account only replacement or prevention effects that would now be applicable) until there are no more left to apply.

Example: Two permanents are on the battlefield. One is an enchantment that reads "If a card would be put into a graveyard from anywhere, instead exile it," and the other is a creature that reads "If [this creature] would be put into a graveyard from the battlefield, instead shuffle it into its owner's library." If the creature is destroyed, its controller decides which replacement to apply first; the other does nothing.

Example: Essence of the Wild reads "Creatures you control enter the battlefield as a copy of Essence of the Wild." A player who controls Essence of the Wild casts Rusted Sentinel, which normally enters the battlefield tapped. As it enters the battlefield, the copy effect from Essence of the Wild is applied first. As a result, it no longer has the ability that causes it to enter the battlefield tapped. Rusted Sentinel will enter the battlefield as an untapped copy of Essence of the Wild.

700.1.700.1.

Anything that happens in a game is an event. Multiple events may take place during the resolution of a spell or ability. The text of triggered abilities and replacement effects defines the event they're looking for. One "happening" may be treated as a single event by one ability and as multiple events by another.

Example: If an attacking creature is blocked by two defending creatures, this is one event for a triggered ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked" but two events for a triggered ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature."

Anything that happens in a game is an event. Multiple events may take place during the resolution of a spell or ability. The text of triggered abilities and replacement effects defines the event they're looking for. One "happening" may be treated as a single event by one ability and as multiple events by another.

Example: If an attacking creature is blocked by two creatures, this is one event for a triggered ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked" but two events for a triggered ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature."

700.2f.700.2f.

A copy of a modal spell or ability copies the mode(s) chosen for it. The controller of the copy can't choose a different mode. (See rule 706.9.)

A copy of a modal spell or ability copies the mode(s) chosen for it. The controller of the copy can't choose a different mode. (See rule 706.10.)

701.6c.701.6c.

A regeneration effect replaces a destruction event. See rule 701.11, "Regenerate."

A regeneration effect replaces a destruction event. See rule 701.12, "Regenerate."

701.7c.701.7c.

If a card is discarded, but an effect causes it to be put into a hidden zone instead of into its owner's graveyard without being revealed, all values of that card's characteristics are considered to be undefined. If a card is discarded this way to pay a cost that specifies a characteristic about the discarded card, that cost payment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the cost was paid (see rule 716, "Handling Illegal Actions").

If a card is discarded, but an effect causes it to be put into a hidden zone instead of into its owner's graveyard without being revealed, all values of that card's characteristics are considered to be undefined. If a card is discarded this way to pay a cost that specifies a characteristic about the discarded card, that cost payment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the cost was paid (see rule 717, "Handling Illegal Actions").

701.8g.

A spell or ability may instruct a player to exchange two numerical values. In such an exchange, each value becomes equal to the previous value of the other. If either of those values is a life total, the affected player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other value. Replacements effects may modify this gain or loss, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. This rule does not apply to spells and abilities that switch a creature's power and toughness.

701.10.

Fight

701.10a.

A spell or ability may instruct a creature to fight another creature or it may instruct two creatures to fight each other. Each of those creatures deals damage equal to its power to the other creature.

701.10b.

If a creature instructed to fight is no longer on the battlefield or is no longer a creature, no damage is dealt. If a creature is an illegal target for a resolving spell or ability that instructs it to fight, no damage is dealt.

701.10c.

If a creature fights itself, it deals damage equal to its power to itself twice.

701.10d.

The damage dealt when a creature fights isn't combat damage.

701.10.701.11.

Play

Play

701.10a.701.11a.

To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it's in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if he or she has priority, it's the main phase of his or her turn, the stack is empty, and he or she hasn't yet played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 115), so it doesn't use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn't the same as playing a land. See rule 305, "Lands."

To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it's in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if he or she has priority, it's the main phase of his or her turn, the stack is empty, and he or she hasn't yet played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 115), so it doesn't use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn't the same as playing a land. See rule 305, "Lands."

701.10b.701.11b.

To play a card means to play that card as a land or to cast that card as a spell, whichever is appropriate.

To play a card means to play that card as a land or to cast that card as a spell, whichever is appropriate.

701.10c.701.11c.

Some effects instruct a player to "play" with a certain aspect of the game changed, such as "Play with the top card of your library revealed." "Play" in this sense means to play the Magic game.

Some effects instruct a player to "play" with a certain aspect of the game changed, such as "Play with the top card of your library revealed." "Play" in this sense means to play the Magic game.

701.10d.701.11d.

Previously, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as "playing" that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "casting" that spell or that card.

Previously, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as "playing" that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "casting" that spell or that card.

701.10e.701.11e.

Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.

Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.

701.11.701.12.

Regenerate

Regenerate

701.11a.701.12a.

If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat."

If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage marked on it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat."

701.11b.701.12b.

If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "Instead remove all damage marked on [permanent] and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat."

If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "Instead remove all damage marked on [permanent] and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat."

701.11c.701.12c.

Neither activating an ability that creates a regeneration shield nor casting a spell that creates a regeneration shield is the same as regenerating a permanent. Effects that say that a permanent can't be regenerated don't prevent such abilities from being activated or such spells from being cast; rather, they prevent regeneration shields from having any effect.

Neither activating an ability that creates a regeneration shield nor casting a spell that creates a regeneration shield is the same as regenerating a permanent. Effects that say that a permanent can't be regenerated don't prevent such abilities from being activated or such spells from being cast; rather, they prevent regeneration shields from having any effect.

701.12.701.13.

Reveal

Reveal

701.12a.701.13a.

To reveal a card, show that card to all players for a brief time. If an effect causes a card to be revealed, it remains revealed for as long as necessary to complete the parts of the effect that card is relevant to. If the cost to cast a spell or activate an ability includes revealing a card, the card remains revealed from the time the spell or ability is announced until it the time it leaves the stack.

To reveal a card, show that card to all players for a brief time. If an effect causes a card to be revealed, it remains revealed for as long as necessary to complete the parts of the effect that card is relevant to. If the cost to cast a spell or activate an ability includes revealing a card, the card remains revealed from the time the spell or ability is announced until it the time it leaves the stack.

701.12b.701.13b.

Revealing a card doesn't cause it to leave the zone it's in.

Revealing a card doesn't cause it to leave the zone it's in.

701.13.701.14.

Sacrifice

Sacrifice

701.13a.701.14a.

To sacrifice a permanent, its controller moves it from the battlefield directly to its owner's graveyard. A player can't sacrifice something that isn't a permanent, or something that's a permanent he or she doesn't control. Sacrificing a permanent doesn't destroy it, so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can't affect this action.

To sacrifice a permanent, its controller moves it from the battlefield directly to its owner's graveyard. A player can't sacrifice something that isn't a permanent, or something that's a permanent he or she doesn't control. Sacrificing a permanent doesn't destroy it, so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can't affect this action.

701.14.701.15.

Search

Search

701.14a.701.15a.

To search for a card in a zone, look at all cards in that zone (even if it's a hidden zone) and find a card that matches the given description.

To search for a card in a zone, look at all cards in that zone (even if it's a hidden zone) and find a card that matches the given description.

701.14b.701.15b.

If a player is searching a hidden zone for cards with a stated quality, such as a card with a certain card type or color, that player isn't required to find some or all of those cards even if they're present in that zone.

Example: Splinter says "Exile target artifact. Search its controller's graveyard, hand, and library for all cards with the same name as that artifact and exile them. That player then shuffles his or her library." A player casts Splinter targeting Howling Mine (an artifact). Howling Mine's controller has another Howling Mine in her graveyard and two more in her library. Splinter's controller must find the Howling Mine in the graveyard, but may choose to find zero, one, or two of the Howling Mines in the library.

If a player is searching a hidden zone for cards with a stated quality, such as a card with a certain card type or color, that player isn't required to find some or all of those cards even if they're present in that zone.

Example: Splinter says "Exile target artifact. Search its controller's graveyard, hand, and library for all cards with the same name as that artifact and exile them. That player then shuffles his or her library." A player casts Splinter targeting Howling Mine (an artifact). Howling Mine's controller has another Howling Mine in her graveyard and two more in her library. Splinter's controller must find the Howling Mine in the graveyard, but may choose to find zero, one, or two of the Howling Mines in the library.

701.14c.701.15c.

If a player is searching a hidden zone simply for a quantity of cards, such as "a card" or "three cards," that player must find that many cards (or as many as possible, if the zone doesn't contain enough cards).

If a player is searching a hidden zone simply for a quantity of cards, such as "a card" or "three cards," that player must find that many cards (or as many as possible, if the zone doesn't contain enough cards).

701.14d.701.15d.

If the effect that contains the search instruction doesn't also contain instructions to reveal the found card(s), then they're not revealed.

If the effect that contains the search instruction doesn't also contain instructions to reveal the found card(s), then they're not revealed.

701.15.701.16.

Shuffle

Shuffle

701.15a.701.16a.

To shuffle a library or a face-down pile of cards, randomize the cards within it so that no player knows their order.

To shuffle a library or a face-down pile of cards, randomize the cards within it so that no player knows their order.

701.15b.701.16b.

Some effects cause a player to search a library for a card or cards, shuffle that library, then put the found card or cards in a certain position in that library. Even though the found card or cards never leave that library, they aren't included in the shuffle. Rather, all the cards in that library except those are shuffled. Abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.

Some effects cause a player to search a library for a card or cards, shuffle that library, then put the found card or cards in a certain position in that library. Even though the found card or cards never leave that library, they aren't included in the shuffle. Rather, all the cards in that library except those are shuffled. Abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.

701.15c.701.16c.

If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, but none of those objects are in the zone they're expected to be in, that library is not shuffled.

Example: Guile says, in part, "When Guile is put into a graveyard from anywhere, shuffle it into its owner's library." It's put into a graveyard and its ability triggers, then a player exiles it from that graveyard in response. When the ability resolves, nothing happens.

If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, but none of those objects are in the zone they're expected to be in, that library is not shuffled.

Example: Guile says, in part, "When Guile is put into a graveyard from anywhere, shuffle it into its owner's library." It's put into a graveyard and its ability triggers, then a player exiles it from that graveyard in response. When the ability resolves, nothing happens.

701.15d.701.16d.

If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, and a replacement or prevention effect causes all such objects to be moved to another zone instead, that library isn't shuffled.

Example: Black Sun's Zenith says, in part, "Shuffle Black Sun's Zenith into its owner's library." Black Sun's Zenith is in a graveyard, has gained flashback (due to Recoup, perhaps), and is cast from that graveyard. Black Sun's Zenith will be exiled, and its owner's library won't be shuffled.

If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, and a replacement or prevention effect causes all such objects to be moved to another zone instead, that library isn't shuffled.

Example: Black Sun's Zenith says, in part, "Shuffle Black Sun's Zenith into its owner's library." Black Sun's Zenith is in a graveyard, has gained flashback (due to Recoup, perhaps), and is cast from that graveyard. Black Sun's Zenith will be exiled, and its owner's library won't be shuffled.

701.15e.701.16e.

If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a set of objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if there are no objects in that set.

Example: Loaming Shaman says "When Loaming Shaman enters the battlefield, target player shuffles any number of target cards from his or her graveyard into his or her library." It enters the battlefield, its ability triggers, and no cards are targeted. When the ability resolves, the targeted player will still have to shuffle his or her library.

If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a set of objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if there are no objects in that set.

Example: Loaming Shaman says "When Loaming Shaman enters the battlefield, target player shuffles any number of target cards from his or her graveyard into his or her library." It enters the battlefield, its ability triggers, and no cards are targeted. When the ability resolves, the targeted player will still have to shuffle his or her library.

701.15f.701.16f.

If an effect causes a player to shuffle a library containing zero or one cards, abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.

If an effect causes a player to shuffle a library containing zero or one cards, abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.

701.15g.701.16g.

If two or more effects cause a library to be shuffled multiple times simultaneously, abilities that trigger when that library is shuffled will trigger that many times.

If two or more effects cause a library to be shuffled multiple times simultaneously, abilities that trigger when that library is shuffled will trigger that many times.

701.16.701.17.

Tap and Untap

Tap and Untap

701.16a.701.17a.

To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.

To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.

701.16b.701.17b.

To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.

To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.

701.17.701.18.

Scry

Scry

701.17a.701.18a.

To "scry N" means to look at the top N cards of your library, put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order, and put the rest on top of your library in any order.

To "scry N" means to look at the top N cards of your library, put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order, and put the rest on top of your library in any order.

701.18.701.19.

Fateseal

Fateseal

701.18a.701.19a.

To "fateseal N" means to look at the top N cards of an opponent's library, put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order, and put the rest on top of that library in any order.

To "fateseal N" means to look at the top N cards of an opponent's library, put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order, and put the rest on top of that library in any order.

701.19.701.20.

Clash

Clash

701.19a.701.20a.

To clash, a player reveals the top card of his or her library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.

To clash, a player reveals the top card of his or her library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.

701.19b.701.20b.

"Clash with an opponent" means "Choose an opponent. You and that opponent each clash."

"Clash with an opponent" means "Choose an opponent. You and that opponent each clash."

701.19c.701.20c.

A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash.

A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash.

701.20.701.21.

Planeswalk

Planeswalk

701.20a.701.21a.

A player may planeswalk only during a Planechase game. Only the planar controller may planeswalk. See rule 901, "Planechase."

A player may planeswalk only during a Planechase game. Only the planar controller may planeswalk. See rule 901, "Planechase."

701.20b.701.21b.

To planeswalk is to put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up.

To planeswalk is to put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up.

701.20c.701.21c.

A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 309.6) or because the owner of the face-up plane card leaves the game (see rule 901.9).

A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 309.6) or because the owner of the face-up plane card leaves the game (see rule 901.9).

701.20d.701.21d.

The plane card that's turned face up is the plane the player planeswalks to. The plane card that's turned face down, or that leaves the game, is the plane the player planeswalks away from.

The plane card that's turned face up is the plane the player planeswalks to. The plane card that's turned face down, or that leaves the game, is the plane the player planeswalks away from.

701.21.701.22.

Set in Motion

Set in Motion

701.21a.701.22a.

Only a scheme card may be set in motion, and only during an Archenemy game. Only the archenemy may set a scheme card in motion. See rule 311, "Schemes," and rule 904, "Archenemy."

Only a scheme card may be set in motion, and only during an Archenemy game. Only the archenemy may set a scheme card in motion. See rule 311, "Schemes," and rule 904, "Archenemy."

701.21b.701.22b.

To set a scheme in motion, move it off the top of your scheme deck and turn it face up.

To set a scheme in motion, move it off the top of your scheme deck and turn it face up.

701.22.701.23.

Abandon

Abandon

701.22a.701.23a.

Only a face-up ongoing scheme card may be abandoned, and only during an Archenemy game. See rule 311, "Schemes," and rule 904, "Archenemy."

Only a face-up ongoing scheme card may be abandoned, and only during an Archenemy game. See rule 311, "Schemes," and rule 904, "Archenemy."

701.22b.701.23b.

To abandon a scheme, turn it face down and put it on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck.

To abandon a scheme, turn it face down and put it on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck.

701.23.701.24.

Proliferate

Proliferate

701.23a.701.24a.

To proliferate means to choose any number of permanents and/or players that have a counter, then give each exactly one additional counter of a kind that permanent or player already has.

To proliferate means to choose any number of permanents and/or players that have a counter, then give each exactly one additional counter of a kind that permanent or player already has.

701.23b.701.24b.

If a permanent or player chosen this way has more than one kind of counter, the player who is proliferating chooses which kind of counter to add.

If a permanent or player chosen this way has more than one kind of counter, the player who is proliferating chooses which kind of counter to add.

701.23c.701.24c.

To proliferate in a Two-Headed Giant game means to choose any number of permanents and/or teams that have a counter, then give each exactly one additional counter of a kind that permanent or team already has. See rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

To proliferate in a Two-Headed Giant game means to choose any number of permanents and/or teams that have a counter, then give each exactly one additional counter of a kind that permanent or team already has. See rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

701.25.

Transform

701.25a.

Only permanents represented by double-faced cards can transform. (See rule 711, "Double-Faced Cards.") If a spell or ability instructs a player to transform any permanent that isn't represented by a double-faced card, nothing happens.

701.25b.

To transform a permanent, turn it over so that its other face is up.

701.25c.

Although transforming a permanent uses the same physical action as turning a permanent face up or face down, they are different game actions. Abilities that trigger when a permanent is turned face down won't trigger when that permanent transforms, and so on.

702.18b.702.18b.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. Once all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. The attacking creature's controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

Example: A 2/2 creature with an ability that enables it to block multiple attackers blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no abilities a 3/3 with trample. The active player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature, and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample.

Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. The attacking creature's controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker, even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker's protection ability. The attacking creature's controller can divide the rest of the damage as he or she chooses between the blocking creature and the defending player.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. Once all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. The attacking creature's controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

Example: A 2/2 creature that can block an additional creature blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no abilities a 3/3 with trample. The active player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature, and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample.

Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. The attacking creature's controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker, even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker's protection ability. The attacking creature's controller can divide the rest of the damage as he or she chooses between the blocking creature and the defending player.

702.22b.702.22b.

If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not connected to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

Example: A creature has two instances of "Cumulative upkeep—Pay 1 life." The creature currently has no counters but both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. When the first ability resolves, the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. When the second ability resolves, the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.

If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not connected to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

Example: A creature has two instances of "Cumulative upkeep—Pay 1 life." The creature has no age counters, and both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. When the first ability resolves, the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. When the second ability resolves, the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.

702.24b.702.24b.

If a permanent phases out, its status changes to "phased out." Except for rules and effects that specifically mention phased-out permanents, a phased-out permanent is treated as though it does not exist. It can't affect or be affected by anything else in the game.

Example: You control three creatures, one of which is phased out. You cast a spell that says "Draw a card for each creature you control." You draw two cards.

Example: You control a phased-out creature. You cast Wrath of God, which says "Destroy all creatures. They can't be regenerated." The phased-out creature is not destroyed.

If a permanent phases out, its status changes to "phased out." Except for rules and effects that specifically mention phased-out permanents, a phased-out permanent is treated as though it does not exist. It can't affect or be affected by anything else in the game.

Example: You control three creatures, one of which is phased out. You cast a spell that says "Draw a card for each creature you control." You draw two cards.

Example: You control a phased-out creature. You cast a spell that says "Destroy all creatures." The phased-out creature is not destroyed.

702.48a.702.48a.

Epic represents two spell abilities, one of which creates a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you can't cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.9.

Epic represents two spell abilities, one of which creates a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you can't cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.10.

703.4d.703.4d.

In an Archenemy game (see rule 904), immediately after the archenemy's precombat main phase begins, that player sets the top card of his or her scheme deck in motion. See rule 701.21.

In an Archenemy game (see rule 904), immediately after the archenemy's precombat main phase begins, that player sets the top card of his or her scheme deck in motion. See rule 701.22.

706.2.706.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics and, for an object on the stack, choices made when casting or activating it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether it was kicked, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values derived from the text printed on the object (that text being name, mana cost, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, toughness, and/or loyalty), as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . enters the battlefield" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics and, for an object on the stack, choices made when casting or activating it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether it was kicked, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values derived from the text printed on the object (that text being name, mana cost, color indicator, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, toughness, and/or loyalty), as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . enters the battlefield" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "You may have Clone enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

706.2a.706.2a.

A copy acquires the color of the object it's copying because that value is derived from its mana cost. A copy acquires the abilities of the object it's copying because those values are derived from its rules text. A copy doesn't wind up with two values of each ability (that is, it doesn't copy the object's abilities and its rules text, then have that rules text define a new set of abilities).

A copy acquires the color of the object it's copying because that value is derived from its mana cost or color indicator. A copy acquires the abilities of the object it's copying because those values are derived from its rules text. A copy doesn't wind up with two values of each ability (that is, it doesn't copy the object's abilities and its rules text, then have that rules text define a new set of abilities).

706.5.706.5.

An object that enters the battlefield "as a copy" or "that's a copy" of another object becomes a copy as it enters the battlefield. It doesn't enter the battlefield, and then become a copy of that permanent. If the text that's being copied includes any abilities that replace the enters-the-battlefield event (such as "enters the battlefield with" or "as [this] enters the battlefield" abilities), those abilities will take effect. Also, any enters-the-battlefield triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger.

Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads, "Fading 2 (This creature enters the battlefield with two fade counters on it. At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from it. If you can't, sacrifice it.)" and "Skyshroud Behemoth enters the battlefield tapped." A Clone that enters the battlefield as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also enter the battlefield tapped with two fade counters on it.

Example: Striped Bears reads, "When Striped Bears enters the battlefield, draw a card." A Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of Striped Bears. The Clone has the Bears' enters-the-battlefield triggered ability, so the Clone's controller draws a card.

An object that enters the battlefield "as a copy" or "that's a copy" of another object becomes a copy as it enters the battlefield. It doesn't enter the battlefield, and then become a copy of that permanent. If the text that's being copied includes any abilities that replace the enters-the-battlefield event (such as "enters the battlefield with" or "as [this] enters the battlefield" abilities), those abilities will take effect. Also, any enters-the-battlefield triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger.

Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads, "Fading 2 (This creature enters the battlefield with two fade counters on it. At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from it. If you can't, sacrifice it.)" and "Skyshroud Behemoth enters the battlefield tapped." A Clone that enters the battlefield as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also enter the battlefield tapped with two fade counters on it.

Example: Wall of Omens reads, "When Wall of Omens enters the battlefield, draw a card." A Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of Wall of Omens. The Clone has the Wall's enters-the-battlefield triggered ability, so the Clone's controller draws a card.

706.6.706.6.

When copying a permanent, any choices that have been made for that permanent aren't copied. Instead, if an object enters the battlefield as a copy of another permanent, the object's controller will get to make any "as [this] enters the battlefield" choices for it.

Example: A Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of Chameleon Spirit. Chameleon Spirit reads, in part, "As Chameleon Spirit enters the battlefield, choose a color." The Clone won't copy the color choice of the Spirit; rather, the controller of the Clone will get to make a new choice.

When copying a permanent, any choices that have been made for that permanent aren't copied. Instead, if an object enters the battlefield as a copy of another permanent, the object's controller will get to make any "as [this] enters the battlefield" choices for it.

Example: A Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of Adaptive Automaton. Adaptive Automaton reads, in part, "As Adaptive Automaton enters the battlefield, choose a creature type." The Clone won't copy the creature type choice of the Automaton; rather, the controller of the Clone will get to make a new choice.

706.7a.706.7a.

If an ability causes a player to "choose a [value]" or "name a card," and a second, linked ability refers to that choice, the second ability is the only ability that can refer to that choice. An object doesn't "remember" that choice and use it for other abilities it may copy later. If an object copies an ability that refers to a choice, but either (a) doesn't copy that ability's linked ability or (b) does copy the linked ability but no choice is made for it, then the choice is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability won't do anything.

Example: Voice of All enters the battlefield and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. Voice of All reads, in part, "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color." and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." Unstable Shapeshifter never had a chance for a color to be chosen for it, because it didn't enter the battlefield as a Voice of All card, so the protection ability doesn't protect it from anything at all.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger enters the battlefield as a copy of Chameleon Spirit, and the Doppelganger's controller chooses blue. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. The Elves has the ability, "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." Even though a color was chosen for the Doppelganger, it wasn't chosen for the ability linked to the mana ability copied from the Elves. If that mana ability of the Doppelganger is activated, it will not produce mana.

If an ability causes a player to "choose a [value]" or "name a card," and a second, linked ability refers to that choice, the second ability is the only ability that can refer to that choice. An object doesn't "remember" that choice and use it for other abilities it may copy later. If an object copies an ability that refers to a choice, but either (a) doesn't copy that ability's linked ability or (b) does copy the linked ability but no choice is made for it, then the choice is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability won't do anything.

Example: Voice of All enters the battlefield and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. Voice of All reads, in part, "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color." and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." Unstable Shapeshifter never had a chance for a color to be chosen for it, because it didn't enter the battlefield as a Voice of All card, so the protection ability doesn't protect it from anything at all.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger enters the battlefield as a copy of Voice of All, and the Doppelganger's controller chooses blue. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves, which has the ability, "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." Even though a color was chosen for the Doppelganger, it wasn't chosen for the ability linked to the mana ability copied from the Elves. If that mana ability of the Doppelganger is activated, it will not produce mana.

706.8.

When copying a double-faced permanent, only the copiable values of the face that's currently up are copied. (See rule 711, "Double-Faced Cards.")

706.8.706.9.

Copy effects may include modifications or exceptions to the copying process.

Copy effects may include modifications or exceptions to the copying process.

706.8a.706.9a.

Some copy effects cause the copy to gain an ability as part of the copying process. This ability becomes part of the copiable values for the copy, along with any other abilities that were copied.

Example: Quirion Elves enters the battlefield and an Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. The copiable values of the Shapeshifter now match those of the Elves, except that the Shapeshifter also has the ability "Whenever a creature enters the battlefield, Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability." Then a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of the Unstable Shapeshifter. The Clone copies the new copiable values of the Shapeshifter, including the ability that the Shapeshifter gave itself when it copied the Elves.

Some copy effects cause the copy to gain an ability as part of the copying process. This ability becomes part of the copiable values for the copy, along with any other abilities that were copied.

Example: Quirion Elves enters the battlefield and an Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. The copiable values of the Shapeshifter now match those of the Elves, except that the Shapeshifter also has the ability "Whenever a creature enters the battlefield, Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability." Then a Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of the Unstable Shapeshifter. The Clone copies the new copiable values of the Shapeshifter, including the ability that the Shapeshifter gave itself when it copied the Elves.

706.8b.706.9b.

Some copy effects specifically state that they don't copy certain characteristics and instead retain their original values. These effects use the phrase "except its [characteristic] is still [value]" or "except it's still [value(s)]." They may also simply state that certain characteristics are not copied.

Some copy effects specifically state that they don't copy certain characteristics and instead retain their original values. These effects use the phrase "except its [characteristic] is still [value]" or "except it's still [value(s)]." They may also simply state that certain characteristics are not copied.

706.8c.706.9c.

Some copy effects modify a characteristic as part of the copying process. The final value(s) for that characteristic becomes part of the copiable values for the copy.

Example: Copy Artifact is an enchantment that reads, "You may have Copy Artifact enter the battlefield as a copy of any artifact on the battlefield, except it's an enchantment in addition to its other types." It enters the battlefield as a copy of Juggernaut. The copiable values of the Copy Artifact now match those of Juggernaut with one modification: its types are now artifact, creature, and enchantment.

Some copy effects modify a characteristic as part of the copying process. The final value(s) for that characteristic becomes part of the copiable values for the copy.

Example: Copy Artifact is an enchantment that reads, "You may have Copy Artifact enter the battlefield as a copy of any artifact on the battlefield, except it's an enchantment in addition to its other types." It enters the battlefield as a copy of Juggernaut. The copiable values of the Copy Artifact now match those of Juggernaut with one modification: its types are now artifact, creature, and enchantment.

706.8d.706.9d.

When applying a copy effect that doesn't copy a certain characteristic, retains an original value for a certain characteristic, or modifies the final value of a certain characteristic, any characteristic-defining ability (see rule 604.3) of the object being copied that defines that characteristic is not copied.

Example: Quicksilver Gargantuan is a creature that reads, "You may have Quicksilver Gargantuan enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield, except it's still 7/7." Quicksilver Gargantuan enters the battlefield as a copy of Tarmogoyf, which has a characteristic-defining ability that defines its power and toughness. Quicksilver Gargantuan does not have that ability. It will be 7/7.

When applying a copy effect that doesn't copy a certain characteristic, retains an original value for a certain characteristic, or modifies the final value of a certain characteristic, any characteristic-defining ability (see rule 604.3) of the object being copied that defines that characteristic is not copied. If that characteristic is color, any color indicator (see rule 204) of that object is also not copied.

Example: Quicksilver Gargantuan is a creature that reads, "You may have Quicksilver Gargantuan enter the battlefield as a copy of any creature on the battlefield, except it's still 7/7." Quicksilver Gargantuan enters the battlefield as a copy of Tarmogoyf, which has a characteristic-defining ability that defines its power and toughness. Quicksilver Gargantuan does not have that ability. It will be 7/7.

706.9.706.10.

To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack; a copy of a spell isn't cast and a copy of an activated ability isn't activated. A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made for it, including modes, targets, the value of X, and additional or alternative costs. (See rule 601, "Casting Spells.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. A copy of a spell is owned by the player under whose control it was put on the stack. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the player under whose control it was put on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, even though it has no spell card associated with it. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.

Example: A player casts Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Copy target instant or sorcery spell, except that the copy is red. You may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm is a green instant that reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack except the copy is red, not green. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to cast Fling, sacrifice a creature" and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack; a copy of a spell isn't cast and a copy of an activated ability isn't activated. A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made for it, including modes, targets, the value of X, and additional or alternative costs. (See rule 601, "Casting Spells.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. A copy of a spell is owned by the player under whose control it was put on the stack. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the player under whose control it was put on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, even though it has no spell card associated with it. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.

Example: A player casts Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Copy target instant or sorcery spell, except that the copy is red. You may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm is a green instant that reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack except the copy is red, not green. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to cast Fling, sacrifice a creature" and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

706.9a.706.10a.

If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack, it ceases to exist. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the battlefield, it ceases to exist. These are state-based actions. See rule 704.

If a copy of a spell is in a zone other than the stack, it ceases to exist. If a copy of a card is in any zone other than the stack or the battlefield, it ceases to exist. These are state-based actions. See rule 704.

706.9b.706.10b.

A copy of an ability has the same source as the original ability. If the ability refers to its source by name, the copy refers to that same object and not to any other object with the same name. The copy is considered to be the same ability by effects that count how many times that ability has resolved during the turn.

A copy of an ability has the same source as the original ability. If the ability refers to its source by name, the copy refers to that same object and not to any other object with the same name. The copy is considered to be the same ability by effects that count how many times that ability has resolved during the turn.

706.9c.706.10c.

Some effects copy a spell or ability and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal. Once the player has decided what the copy's targets will be, the copy is put onto the stack with those targets.

Some effects copy a spell or ability and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal. Once the player has decided what the copy's targets will be, the copy is put onto the stack with those targets.

706.10.706.11.

If an effect refers to a permanent by name, the effect still tracks that permanent even if it changes names or becomes a copy of something else.

Example: An Unstable Shapeshifter copies a Crazed Armodon. Crazed Armodon reads, "{G}: Crazed Armodon gets +3/+0 and gains trample until end of turn. Destroy Crazed Armodon at the beginning of the next end step. Activate this ability only once each turn." If this ability of the Shapeshifter is activated, the Shapeshifter will be destroyed at the beginning of the next end step, even if it's no longer a copy of Crazed Armodon at that time.

If an effect refers to a permanent by name, the effect still tracks that permanent even if it changes names or becomes a copy of something else.

Example: An Unstable Shapeshifter copies a Crazed Armodon. Crazed Armodon reads, "{G}: Crazed Armodon gets +3/+0 and gains trample until end of turn. Destroy Crazed Armodon at the beginning of the next end step. Activate this ability only once each turn." If this ability of the Shapeshifter is activated, the Shapeshifter will be destroyed at the beginning of the next end step, even if it's no longer a copy of Crazed Armodon at that time.

706.11.706.12.

An effect that instructs a player to "cast a copy" of an object follows the rules for casting spells, except that the copy is cast while another spell or ability is resolving. Casting a copy of an object follows steps 601.2a-g of rule 601, "Casting Spells," and then the copy becomes cast. The cast copy is a spell on the stack, and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered.

An effect that instructs a player to "cast a copy" of an object follows the rules for casting spells, except that the copy is cast while another spell or ability is resolving. Casting a copy of an object follows steps 601.2a-g of rule 601, "Casting Spells," and then the copy becomes cast. The cast copy is a spell on the stack, and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered.

707.4.707.4.

Objects that are cast face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack, so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell's characteristics. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting an object with these characteristics (and not the face-up object's characteristics) are applied to casting this object.

Objects that are cast face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack, so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell's characteristics. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to casting an object with these characteristics (and not the face-up object's characteristics) are applied to casting this object. The permanent the spell becomes will be a face-down permanent.

709.2.709.2.

In every zone other than the battlefield, and also on the battlefield before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the card. Once a permanent is flipped, its normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says "search your library for a legendary card" can't find this flip card. An effect that says "legendary creatures get +2/+2" doesn't affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.

In every zone other than the battlefield, and also on the battlefield before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the card. Once a permanent is flipped, its normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says "Search your library for a legendary card" can't find this flip card. An effect that says "Legendary creatures get +2/+2" doesn't affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.

711.

Double-Faced Cards

711.1.

A double-faced card has a Magic card face on each side rather than a Magic card face on one side and a Magic card back on the other. Each face may have abilities that allow the permanent to "transform," or turn over to its other face. Tokens and cards with a Magic card back can't transform. (See rule 701.25, "Transform.")

711.1a.

A double-faced card's front face is indicated by the sun symbol in its upper left corner.

711.1b.

A double-faced card's back face is indicated by the moon symbol in its upper left corner.

711.1c.

While a double-faced card is in a public zone, each player may look at both faces. In other zones, each player that is allowed to look at a double-faced card may look at both faces.

711.1d.

If the back face of a double-faced card is a creature, the front face of that card will have the back face's power and toughness printed in gray above the power and toughness box. This is reminder text and has no effect on game play.

711.2.

Each face of a double-faced card has its own set of characteristics.

711.2a.

In every zone other than the battlefield, and also on the battlefield with its front face up, a double-faced card has only the characteristics of the front face.

711.2b.

While a double-faced permanent's back face is up, it has only the characteristics of its back face. The back face doesn't have a mana cost; it has the colors in its color indicator (see rule 202.2e).

711.3.

Except for determining whether or not a permanent can transform, a spell, ability, effect, or rule that needs information about a double-faced permanent sees only the information given by the face that's currently up.

Example: A Clone enters the battlefield as a copy of Wildblood Pack (the back face of a double-faced card). The Clone will be a copy of the Wildblood Pack. Because the Clone is itself not a double-faced card, it can't transform.

Example: A player casts Cytoshape, causing a Kruin Outlaw (the front face of a double-faced card) to become a copy of Elite Vanguard (a 2/1 Human Soldier creature) until end of turn. The player then casts Moonmist, which reads, in part, "Transform all Humans." Because the copy of Elite Vanguard is a double-faced card, it will transform. The resulting permanent will have its back face up, but it will still be a copy of Elite Vanguard that turn.

711.4.

If a double-faced card is cast as a spell, it's put on the stack with its front face up. A double-faced card can't be cast face down. See rule 601, "Casting Spells."

711.5.

A double-faced card enters the battlefield with its front face up.

711.6.

A double-faced permanent always has the status "face up" (see rule 110.6). Double-faced permanents can't be turned face down. If a spell or ability tries to turn a double-faced permanent face down, nothing happens.

711.7.

When a double-faced permanent transforms, it doesn't become a new object. Any effects that applied to that permanent will continue to apply to it after it transforms.

Example: An effect gives Village Ironsmith (the front face of a double-faced card) +2/+2 until end of turn and then Village Ironsmith transforms into Ironfang. Ironfang will continue to get +2/+2 until end of turn.

711.8.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card, the player may name either face of a double-faced card but not both.

711.9.

Players must ensure that double-faced cards in hidden zones are indistinguishable from other cards in the same zone. To do this, the owner of a double-faced card may use completely opaque card sleeves or substitute a checklist card. Sanctioned tournaments have additional rules for playing with double-faced cards. See rule 100.6.

711.9a.

If a checklist card is used, the double-faced card it represents must be set aside prior to the beginning of the game (see rule 103.1a) and must be available throughout the game. A checklist card can't be included in a deck unless it is representing a double-faced card.

711.9b.

The face of each checklist card is divided into sections. Each section lists the name and mana cost of each double-faced card it could represent and includes a fill-in circle. When using a checklist card, exactly one of the fill-in circles must be marked to denote which double-faced card the checklist card represents.

711.9c.

For all game purposes, the checklist card is considered to be the double-faced card it's representing. It has that double-faced card's characteristics in all zones.

711.9d.

As the checklist card enters a public zone, the checklist card should be set aside and the double-faced card used instead. If the checklist card is exiled face down, its identity should continue to be hidden using the face-down checklist card.

711.712.

Controlling Another Player

Controlling Another Player

711.1.712.1.

Two cards (Mindslaver and Sorin Markov) allow a player to control another player during that player's next turn. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes. The affected player is controlled during the entire turn; the effect doesn't end until the beginning of the next turn.

Two cards (Mindslaver and Sorin Markov) allow a player to control another player during that player's next turn. This effect applies to the next turn that the affected player actually takes. The affected player is controlled during the entire turn; the effect doesn't end until the beginning of the next turn.

711.1a.712.1a.

Multiple player-controlling effects that affect the same player overwrite each other. The last one to be created is the one that works.

Multiple player-controlling effects that affect the same player overwrite each other. The last one to be created is the one that works.

711.1b.712.1b.

If a turn is skipped, any pending player-controlling effects wait until the player who would be affected actually takes a turn.

If a turn is skipped, any pending player-controlling effects wait until the player who would be affected actually takes a turn.

711.2.712.2.

One card (Word of Command) allows a player to control another player for a limited duration.

One card (Word of Command) allows a player to control another player for a limited duration.

711.3.712.3.

Only control of the player changes. All objects are controlled by their normal controllers. A player who's being controlled during his or her turn is still the active player.

Only control of the player changes. All objects are controlled by their normal controllers. A player who's being controlled during his or her turn is still the active player.

711.4.712.4.

If information about an object would be visible to the player being controlled, it's visible to both that player and the controller of the player.

Example: The controller of a player can see that player's hand and the identity of any face-down creatures he or she controls.

If information about an object would be visible to the player being controlled, it's visible to both that player and the controller of the player.

Example: The controller of a player can see that player's hand and the face of any face-down creatures he or she controls.

711.5.712.5.

While controlling another player, a player makes all choices and decisions the controlled player is allowed to make or is told to make by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.

Example: The controller of another player decides which spells that player casts and what those spells target, and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve.

Example: The controller of another player during his or her turn decides which of that player's creatures attack, which player or planeswalker each one attacks, what the damage assignment order of the creatures that block them is (if any of the attacking creatures are blocked by multiple creatures), and how those attacking creatures assign their combat damage.

While controlling another player, a player makes all choices and decisions the controlled player is allowed to make or is told to make by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.

Example: The controller of another player decides which spells that player casts and what those spells target, and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve.

Example: The controller of another player during his or her turn decides which of that player's creatures attack, which player or planeswalker each one attacks, what the damage assignment order of the creatures that block them is (if any of the attacking creatures are blocked by multiple creatures), and how those attacking creatures assign their combat damage.

711.5a.712.5a.

The controller of another player can use only that player's resources (cards, mana, and so on) to pay costs for that player.

Example: If the controller of a player decides that the controlled player will cast a spell with an additional cost of discarding cards, the cards are discarded from the controlled player's hand.

The controller of another player can use only that player's resources (cards, mana, and so on) to pay costs for that player.

Example: If the controller of a player decides that the controlled player will cast a spell with an additional cost of discarding cards, the cards are discarded from the controlled player's hand.

711.5b.712.5b.

The controller of another player can't make choices or decisions for that player that aren't called for by the rules or by any objects. The controller also can't make any choices or decisions for the player that would be called for by the tournament rules.

Example: The player who's being controlled still chooses whether he or she leaves to visit the restroom, trades a card to someone else, takes an intentional draw, or calls a judge about an error or infraction.

The controller of another player can't make choices or decisions for that player that aren't called for by the rules or by any objects. The controller also can't make any choices or decisions for the player that would be called for by the tournament rules.

Example: The player who's being controlled still chooses whether he or she leaves to visit the restroom, trades a card to someone else, agrees to an intentional draw, or calls a judge about an error or infraction.

711.6.712.6.

The controller of another player can't make that player concede. A player may concede the game at any time, even if he or she is controlled by another player. See rule 104.3a.

The controller of another player can't make that player concede. A player may concede the game at any time, even if he or she is controlled by another player. See rule 104.3a.

711.7.712.7.

The effect that gives control of a player to another player may restrict the actions the controlled player is allowed to take or specify actions that the controlled player must take.

The effect that gives control of a player to another player may restrict the actions the controlled player is allowed to take or specify actions that the controlled player must take.

711.8.712.8.

A player who controls another player also continues to make his or her own choices and decisions.

A player who controls another player also continues to make his or her own choices and decisions.

711.9.712.9.

A player may gain control of himself or herself. That player will make his or her own decisions and choices as normal.

A player may gain control of himself or herself. That player will make his or her own decisions and choices as normal.

712.713.

Ending the Turn

Ending the Turn

712.1.713.1.

Two cards (Time Stop and Sundial of the Infinite) end the turn. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities").

Two cards (Time Stop and Sundial of the Infinite) end the turn. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities").

712.1a.713.1a.

Exile every object on the stack, including the object that's resolving. Remove all creatures and planeswalkers (including those that are phased out) from combat. All objects not on the battlefield or in the command zone that aren't represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based actions are checked (see rule 704, "State-Based Actions").

Exile every object on the stack, including the object that's resolving. Remove all creatures and planeswalkers (including those that are phased out) from combat. All objects not on the battlefield or in the command zone that aren't represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based actions are checked (see rule 704, "State-Based Actions").

712.1b.713.1b.

Check state-based actions. No player gets priority, and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack.

Check state-based actions. No player gets priority, and no triggered abilities are put onto the stack.

712.1c.713.1c.

The current phase and/or step ends. The game skips straight to the cleanup step. Skip any phases or steps between this phase or step and the cleanup step.

The current phase and/or step ends. The game skips straight to the cleanup step. Skip any phases or steps between this phase or step and the cleanup step.

712.2.713.2.

No player gets priority during this process, so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. If any triggered abilities have triggered between the spell or ability resolving and the cleanup step ending, those abilities are put onto the stack during the cleanup step, then the active player gets priority and players can cast spells and activate abilities. Then there will be another cleanup step before the turn finally ends. If no triggered abilities have triggered during this process, no player gets priority during the cleanup step. See rule 514, "Cleanup Step."

No player gets priority during this process, so triggered abilities are not put onto the stack. If any triggered abilities have triggered between the spell or ability resolving and the cleanup step ending, those abilities are put onto the stack during the cleanup step, then the active player gets priority and players can cast spells and activate abilities. Then there will be another cleanup step before the turn finally ends. If no triggered abilities have triggered during this process, no player gets priority during the cleanup step. See rule 514, "Cleanup Step."

712.3.713.3.

Even though the turn ends, "at the beginning of the end step" triggered abilities don't trigger because the end step is skipped.

Even though the turn ends, "at the beginning of the end step" triggered abilities don't trigger because the end step is skipped.

713.714.

Restarting the Game

Restarting the Game

713.1.714.1.

One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. A game that is restarted immediately ends. No players in that game win, lose, or draw that game. All players in that game when it ended then start a new game following the procedures set forth in rule 103, "Starting the Game," with the following exception:

One card (Karn Liberated) restarts the game. A game that is restarted immediately ends. No players in that game win, lose, or draw that game. All players in that game when it ended then start a new game following the procedures set forth in rule 103, "Starting the Game," with the following exception:

713.1a.714.1a.

The starting player in the new game is the player who controlled the spell or ability that restarted the game.

The starting player in the new game is the player who controlled the spell or ability that restarted the game.

713.2.714.2.

All Magic cards involved in the game that was restarted when it ended, including phased-out permanents and nontraditional Magic cards, are involved in the new game, even if those cards were not originally involved in the restarted game. Ownership of cards in the new game doesn't change, regardless of their location when the new game begins.

Example: A player casts Living Wish, bringing a creature card into the game from outside the game. Then that game is restarted. The creature card will be part of that player's library when the new game begins.

All Magic cards involved in the game that was restarted when it ended, including phased-out permanents and nontraditional Magic cards, are involved in the new game, even if those cards were not originally involved in the restarted game. Ownership of cards in the new game doesn't change, regardless of their location when the new game begins.

Example: A player casts Living Wish, bringing a creature card into the game from outside the game. Then that game is restarted. The creature card will be part of that player's library when the new game begins.

713.3.714.3.

Because each player draws seven cards when the new game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her library will lose the game when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

Because each player draws seven cards when the new game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her library will lose the game when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

713.4.714.4.

The effect that restarts the game finishes resolving just before the first turn's untap step. If the spell or ability that generated that effect has additional instructions, those instructions are followed at this time. No player has priority, and any triggered abilities that trigger as a result will go on the stack the next time a player receives priority, usually during the first turn's upkeep step.

The effect that restarts the game finishes resolving just before the first turn's untap step. If the spell or ability that generated that effect has additional instructions, those instructions are followed at this time. No player has priority, and any triggered abilities that trigger as a result will go on the stack the next time a player receives priority, usually during the first turn's upkeep step.

713.5.714.5.

Effects may exempt certain cards from the procedure that restarts the game. These cards are not in their owner's deck as the new game begins.

Effects may exempt certain cards from the procedure that restarts the game. These cards are not in their owner's deck as the new game begins.

713.5a.714.5a.

In a Commander game, a commander that has been exempted from the procedure that restarts the game won't begin the new game in the command zone. However, it remains that deck's commander for the new game. See rule 903, "Commander."

In a Commander game, a commander that has been exempted from the procedure that restarts the game won't begin the new game in the command zone. However, it remains that deck's commander for the new game. See rule 903, "Commander."

713.6.714.6.

If a Magic subgame (see rule 714) is restarted, the main game is unaffected. Main-game effects that refer to the winner or loser of the subgame now refer to the winner or loser of the restarted subgame.

If a Magic subgame (see rule 715) is restarted, the main game is unaffected. Main-game effects that refer to the winner or loser of the subgame now refer to the winner or loser of the restarted subgame.

713.7.714.7.

If a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801) is restarted, all players in the game are involved, regardless of the range of influence of the player who controls the ability that restarted the game.

If a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801) is restarted, all players in the game are involved, regardless of the range of influence of the player who controls the ability that restarted the game.

714.715.

Subgames

Subgames

714.1.715.1.

One card (Shahrazad) allows players to play a Magic subgame.

One card (Shahrazad) allows players to play a Magic subgame.

714.1a.715.1a.

A "subgame" is a completely separate Magic game created by an effect. Essentially, it's a game within a game. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was cast or activated. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.

A "subgame" is a completely separate Magic game created by an effect. Essentially, it's a game within a game. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was cast or activated. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.

714.1b.715.1b.

No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other, except as defined by the effect that created the subgame. For example, the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame.

No effects or definitions created in either the main game or the subgame have any meaning in the other, except as defined by the effect that created the subgame. For example, the effect may say that something happens in the main game to the winner or loser of the subgame.

714.2.715.2.

As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library, moves them to his or her subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone, except as specified in rules 714.2a-d. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in rule 103, "Starting the Game."

As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library, moves them to his or her subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone, except as specified in rules 715.2a-d. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in rule 103, "Starting the Game."

714.2a.715.2a.

As a subgame of a Planechase game starts, each player moves his or her planar deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up plane cards remain in the main-game command zone.)

As a subgame of a Planechase game starts, each player moves his or her planar deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up plane cards remain in the main-game command zone.)

714.2b.715.2b.

As a subgame of a Vanguard game starts, each player moves his or her vanguard card from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone.

As a subgame of a Vanguard game starts, each player moves his or her vanguard card from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone.

714.2c.715.2c.

As a subgame of a Commander game starts, each player moves his or her commander from the main-game command zone (if it's there) to the subgame command zone.

As a subgame of a Commander game starts, each player moves his or her commander from the main-game command zone (if it's there) to the subgame command zone.

714.2d.715.2d.

As a subgame of an Archenemy game starts, the archenemy moves his or her scheme deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up scheme cards remain in the main-game command zone.)

As a subgame of an Archenemy game starts, the archenemy moves his or her scheme deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up scheme cards remain in the main-game command zone.)

714.3.715.3.

Because each player draws seven cards when a game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her deck will lose the subgame when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

Because each player draws seven cards when a game begins, any player with fewer than seven cards in his or her deck will lose the subgame when state-based actions are checked during the upkeep step of the first turn, regardless of any mulligans that player takes. (See rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

714.4.715.4.

All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.

All objects in the main game and all cards outside the main game are considered outside the subgame (except those specifically brought into the subgame). All players not currently in the subgame are considered outside the subgame.

714.4a.715.4a.

Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game, abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger, but they won't be put onto the stack until the main game resumes.

Some effects can bring cards into a game from outside of it. If a card is brought into a subgame from a main game, abilities in the main game that trigger on objects leaving a main-game zone will trigger, but they won't be put onto the stack until the main game resumes.

714.5.715.5.

At the end of a subgame, each player takes all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame other than those in the subgame command zone, puts them into his or her main-game library, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame's exile zone. Except as specified in rules 714.5a-c, all other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that's no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner's main-game library when the subgame ends.

At the end of a subgame, each player takes all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame other than those in the subgame command zone, puts them into his or her main-game library, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame's exile zone. Except as specified in rules 715.5a-c, all other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that's no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner's main-game library when the subgame ends.

714.5a.715.5a.

At the end of a subgame of a Planechase game, the face-up plane card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner's planar deck. Then each player moves his or her planar deck from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone and shuffles it.

At the end of a subgame of a Planechase game, the face-up plane card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner's planar deck. Then each player moves his or her planar deck from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone and shuffles it.

714.5b.715.5b.

At the end of a subgame of a Vanguard game, each player moves his or her vanguard card from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone.

At the end of a subgame of a Vanguard game, each player moves his or her vanguard card from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone.

714.5c.715.5c.

At the end of a subgame of a Commander game, each player moves his or her commander from the subgame command zone (if it's there) to the main-game command zone.

At the end of a subgame of a Commander game, each player moves his or her commander from the subgame command zone (if it's there) to the main-game command zone.

714.6.715.6.

A subgame can be created within a subgame. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame.

A subgame can be created within a subgame. The existing subgame becomes the main game in relation to the new subgame.

715.716.

Taking Shortcuts

Taking Shortcuts

715.1.716.1.

When playing a game, players typically make use of mutually understood shortcuts rather than explicitly identifying each game choice (either taking an action or passing priority) a player makes.

When playing a game, players typically make use of mutually understood shortcuts rather than explicitly identifying each game choice (either taking an action or passing priority) a player makes.

715.1a.716.1a.

The rules for taking shortcuts are largely unformalized. As long as each player in the game understands the intent of each other player, any shortcut system they use is acceptable.

The rules for taking shortcuts are largely unformalized. As long as each player in the game understands the intent of each other player, any shortcut system they use is acceptable.

715.1b.716.1b.

Occasionally the game gets into a state in which a set of actions could be repeated indefinitely (thus creating a "loop"). In that case, the shortcut rules can be used to determine how many times those actions are repeated without having to actually perform them, and how the loop is broken.

Occasionally the game gets into a state in which a set of actions could be repeated indefinitely (thus creating a "loop"). In that case, the shortcut rules can be used to determine how many times those actions are repeated without having to actually perform them, and how the loop is broken.

715.2.716.2.

Taking a shortcut follows the following procedure.

Taking a shortcut follows the following procedure.

715.2a.716.2a.

At any point in the game, the player with priority may suggest a shortcut by describing a sequence of game choices, for all players, that may be legally taken based on the current game state and the predictable results of the sequence of choices. This sequence may be a non-repetitive series of choices, a loop that repeats a specified number of times, multiple loops, or nested loops, and may even cross multiple turns. It can't include conditional actions, where the outcome of a game event determines the next action a player takes. The ending point of this sequence must be a place where a player has priority, though it need not be the player proposing the shortcut.

Example: A player controls a creature enchanted by Presence of Gond, which grants the creature the ability "{T}: Put a 1/1 green Elf Warrior creature token onto the battlefield," and another player controls Intruder Alarm, which reads, in part, "Whenever a creature enters the battlefield, untap all creatures." When the player has priority, he may suggest "I'll create a million tokens," indicating the sequence of activating the creature's ability, all players passing priority, letting the creature's ability resolve and put a token onto the battlefield (which causes Intruder Alarm's ability to trigger), Intruder Alarm's controller putting that triggered ability on the stack, all players passing priority, Intruder Alarm's triggered ability resolving, all players passing priority until the player proposing the shortcut has priority, and repeating that sequence 999,999 more times, ending just after the last token-creating ability resolves.

At any point in the game, the player with priority may suggest a shortcut by describing a sequence of game choices, for all players, that may be legally taken based on the current game state and the predictable results of the sequence of choices. This sequence may be a non-repetitive series of choices, a loop that repeats a specified number of times, multiple loops, or nested loops, and may even cross multiple turns. It can't include conditional actions, where the outcome of a game event determines the next action a player takes. The ending point of this sequence must be a place where a player has priority, though it need not be the player proposing the shortcut.

Example: A player controls a creature enchanted by Presence of Gond, which grants the creature the ability "{T}: Put a 1/1 green Elf Warrior creature token onto the battlefield," and another player controls Intruder Alarm, which reads, in part, "Whenever a creature enters the battlefield, untap all creatures." When the player has priority, he may suggest "I'll create a million tokens," indicating the sequence of activating the creature's ability, all players passing priority, letting the creature's ability resolve and put a token onto the battlefield (which causes Intruder Alarm's ability to trigger), Intruder Alarm's controller putting that triggered ability on the stack, all players passing priority, Intruder Alarm's triggered ability resolving, all players passing priority until the player proposing the shortcut has priority, and repeating that sequence 999,999 more times, ending just after the last token-creating ability resolves.

715.2b.716.2b.

Each other player, in turn order starting after the player who suggested the shortcut, may either accept the proposed sequence, or shorten it by naming a place where he or she will make a game choice that's different than what's been proposed. (The player doesn't need to specify at this time what the new choice will be.) This place becomes the new ending point of the proposed sequence.

Example: The active player draws a card during her draw step, then says, "Go." The nonactive player is holding Into the Fray (an instant that says "Target creature attacks this turn if able") and says, "I'd like to cast a spell during your beginning of combat step." The current proposed shortcut is that all players pass priority at all opportunities during the turn until the nonactive player has priority during the beginning of combat step.

Each other player, in turn order starting after the player who suggested the shortcut, may either accept the proposed sequence, or shorten it by naming a place where he or she will make a game choice that's different than what's been proposed. (The player doesn't need to specify at this time what the new choice will be.) This place becomes the new ending point of the proposed sequence.

Example: The active player draws a card during her draw step, then says, "Go." The nonactive player is holding Into the Fray (an instant that says "Target creature attacks this turn if able") and says, "I'd like to cast a spell during your beginning of combat step." The current proposed shortcut is that all players pass priority at all opportunities during the turn until the nonactive player has priority during the beginning of combat step.

715.2c.716.2c.

Once the last player has either accepted or shortened the shortcut proposal, the shortcut is taken. The game advances to the last proposed ending point, with all game choices contained in the shortcut proposal having been taken. If the shortcut was shortened from the original proposal, the player who now has priority must make a different game choice than what was originally proposed for that player.

Once the last player has either accepted or shortened the shortcut proposal, the shortcut is taken. The game advances to the last proposed ending point, with all game choices contained in the shortcut proposal having been taken. If the shortcut was shortened from the original proposal, the player who now has priority must make a different game choice than what was originally proposed for that player.

715.3.716.3.

Sometimes a loop can be fragmented, meaning that each player involved in the loop performs an independent action that results in the same game state being reached multiple times. If that happens, the active player (or, if the active player is not involved in the loop, the first player in turn order who is involved) must then make a different game choice so the loop does not continue.

Example: In a two-player game, the active player controls a creature with the ability "{0}: [This creature] gains flying," the nonactive player controls a permanent with the ability "{0}: Target creature loses flying," and nothing in the game cares how many times an ability has been activated. Say the active player activates his creature's ability, it resolves, then the nonactive player activates her permanent's ability targeting that creature, and it resolves. This returns the game to a game state it was at before. The active player must make a different game choice (in other words, anything other than activating that creature's ability again). The creature doesn't have flying. Note that the nonactive player could have prevented the fragmented loop simply by not activating her permanent's ability, in which case the creature would have had flying. The nonactive player always has the final choice and is therefore able to determine whether the creature has flying.

Sometimes a loop can be fragmented, meaning that each player involved in the loop performs an independent action that results in the same game state being reached multiple times. If that happens, the active player (or, if the active player is not involved in the loop, the first player in turn order who is involved) must then make a different game choice so the loop does not continue.

Example: In a two-player game, the active player controls a creature with the ability "{0}: [This creature] gains flying," the nonactive player controls a permanent with the ability "{0}: Target creature loses flying," and nothing in the game cares how many times an ability has been activated. Say the active player activates his creature's ability, it resolves, then the nonactive player activates her permanent's ability targeting that creature, and it resolves. This returns the game to a game state it was at before. The active player must make a different game choice (in other words, anything other than activating that creature's ability again). The creature doesn't have flying. Note that the nonactive player could have prevented the fragmented loop simply by not activating her permanent's ability, in which case the creature would have had flying. The nonactive player always has the final choice and is therefore able to determine whether the creature has flying.

715.4.716.4.

If a loop contains only mandatory actions, the game is a draw. (See rules 104.4b and 104.4f.)

If a loop contains only mandatory actions, the game is a draw. (See rules 104.4b and 104.4f.)

715.5.716.5.

No player can be forced to perform an action that would end a loop other than actions called for by objects involved in the loop.

Example: A player controls Seal of Cleansing, an enchantment that reads, "Sacrifice Seal of Cleansing: Destroy target artifact or enchantment." A mandatory loop that involves an artifact begins. The player is not forced to sacrifice Seal of Cleansing to destroy the artifact and end the loop.

No player can be forced to perform an action that would end a loop other than actions called for by objects involved in the loop.

Example: A player controls Seal of Cleansing, an enchantment that reads, "Sacrifice Seal of Cleansing: Destroy target artifact or enchantment." A mandatory loop that involves an artifact begins. The player is not forced to sacrifice Seal of Cleansing to destroy the artifact and end the loop.

715.6.716.6.

If a loop contains an effect that says "[A] unless [B]," where [A] and [B] are each actions, no player can be forced to perform [B] to break the loop. If no player chooses to perform [B], the loop will continue as though [A] were mandatory.

If a loop contains an effect that says "[A] unless [B]," where [A] and [B] are each actions, no player can be forced to perform [B] to break the loop. If no player chooses to perform [B], the loop will continue as though [A] were mandatory.

716.717.

Handling Illegal Actions

Handling Illegal Actions

716.1.717.1.

If a player realizes that he or she can't legally take an action after starting to do so, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was casting a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities activated while making the illegal play, unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn't reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library, moved cards from a library to any zone other than the stack, or caused a library to be shuffled.

If a player realizes that he or she can't legally take an action after starting to do so, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was casting a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities activated while making the illegal play, unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn't reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library, moved cards from a library to any zone other than the stack, or caused a library to be shuffled.

716.2.717.2.

When reversing illegal spells and abilities, the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules.

When reversing illegal spells and abilities, the player who had priority retains it and may take another action or pass. The player may redo the reversed action in a legal way or take any other action allowed by the rules.

800.4a.800.4a.

When a player leaves the game, all objects (see rule 109) owned by that player leave the game, any effects which give that player control of any objects or players end, and all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist. Then, if there are any objects still controlled by that player, those objects are exiled. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. If the player who left the game had priority at the time he or she left, priority passes to the next player in turn order who's still in the game.

Example: Alex casts Control Magic, an Aura that reads, "You control enchanted creature," on Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, so does Control Magic, and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, so does Wall of Wood, and Control Magic is put into Alex's graveyard.

Example: Alex casts Threaten, which reads, in part, "Untap target creature and gain control of it until end of turn," targeting Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, Threaten's change-of-control effect ends and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control.

Example: Alex casts Bribery, which reads, "Search target opponent's library for a creature card and put that card onto the battlefield under your control. Then that player shuffles his or her library," targeting Bianca. Alex puts Wall of Wood onto the battlefield from Bianca's library. If Bianca leaves the game, Wall of Wood also leaves the game. If, instead, Alex leaves the game, Wall of Wood is exiled.

Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber, which reads, "Whenever a nontoken creature enters the battlefield, if Genesis Chamber is untapped, that creature's controller puts a 1/1 colorless Myr artifact creature token onto the battlefield." If Alex leaves the game, all such Myr tokens that entered the battlefield under Alex's control leave the game, and all such Myr tokens that entered the battlefield under any other player's control remain in the game.

When a player leaves the game, all objects (see rule 109) owned by that player leave the game, any effects which give that player control of any objects or players end, and all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist. Then, if there are any objects still controlled by that player, those objects are exiled. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. If the player who left the game had priority at the time he or she left, priority passes to the next player in turn order who's still in the game.

Example: Alex casts Mind Control, an Aura that reads, "You control enchanted creature," on Bianca's Assault Griffin. If Alex leaves the game, so does Mind Control, and Assault Griffin reverts to Bianca's control. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, so does Assault Griffin, and Mind Control is put into Alex's graveyard.

Example: Alex casts Act of Treason, which reads, in part, "Gain control of target creature until end of turn," targeting Bianca's Runeclaw Bears. If Alex leaves the game, Act of Treason's change-of-control effect ends and Runeclaw Bears reverts to Bianca's control.

Example: Alex casts Bribery, which reads, "Search target opponent's library for a creature card and put that card onto the battlefield under your control. Then that player shuffles his or her library," targeting Bianca. Alex puts Serra Angel onto the battlefield from Bianca's library. If Bianca leaves the game, Serra Angel also leaves the game. If, instead, Alex leaves the game, Serra Angel is exiled.

Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber, which reads, "Whenever a nontoken creature enters the battlefield, if Genesis Chamber is untapped, that creature's controller puts a 1/1 colorless Myr artifact creature token onto the battlefield." If Alex leaves the game, all such Myr tokens that entered the battlefield under Alex's control leave the game, and all such Myr tokens that entered the battlefield under any other player's control remain in the game.

801.15b.801.15b.

If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Alex controls an enchantment that says, "Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures." Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa casts Lightning Blast ("Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player") targeting Rob. In response, Alex casts Mending Hands ("Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn") targeting Rob. The damage to Rob is prevented.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature, and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex casts Holy Day ("Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.") Carissa and Rob's creatures deal combat damage to each other.

If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Alex controls an enchantment that says, "Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures." Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa casts Lightning Blast ("Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player") targeting Rob. In response, Alex casts Mending Hands ("Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn") targeting Rob. The damage to Rob is prevented.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature, and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex casts Fog ("Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.") Carissa and Rob's creatures deal combat damage to each other.

801.19.801.19.

Effects that restart the game (see rule 713) are exempt from the limited range of influence option. All players in the game will be involved in the new game.

Effects that restart the game (see rule 714) are exempt from the limited range of influence option. All players in the game will be involved in the new game.

807.4j.807.4j.

If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn, but that player wouldn't have a turn marker at the start of that turn, that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead.

Example: During Alex's turn, he casts Time Walk, which causes him to get an extra turn after this one. During the same turn, the player to Alex's left leaves the game, which causes the number of turn markers to be reduced. After Alex's current turn ends, his turn marker is removed. He won't take the extra turn from Time Walk until just before his normal turn the next time he receives a turn marker.

If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn, but that player wouldn't have a turn marker at the start of that turn, that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead.

Example: During Alex's turn, he casts Time Walk, which causes him to take an extra turn after this one. During the same turn, the player to Alex's left leaves the game, which causes the number of turn markers to be reduced. After Alex's current turn ends, his turn marker is removed. He won't take the extra turn from Time Walk until just before his normal turn the next time he receives a turn marker.

809.3c.809.3c.

A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.

Example: At the start of an emperor game, neither emperor can attack any opponents, even though both of the opposing generals are within their spell range.

A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.

Example: At the start of an Emperor game, neither emperor can attack any opponents, even though both of the opposing generals are within their spell range.

810.7c.810.7c.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 508.1.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat comes into play, choose a color." and "Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 508.1.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat enters the battlefield, choose a color." and "Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

811.3.811.3.

At the start of the game, players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.

Example: In a Teams game with three teams, A, B, and C, the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3, C3, and so on.

At the start of the game, players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.

Example: In an Alternating Teams game with three teams, A, B, and C, the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3, C3, and so on.

901.10.901.10.

After the game has started, if a player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up, that player has "planeswalked." Continuous effects with durations that last until a player planeswalks end. Abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks trigger. See rule 701.20.

After the game has started, if a player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up, that player has "planeswalked." Continuous effects with durations that last until a player planeswalks end. Abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks trigger. See rule 701.21.

903.4.903.4.

The color identity of a deck's commander is the color or colors of any mana symbols in that card's mana cost or rules text, plus any colors defined by its characteristic-defining abilities (see rule 604.3).

Example: Bosh, Iron Golem is a legendary artifact creature with mana cost {8} and the ability "{3}{R}, Sacrifice an artifact: Bosh, Iron Golem deals damage equal to the sacrificed artifact's converted mana cost to target creature or player." Bosh's color identity is red.

The Commander variant uses color identity to determine what cards can be in a deck with a certain commander. The color identity of a card is the color or colors of any mana symbols in that card's mana cost or rules text, plus any colors defined by its characteristic-defining abilities (see rule 604.3) or color indicator (see rule 204).

Example: Bosh, Iron Golem is a legendary artifact creature with mana cost {8} and the ability "{3}{R}, Sacrifice an artifact: Bosh, Iron Golem deals damage equal to the sacrificed artifact's converted mana cost to target creature or player." Bosh's color identity is red.

903.4b.903.4b.

Reminder text is ignored when determining a commander's color identity. See rule 206.2.

Reminder text is ignored when determining a card's color identity. See rule 207.2.

903.4c.

The back face of a double-faced card (see rule 711) is included when determining a card's color identity.

Example: Civilized Scholar is the front face of a double-faced card with mana cost {2}{U}. Homicidal Brute is the back face of that double-faced card and has a red color indicator. The card's color identity is blue and red.

903.5c.903.5c.

A card can't be included in a Commander deck if it is any color, as defined by its mana cost or characteristic-defining abilities, that isn't part of the commander's color identity or if it has any colored mana symbols in its mana cost or rules text that aren't of a color in the commander's color identity.

Example: Wort, the Raidmother is a legendary creature with mana cost {4}{R/G}{R/G}. Wort's color identity is red and green. Each card in a Wort Commander deck must be only red, only green, both red and green, or have no color. Each mana symbol in the mana cost or rules text of a card in this deck must be only red, only green, both red and green, or have no color.

A card can be included in a Commander deck only if every color in its color identity is also found in the color identity of the deck's commander.

Example: Wort, the Raidmother is a legendary creature with mana cost {4}{R/G}{R/G}. Wort's color identity is red and green. Each card in a Wort Commander deck must be only red, only green, both red and green, or have no color. Each mana symbol in the mana cost or rules text of a card in this deck must be only red, only green, both red and green, or have no color.

904.9.904.9.

Immediately after the archenemy's precombat main phase begins during each of his or her turns, that player moves the top card of his or her scheme deck off that scheme deck and turns it face up. This is called "setting that scheme in motion." (See rule 701.21.) This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. Abilities of that scheme card that trigger "When you set this scheme in motion" trigger.

Immediately after the archenemy's precombat main phase begins during each of his or her turns, that player moves the top card of his or her scheme deck off that scheme deck and turns it face up. This is called "setting that scheme in motion." (See rule 701.22.) This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. Abilities of that scheme card that trigger "When you set this scheme in motion" trigger.

904.11.904.11.

Once an ongoing scheme card is set in motion, it remains face up in the command zone until an ability causes it to be abandoned (see rule 701.22).

Once an ongoing scheme card is set in motion, it remains face up in the command zone until an ability causes it to be abandoned (see rule 701.23).

AbandonAbandon

To turn a face-up ongoing scheme card face down and put it on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck. See rule 701.22, "Abandon."

To turn a face-up ongoing scheme card face down and put it on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck. See rule 701.23, "Abandon."

Ability WordAbility Word

An italicized word with no rules meaning that ties together abilities on different cards that have similar functionality. See rule 206.2c.

An italicized word with no rules meaning that ties together abilities on different cards that have similar functionality. See rule 207.2c.

Artifact TypeArtifact Type

A subtype that's correlated to the artifact card type. See rule 301, "Artifacts." See rule 204.3f for the list of artifact types.

A subtype that's correlated to the artifact card type. See rule 301, "Artifacts." See rule 205.3g for the list of artifact types.

BasicBasic

A supertype that's normally relevant on lands. Any land with this supertype is a basic land. See rule 204.4, "Supertypes."

A supertype that's normally relevant on lands. Any land with this supertype is a basic land. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes."

CardCard

The standard component of the game: a Magic card with a Magic card front and a Magic card back. Cards may be traditional or nontraditional. Tokens aren't considered cards. In the text of spells or abilities, the term "card" is used only to refer to a card that's not on the battlefield or on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. See rule 108, "Cards."

The standard component of the game. Magic cards may be traditional or nontraditional. Tokens aren't considered cards. In the text of spells or abilities, the term "card" is used only to refer to a card that's not on the battlefield or on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. See rule 108, "Cards."

Card TypeCard Type

A characteristic. Except for abilities on the stack, each object has a card type, even if that object isn't a card. Each card type has its own rules. See rule 204, "Type Line," and section 3, "Card Types."

A characteristic. Except for abilities on the stack, each object has a card type, even if that object isn't a card. Each card type has its own rules. See rule 205, "Type Line," and section 3, "Card Types."

ClashClash

To have a mini-contest involving the top cards of players' libraries. See rule 701.19, "Clash."

To have a mini-contest involving the top cards of players' libraries. See rule 701.20, "Clash."

Collector NumberCollector Number

A number printed on most cards that has no effect on game play. See rule 211, "Information Below the Text Box."

A number printed on most cards that has no effect on game play. See rule 212, "Information Below the Text Box."

Color Indicator

A characteristic of an object. See rule 105, "Colors," and rule 204, "Color Indicator."

Control Another PlayerControl Another Player

To make all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make, or is told to make, by rules or by any objects. See rule 711, "Controlling Another Player."

To make all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make, or is told to make, by rules or by any objects. See rule 712, "Controlling Another Player."

Creature TypeCreature Type

A subtype that's correlated to the creature card type and the tribal card type. See rule 302, "Creatures," and rule 308, "Tribals." See rule 204.3k for the list of creature types.

A subtype that's correlated to the creature card type and the tribal card type. See rule 302, "Creatures," and rule 308, "Tribals." See rule 205.3m for the list of creature types.

Double-Faced Cards

Cards with two faces, one on each side of the card, and no Magic card back. See rule 711, "Double-Faced Cards."

Enchantment TypeEnchantment Type

A subtype that's correlated to the enchantment card type. See rule 303, "Enchantments." See rule 204.3g for the list of enchantment types.

A subtype that's correlated to the enchantment card type. See rule 303, "Enchantments." See rule 205.3h for the list of enchantment types.

End the TurnEnd the Turn

To "end the turn" as the result of an effect is to perform an expedited process that skips nearly everything else that would happen that turn. See rule 712, "Ending the Turn."

To "end the turn" as the result of an effect is to perform an expedited process that skips nearly everything else that would happen that turn. See rule 713, "Ending the Turn."

Expansion SymbolExpansion Symbol

A characteristic, and part of a card. A card's expansion symbol is a small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration. See rule 205, "Expansion Symbol."

A characteristic, and part of a card. A card's expansion symbol is a small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol."

FatesealFateseal

To manipulate some of the cards on top of an opponent's library. See rule 701.18, "Fateseal."

To manipulate some of the cards on top of an opponent's library. See rule 701.19, "Fateseal."

Fight

When two creatures fight, each deals damage equal to its power to the other. See rule 701.10, "Fight."

Flavor TextFlavor Text

Text in italics (but not in parentheses) in the text box of a card that has no effect on play. See rule 206.2.

Text in italics (but not in parentheses) in the text box of a card that has no effect on play. See rule 207.2.

Hand ModifierHand Modifier

A characteristic that only vanguards have. See rule 209, "Hand Modifier."

A characteristic that only vanguards have. See rule 210, "Hand Modifier."

Illegal ActionIllegal Action

An action that violates the rules of the game and/or requirements or restrictions created by effects. See rule 716, "Handling Illegal Actions."

An action that violates the rules of the game and/or requirements or restrictions created by effects. See rule 717, "Handling Illegal Actions."

Illustration CreditIllustration Credit

Information printed directly below the text box that has no effect on game play. See rule 211, "Information Below the Text Box."

Information printed directly below the text box that has no effect on game play. See rule 212, "Information Below the Text Box."

Land TypeLand Type

A subtype that's correlated to the land card type. See rule 305, "Lands." See rule 204.3h for the list of land types.

A subtype that's correlated to the land card type. See rule 305, "Lands." See rule 205.3i for the list of land types.

Legal TextLegal Text

Information printed directly below the text box that has no effect on game play. See rule 211, "Information Below the Text Box."

Information printed directly below the text box that has no effect on game play. See rule 212, "Information Below the Text Box."

LegendaryLegendary

A supertype that's normally relevant on permanents. See rule 204.4, "Supertypes." See also Legend Rule.

A supertype that's normally relevant on permanents. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." See also Legend Rule.

Life ModifierLife Modifier

A characteristic that only vanguards have. See rule 210, "Life Modifier."

A characteristic that only vanguards have. See rule 211, "Life Modifier."

LoopLoop

A set of actions that could be repeated indefinitely. See rule 715, "Taking Shortcuts."

A set of actions that could be repeated indefinitely. See rule 716, "Taking Shortcuts."

LoyaltyLoyalty

1. Part of a card that only planeswalkers have. A planeswalker card's loyalty is printed in its lower right corner. See rule 208, "Loyalty." 2. A characteristic that only planeswalkers have. See rule 306.5.

1. Part of a card that only planeswalkers have. A planeswalker card's loyalty is printed in its lower right corner. See rule 209, "Loyalty." 2. A characteristic that only planeswalkers have. See rule 306.5.

Main GameMain Game

The game in which a spell (or ability) that created a subgame was cast (or activated). See rule 714, "Subgames."

The game in which a spell (or ability) that created a subgame was cast (or activated). See rule 715, "Subgames."

Moon Symbol

A symbol found in the upper left corner of the back face of a double-faced card. See rule 711, "Double-Faced Cards."

Nonbasic LandNonbasic Land

Any land that doesn't have the supertype "basic." See rule 204.4, "Supertypes."

Any land that doesn't have the supertype "basic." See rule 205.4, "Supertypes."

Nontraditional Magic CardNontraditional Magic Card

An oversized Magic card that has a Magic back but not a "Deckmaster" back. See rule 108.2.

An oversized Magic card that has a Magic card back but not a "Deckmaster" back. See rule 108.2.

OngoingOngoing

A supertype that appears only on scheme cards. See rule 204.4, "Supertypes."

A supertype that appears only on scheme cards. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes."

PlaneswalkPlaneswalk

To put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up in a Planechase game. See rule 701.20, "Planeswalk."

To put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up in a Planechase game. See rule 701.21, "Planeswalk."

Planeswalker TypePlaneswalker Type

A subtype that's correlated to the planeswalker card type. See rule 306, "Planeswalkers." See rule 204.3i for the list of planeswalker types. See also Planeswalker Uniqueness Rule.

A subtype that's correlated to the planeswalker card type. See rule 306, "Planeswalkers." See rule 205.3j for the list of planeswalker types. See also Planeswalker Uniqueness Rule.

PowerPower

1. Part of a card that only creatures have. A creature card's power is printed before the slash in its lower right corner. See rule 207, "Power/Toughness." 2. A characteristic that only creatures have. See rule 302.4.

1. Part of a card that only creatures have. A creature card's power is printed before the slash in its lower right corner. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." 2. A characteristic that only creatures have. See rule 302.4.

ProliferateProliferate

To give an additional counter to any number of players and/or permanents that already have a counter. See rule 701.23, "Proliferate."

To give an additional counter to any number of players and/or permanents that already have a counter. See rule 701.24, "Proliferate."

RegenerateRegenerate

To replace a permanent's destruction with an alternate sequence of events. See rule 701.11, "Regenerate."

To replace a permanent's destruction with an alternate sequence of events. See rule 701.12, "Regenerate."

Reminder TextReminder Text

Parenthetical text in italics in the text box of a card that summarizes a rule that applies to that card, but is not actually rules text and has no effect on play. See rule 206.2.

Parenthetical text in italics in the text box of a card that summarizes a rule that applies to that card, but is not actually rules text and has no effect on play. See rule 207.2.

RevealReveal

To show a card to all players for a brief time. See rule 701.12, "Reveal."

To show a card to all players for a brief time. See rule 701.13, "Reveal."

Rules TextRules Text

A characteristic that defines a card's abilities. See rule 206.1.

A characteristic that defines a card's abilities. See rule 207.1.

SacrificeSacrifice

To move a permanent you control to its owner's graveyard. See rule 701.13, "Sacrifice."

To move a permanent you control to its owner's graveyard. See rule 701.14, "Sacrifice."

ScryScry

To manipulate some of the cards on top of your library. See rule 701.17, "Scry."

To manipulate some of the cards on top of your library. See rule 701.18, "Scry."

SearchSearch

To look at all cards in a stated zone and possibly find a card that matches a given description. See rule 701.14, "Search."

To look at all cards in a stated zone and possibly find a card that matches a given description. See rule 701.15, "Search."

Set in MotionSet in Motion

To move a scheme card off the top of your scheme deck and turn it face up. See rule 701.21, "Set in Motion."

To move a scheme card off the top of your scheme deck and turn it face up. See rule 701.22, "Set in Motion."

ShortcutShortcut

A mutually understood way for the game to advance forward a number of game choices (either taking an action or passing priority) without players needing to explicitly identify each such choice. See rule 715, "Taking Shortcuts."

A mutually understood way for the game to advance forward a number of game choices (either taking an action or passing priority) without players needing to explicitly identify each such choice. See rule 716, "Taking Shortcuts."

SnowSnow

A supertype that's normally relevant on permanents. See rule 204.4, "Supertypes."

A supertype that's normally relevant on permanents. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes."

Spell TypeSpell Type

A subtype that's correlated to the instant card type and the sorcery card type. See rule 304, "Instants," and rule 307, "Sorceries." See rule 204.3j for the list of spell types.

A subtype that's correlated to the instant card type and the sorcery card type. See rule 304, "Instants," and rule 307, "Sorceries." See rule 205.3k for the list of spell types.

SubgameSubgame

A completely separate Magic game created by an effect. See rule 714, "Subgames."

A completely separate Magic game created by an effect. See rule 715, "Subgames."

SubtypeSubtype

A characteristic that appears after the card type and a long dash on a card's type line. See rule 204.3, "Subtypes."

A characteristic that appears after the card type and a long dash on a card's type line. See rule 205.3, "Subtypes."

Sun Symbol

A symbol found in the upper left corner of the front face of a double-faced card. See rule 711, "Double-Faced Cards."

SupertypeSupertype

A characteristic that appears before the card type on a card's type line. Most cards don't have a supertype. See rule 204.4, "Supertypes."

A characteristic that appears before the card type on a card's type line. Most cards don't have a supertype. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes."

TapTap

To turn a permanent sideways from an upright position. See rule 701.16, "Tap and Untap."

To turn a permanent sideways from an upright position. See rule 701.17, "Tap and Untap."

TappedTapped

A status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 701.16, "Tap and Untap." See also Untapped.

A status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 701.17, "Tap and Untap." See also Untapped.

Text BoxText Box

Part of a card. The text box is printed on the lower half of the card and contains the card's rules text, reminder text, and flavor text. See rule 206, "Text Box."

Part of a card. The text box is printed on the lower half of the card and contains the card's rules text, reminder text, and flavor text. See rule 207, "Text Box."

ToughnessToughness

1. Part of a card that only creatures have. A creature card's toughness is printed after the slash in its lower right corner. See rule 207, "Power/Toughness." 2. A characteristic that only creatures have. See rule 302.4.

1. Part of a card that only creatures have. A creature card's toughness is printed after the slash in its lower right corner. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." 2. A characteristic that only creatures have. See rule 302.4.

Traditional Magic CardTraditional Magic Card

A Magic card that measures approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 centimeters) by 3.5 inches (8.8 centimeters) and has a "Deckmaster" back. See rule 108.2.

A Magic card that measures approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 centimeters) by 3.5 inches (8.8 centimeters). See rule 108.2.

Transform

To turn a double-faced card so its other face is up. See rule 701.25, "Transform."

TypeType

1. An object's card type or, more broadly, its card type, subtype, and/or supertype. See rule 204, "Type Line," and section 3, "Card Types." 2. An attribute mana has. See rule 106, "Mana."

1. An object's card type or, more broadly, its card type, subtype, and/or supertype. See rule 205, "Type Line," and section 3, "Card Types." 2. An attribute mana has. See rule 106, "Mana."

Type LineType Line

Part of a card. The type line is printed directly below the illustration and contains the card's card type(s), subtype(s), and/or supertype(s). See rule 204, "Type Line."

Part of a card. The type line is printed directly below the illustration and contains the card's card type(s), subtype(s), and/or supertype(s). See rule 205, "Type Line."

UntapUntap

To rotate a permanent back to the upright position from a sideways position. See rule 701.16, "Tap and Untap."

To rotate a permanent back to the upright position from a sideways position. See rule 701.17, "Tap and Untap."

UntappedUntapped

A default status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 701.16, "Tap and Untap." See also Tapped.

A default status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 701.17, "Tap and Untap." See also Tapped.

WorldWorld

A supertype that's normally relevant on enchantments. See rule 204.4, "Supertypes." See also World Rule.

A supertype that's normally relevant on enchantments. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." See also World Rule.