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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Masters Edition to Lorwyn

General changes

Old rule (Masters Edition) New rule (Lorwyn)

101.4b.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the multiplayer mulligan rule, with some modifications. First, the starting team takes any mulligans. For a team to take a mulligan, each player on that team decides whether or not to take a mulligan, then all players who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. The first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand, the team repeats the process. (Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.) Once a player has decided to keep a hand, those cards become his or her opening hand. That player can't take any more mulligans, but his or her teammate may. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand, the other team may take mulligans.

Example: Bob and Clare are the starting team in a Two-Headed Giant game. They've each draw seven cards. After reviewing each other's hands, both Bob and Clare decide to mulligan. Each shuffles his or her hand into his or her deck and draws seven cards. Clare isn't sure about Bob's new hand, but he decides to keep it. Clare decides to take another mulligan. Bob's hand becomes his opening hand, and Clare shuffles her hand into her deck and draws six cards. Then only Clare has the option to mulligan. She decides to keep her hand of six cards and that becomes her opening hand. After that, the other team decides whether to take mulligans.

101.4b.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the multiplayer mulligan rule, with some modifications. First, the starting team takes any mulligans. For a team to take a mulligan, each player on that team decides whether or not to take a mulligan, then all players who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. The first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand, the team repeats the process. (Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.) Once a player has decided to keep a hand, those cards become his or her opening hand. That player can't take any more mulligans, but his or her teammate may. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand, the other team may take mulligans.

Example: Bob and Clare are the starting team in a Two-Headed Giant game. They each draw seven cards. After reviewing each other's hands, both Bob and Clare decide to mulligan. Each shuffles his or her hand into his or her deck and draws seven cards. Clare isn't sure about Bob's new hand, but he decides to keep it. Clare decides to take another mulligan. Bob's hand becomes his opening hand, and Clare shuffles her hand into her deck and draws six cards. Then only Clare has the option to mulligan. She decides to keep her hand of six cards and that becomes her opening hand. After that, the other team decides whether to take mulligans.

102.2b.

An effect may state that a player wins the game.

102.2b.

An effect may state that a player wins the game. (In certain multiplayer games, this may not cause the game to end; see rule 102.3g.)

102.3g.

In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option, an effect that states that a player wins the game instead causes all of that player's opponents within his or her range of influence to lose the game.

103.4.

If multiple players would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, the active player (the player whose turn it is) makes any choices required, then the next player in turn order (usually the player seated to the active player's left) makes any choices required followed by the remaining nonactive players in turn order. Then the actions happen simultaneously. This rule is often referred to as the "Active Player, Nonactive Player (APNAP) order" rule.

Example: A card reads "Each player sacrifices a creature." First, the active player chooses a creature he or she controls. Then each of the nonactive players chooses a creature he or she controls. Then all creatures are sacrificed simultaneously.

103.4.

If multiple players would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, the active player (the player whose turn it is) makes any choices required, then the next player in turn order (usually the player seated to the active player's left) makes any choices required, followed by the remaining nonactive players in turn order. Then the actions happen simultaneously. This rule is often referred to as the "Active Player, Nonactive Player (APNAP) order" rule.

Example: A card reads "Each player sacrifices a creature." First, the active player chooses a creature he or she controls. Then each of the nonactive players chooses a creature he or she controls. Then all creatures are sacrificed simultaneously.

104.3.

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, and {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}.

104.3.

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, and {X}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}.

104.3c.

The symbols {X}, {Y}, and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable.

104.3c.

The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana. When playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable.

104.7.

Each activated ability of a planeswalker has an arrow-shaped loyalty symbol in its cost. Positive loyalty symbols point upward and feature a plus sign followed by a number or an X. Negative loyalty symbols point downward and feature a minus sign followed by a number or an X. [+N] means "Put N loyalty counters on this permanent," and [-N] means "Remove N loyalty counters from this permanent."

200.5a.

A spell's owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it. A spell's controller is the player who played it.

200.5a.

A spell's owner is the same as the owner of the card that represents it. The owner of a copy of a spell is the controller of the effect that created it. A spell's controller is the player who played it.

200.7a.

The owner of an ability on the stack is the player who controlled its source when it was played or triggered. The controller of an ability on the stack is the player who played the ability, or the player who controlled the ability's source when it triggered.

200.7a.

The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability's source when it triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.

200.9.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a type or subtype, but doesn't include the word "card," "spell," or "source," it means a permanent of that type or subtype in play.

200.9.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a card type or subtype, but doesn't include the word "card," "spell," or "source," it means a permanent of that card type or subtype in play.

200.10.

A counter is a marker placed on an object or player, either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an ability. A counter is not a token, and a token is not a counter. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable.

200.10.

A counter is a marker placed on an object or player, either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an ability. A counter is not a token, and a token is not a counter. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable.

200.10a.

A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness.

200.10b.

The number of loyalty counters on a planeswalker in play indicates how much loyalty it has.

201.1.

The parts of a card are name, mana cost, illustration, type line, expansion symbol, text box, power and toughness, illustration credit, legal text, and collector number. Some cards may have more than one of any or all of these parts.

200.11.

The parts of a card are name, mana cost, illustration, type line, expansion symbol, text box, power and toughness, loyalty, illustration credit, legal text, and collector number. Some cards may have more than one of any or all of these parts.

201.2.

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, and toughness. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn't a characteristic. For example, characteristics don't include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell's target, an object's owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

201.1.

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, toughness, and loyalty. Objects can have some or all of these characteristics. Any other information about an object isn't a characteristic. For example, characteristics don't include whether a permanent is tapped, a spell's target, an object's owner or controller, what an Aura enchants, and so on.

203.2e.

An object with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost is each of the colors of that mana symbol, in addition to any other colors the object might be. Most cards with hybrid mana symbols in their mana costs are printed in a two-tone frame. See rule 104.3.

203.2e.

An object with one or more hybrid mana symbols in its mana cost is each of the colors of that mana symbol, in addition to any other colors the object might be. Most cards with hybrid mana symbols in their mana costs are printed in a two-tone frame. See rule 104.3f.

205.1.

The type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. (See rule 212, "Type, Supertype, and Subtype.")

205.1.

The card type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. (See rule 212, "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype.")

205.2.

Types

205.2.

Card Types

205.2a.

The types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, sorcery, and tribal.

205.2a.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal.

205.2b.

Some objects have more than one type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects satisfy the criteria for any effect that applies to any of their types.

205.2b.

Some objects have more than one card type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects satisfy the criteria for any effect that applies to any of their card types.

205.3c.

Subtypes of a [type] object are also called [type] types. For example, creature subtypes are also called creature types. Objects may have multiple subtypes.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype. "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. "Artifact — Equipment" means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment.

205.3c.

Subtypes of a [card type] object are also called [card type] types. For example, creature subtypes are also called creature types. Objects may have multiple subtypes.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype. "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. "Artifact — Equipment" means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment.

205.3d.

Artifact, enchantment, and land each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instant and sorcery share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creature and tribal also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. (You can find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under "Creature Types," "Land Types," and so on.)

205.3d.

Artifact, enchantment, land, and planeswalker each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instant and sorcery share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creature and tribal also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. (You can find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under "Creature Types," "Land Types," and so on.)

205.3e.

If a card with multiple types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate type.

Example: Dryad Arbor's type line says "Land Creature — Forest Dryad." Forest is a land type, and Dryad is a creature type.

205.3e.

If a card with multiple card types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate card type.

Example: Dryad Arbor's type line says "Land Creature — Forest Dryad." Forest is a land type, and Dryad is a creature type.

205.4a.

A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type.

205.4a.

A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type.

208.1.

A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed on its lower right corner. The first number is its power (the amount of damage it deals in combat); the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). For example, 2/3 means the object has power 2 and toughness 3. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects.

208.1.

A creature card has two numbers separated by a slash printed in its lower right corner. The first number is its power (the amount of damage it deals in combat); the second is its toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). For example, 2/3 means the object has power 2 and toughness 3. Power and toughness can be modified or set to particular values by effects.

209.

Illustration Credit

209.

Loyalty

209.1.

Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. This indicates its loyalty while it's not in play, and it also indicates that the planeswalker comes into play with that many loyalty counters on it.

210.

Legal Text

210.

Information Below the Text Box

210.1.

Each card features text printed below the text box that has no effect on game play.

209.1.

The illustration credit for a card is printed directly below the text box. The credit has no effect on game play.

210.1a.

The illustration credit for a card is printed on the first line below the text box. It follows the abbreviation "Illus." or, in more recent years, a paintbrush icon.

210.1.

Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the copyright information. It has no effect on game play.

210.1b.

Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information.

211.1.

Some card sets feature collector numbers. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set], immediately following the legal text. These numbers have no effect on game play.

210.1c.

Some card sets feature collector numbers. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set], immediately following the legal text.

211.

Collector Number

211.

[This section has been intentionally left blank to preserve the ordering of other rules.]

212.

Type, Supertype, and Subtype

212.

Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype

212.1a.

Cards, tokens, permanents, and spells can all have types, supertypes, and subtypes. Abilities don't have types, supertypes, or subtypes. Instead, there are various categories of abilities. (See rule 402, "Abilities.")

212.1a.

Cards, tokens, permanents, and spells can all have card types, supertypes, and subtypes. Abilities don't have card types, supertypes, or subtypes. Instead, there are various categories of abilities. (See rule 402, "Abilities.")

212.1b.

When an object's type changes, the new type(s) replaces any existing types. Counters, effects, and damage affecting the object remain with it, even if they are meaningless to the new type. Similarly, when one or more of an object's subtypes changes, the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types, land types, artifact types, enchantment types, or spell types). If an object's type is removed, the subtypes correlated with that type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a type the object currently has; otherwise, they are also removed for the entire time the object's type is removed. Removing an object's subtype doesn't affect its types at all.

212.1b.

When an object's card type changes, the new card type(s) replaces any existing card types. Counters, effects, and damage affecting the object remain with it, even if they are meaningless to the new card type. Similarly, when one or more of an object's subtypes changes, the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types, land types, artifact types, enchantment types, planeswalker types, or spell types). If an object's card type is removed, the subtypes correlated with that card type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a card type the object currently has; otherwise, they are also removed for the entire time the object's card type is removed. Removing an object's subtype doesn't affect its card types at all.

212.1c.

Some effects change an object's type, supertype, or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior type, supertype, or subtype. In such cases, all the object's prior types, supertypes, and subtypes are retained. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase "in addition to its types" or that state that something is "still a [type]." Some effects state that an object becomes an "artifact creature"; these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior types and subtypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." The affected lands now have two types: creature and land. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability's effect applied to them, those lands would become "artifact land creatures," not just "creatures," or "land creatures." The effect allows them to retain both the type "artifact" and the type "land."

Example: An ability reads, "All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures." If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment, it will become an "artifact enchantment creature."

212.1c.

Some effects change an object's card type, supertype, or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior card type, supertype, or subtype. In such cases, all the object's prior card types, supertypes, and subtypes are retained. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase "in addition to its types" or that state that something is "still a [card type]." Some effects state that an object becomes an "artifact creature"; these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior card types and subtypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." The affected lands now have two card types: creature and land. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability's effect applied to them, those lands would become "artifact land creatures," not just "creatures," or "land creatures." The effect allows them to retain both the card type "artifact" and the card type "land."

Example: An ability reads, "All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures." If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment, it will become an "artifact enchantment creature."

212.1d.

An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." If any of the affected lands were legendary, they are still legendary.

212.1d.

An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." If any of the affected lands were legendary, they are still legendary.

212.1e.

If an instruction requires choosing a subtype, you must choose one, and only one, existing subtype, and the subtype you choose must be for the appropriate type. For example, you can't choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type. (Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a creature type exists; see rule 200.2. You can also find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under "Creature Types," "Land Types," etc.)

Example: When choosing a creature type, "Merfolk" or "Wizard" is acceptable, but "Merfolk Wizard" is not. Words like "artifact," "opponent," "Swamp," or "truck" can't be chosen because they aren't creature types.

212.1e.

If an instruction requires choosing a subtype, you must choose one, and only one, existing subtype, and the subtype you choose must be for the appropriate card type. For example, you can't choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type. (Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a creature type exists; see rule 200.2. You can also find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under "Creature Types," "Land Types," etc.)

Example: When choosing a creature type, "Merfolk" or "Wizard" is acceptable, but "Merfolk Wizard" is not. Words like "artifact," "opponent," "Swamp," or "truck" can't be chosen because they aren't creature types.

212.2a.

A player may play an artifact card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn, when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. Playing an artifact as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.2a.

A player who has priority may play an artifact card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing an artifact as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.2d.

Artifacts have no characteristics specific to their type. Most artifacts have no colored mana symbols in their mana costs, and are therefore colorless. However, there is no correlation between being colorless and being an artifact: artifacts may be colored, and colorless objects may be types other than artifact.

212.2d.

Artifacts have no characteristics specific to their card type. Most artifacts have no colored mana symbols in their mana costs, and are therefore colorless. However, there is no correlation between being colorless and being an artifact: artifacts may be colored, and colorless objects may be card types other than artifact.

212.2e.

Artifact creatures combine the characteristics of both creatures and artifacts , and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both types.

212.2e.

Artifact creatures combine the characteristics of both creatures and artifacts, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types.

212.2f.

Artifact lands combine the characteristics of both lands and artifacts, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both types. Artifact lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells.

212.2f.

Artifact lands combine the characteristics of both lands and artifacts, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. Artifact lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells.

212.3a.

A player may play a creature card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn, when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. Playing a creature as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.3a.

A player who has priority may play a creature card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a creature as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.3d.

Each creature has a power (the amount of damage it deals in combat) and a toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). To determine a creature's power and toughness, start with the numbers printed in its lower right corner, then apply any applicable continuous effects. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

212.3d.

Power and toughness are characteristics only creatures have. A creature's power is the amount of damage it deals in combat, and its toughness is the amount of damage needed to destroy it. To determine a creature's power and toughness, start with the numbers printed in its lower right corner, then apply any applicable continuous effects. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

212.3g.

Creature lands combine the characteristics of both lands and creatures, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both types. Creature lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells.

212.3g.

Creature lands combine the characteristics of both lands and creatures, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. Creature lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells.

212.4a.

A player may play an enchantment card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn, when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. Playing an enchantment as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.4a.

A player who has priority may play an enchantment card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing an enchantment as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.5a.

A player may play an instant card from his or her hand any time he or she has priority. Playing an instant as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.5a.

A player who has priority may play an instant card from his or her hand. Playing an instant as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.5c.

Instant subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. Instants may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of instant subtypes under "Spell Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.5c.

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of instant subtypes is the same as the set of sorcery subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Instants may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of instant subtypes under "Spell Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.6a.

A player may play a land card from his or her hand only during a main phase of his or her turn, and only when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. A land card isn't a spell card, and at no time is it a spell. When a player plays a land card, it's simply put into play. The land card doesn't go on the stack, so players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

212.6a.

Playing a land card is a special action (see 408.2d). To play a land card, the player simply puts it into play. The land card doesn't go on the stack, and is never a spell, so players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

212.6b.

A player may play only one land card during each of his or her own turns. Effects may allow the playing of additional lands; playing an additional land in this way doesn't prevent a player from taking the normal action of playing a land. Players can't begin to play a land that an effect prohibits from being played. As a player plays a land, he or she announces whether he or she is using the once-per-turn action of playing a land. If not, he or she specifies which effect is allowing the additional land play. Effects may also allow you to "put" lands into play. This isn't the same as "playing a land" and doesn't count as the player's one land played during his or her turn. A player may not play a land unless it's his or her turn, even if an effect would seem to allow the player to do so.

212.6b.

A player who has priority may choose to play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn, when the stack is empty. Continuous effects may allow the player to play land cards from other zones this way, or to play land cards at other times.

212.6c.

A player may normally play only one land card during his or her turn; however, continuous effects may increase this number. If any such effects exist, the player announces which effect, or this rule, applies to each land play as it happens.

212.6d.

A player can't play a land, for any reason, if it isn't his or her turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so. Similarly, a player can't play a land, for any reason, if that player has used all of his or her land plays for that turn. Ignore any part of an effect that instructs a player to do so.

212.6e.

Effects may also allow players to "put" lands into play. This isn't the same as "playing a land" and doesn't count as a player's one land played during his or her turn.

212.6c.

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of land subtypes under "Land Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype.

212.6f.

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of land subtypes under "Land Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype.

212.6d.

The basic land types are Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. If an object uses the words "basic land type," it's referring to one of these subtypes. A land with a basic land type has an intrinsic ability to produce colored mana. (See rule 406, "Mana Abilities.") The land is treated as if its text box included, "{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool," even if the text box doesn't actually contain text or the card has no text box. Plains produce white mana; Islands, blue; Swamps, black; Mountains, red; and Forests, green.

212.6g.

The basic land types are Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. If an object uses the words "basic land type," it's referring to one of these subtypes. A land with a basic land type has an intrinsic ability to produce colored mana. (See rule 406, "Mana Abilities.") The land is treated as if its text box included, "{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool," even if the text box doesn't actually contain text or the card has no text box. Plains produce white mana; Islands, blue; Swamps, black; Mountains, red; and Forests, green.

212.6e.

If an effect changes a land's type to one or more of the basic land types, the land no longer has its old land type. It loses all abilities generated from its rules text and its old land types, and it gains the appropriate mana ability for each new basic land type. Note that this doesn't remove any abilities that were granted to the land by other effects. Changing a land's subtype doesn't add or remove any types (such as creature) or supertypes (such as basic, legendary, and snow) the land may have. If a land gains one or more land types in addition to its own, it keeps its land types and rules text, and it gains the new land types and mana abilities.

212.6h.

If an effect changes a land's subtype to one or more of the basic land types, the land no longer has its old land type. It loses all abilities generated from its rules text and its old land types, and it gains the appropriate mana ability for each new basic land type. Note that this doesn't remove any abilities that were granted to the land by other effects. Changing a land's subtype doesn't add or remove any card types (such as creature) or supertypes (such as basic, legendary, and snow) the land may have. If a land gains one or more land types in addition to its own, it keeps its land types and rules text, and it gains the new land types and mana abilities.

212.6f.

Any land with the supertype "basic" is a basic land. Any land that doesn't have this supertype is a nonbasic land.

212.6i.

Any land with the supertype "basic" is a basic land. Any land that doesn't have this supertype is a nonbasic land.

212.6g.

If an object is both a land and another type, it can be played only as a land. It can't be played as a spell.

212.6j.

If an object is both a land and another card type, it can be played only as a land. It can't be played as a spell.

212.7a.

A player may play a sorcery card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn, when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. Playing a sorcery as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.7a.

A player who has priority may play a sorcery card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a sorcery as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.7c.

Sorcery subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of sorcery subtypes under "Spell Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.7c.

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. The set of sorcery subtypes is the same as the set of instant subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of sorcery subtypes under "Spell Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.8a.

Each tribal card has another card type. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other type.

212.8a.

Each tribal card has another card type. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other card type.

212.8b.

Tribal subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash: In "Tribal Enchantment — Rebel Aura," "Rebel" is a subtype of tribal. The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. Tribals may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of tribal subtypes under "Creature Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.8b.

Tribal subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Tribal Enchantment — Merfolk." The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. Tribals may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of tribal subtypes under "Creature Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.9.

Planeswalkers

212.9a.

A player who has priority may play a planeswalker card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a planeswalker as a spell uses the stack. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

212.9b.

When a planeswalker spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control.

212.9c.

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. Planeswalkers may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of planeswalker subtypes under "Planeswalker Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.) If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. See rule 420.5.

212.9d.

Loyalty is a characteristic only planeswalkers have. The loyalty of a planeswalker not in play is equal to the number printed in its lower right corner. The loyalty of a planeswalker in play is equal to the number of loyalty counters on it. A planeswalker is treated as if its text box included, "This permanent comes into play with a number of loyalty counters on it equal to its printed loyalty number"; this ability creates a replacement effect (see rule 419.1). As a planeswalker gains or loses loyalty, loyalty counters are put on it or removed from it, respectively. Damage dealt to a planeswalker results in that many loyalty counters being removed from it. If a planeswalker's loyalty is 0, it's put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based effect. See rule 420.5.

212.9e.

Planeswalkers can be attacked. (See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step.")

212.9f.

Each planeswalker has a number of activated abilities. A player may play an activated ability of a planeswalker only during a main phase of his or her turn, when he or she has priority and the stack is empty, and only if none of its activated abilities have been played that turn. The cost to play an activated ability of a planeswalker is to put on or remove from that planeswalker a certain number of loyalty counters, as shown by the loyalty symbol in the ability's cost. An ability with a negative loyalty cost can't be played unless the planeswalker has at least that many loyalty counters on it.

212.9g.

If noncombat damage would be dealt to a player by a source controlled by an opponent, that opponent may have that source deal that damage to a planeswalker the first player controls instead. This is a redirection effect (see rule 419.6c) and is subject to the normal rules for ordering replacement effects (see rule 419.9). The opponent chooses whether to redirect the damage as the redirection effect is applied.

213.2.

A spell's type, supertype, and subtype are the same as those of its card.

213.2.

A spell's card type, supertype, and subtype are the same as those of its card.

213.3.

The term "spell" is used to refer to a card or a copy of a card while it's on the stack.

213.3.

The term "spell" is used to refer to a card, or a copy of a spell or card, while it's on the stack.

214.1.

A permanent is a card or token in play. Permanents stay in play unless moved to another zone by an effect or rule. There are four permanent types: artifact, creature, enchantment, and land. Instant and sorcery cards can't come into play. Some tribal cards can come into play and some can't, depending on their other types.

214.1.

A permanent is a card or token in play. Permanents stay in play unless moved to another zone by an effect or rule. There are five permanent types: artifact, creature, enchantment, land, and planeswalker. Instant and sorcery cards can't come into play. Some tribal cards can come into play and some can't, depending on their other card types.

214.1a.

The term "permanent card" is used to refer to a card that could be put into play. Specifically, it means an artifact, creature, enchantment, or land card.

214.1a.

The term "permanent card" is used to refer to a card that could be put into play. Specifically, it means an artifact, creature, enchantment, land, or planeswalker card.

214.2.

A nontoken permanent's types, supertypes, and subtypes are the same as those printed on its card. A token's types, supertypes, and subtypes are set by the spell or ability that created it.

214.2.

A nontoken permanent's card types, supertypes, and subtypes are the same as those printed on its card. A token's card types, supertypes, and subtypes are set by the spell or ability that created it.

216.2.

A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token's type or subtype. A token isn't a card (even if represented by a card that has a Magic back or that came from a Magic booster pack).

216.2.

A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token's card type or subtype. A token isn't a card (even if represented by a card that has a Magic back or that came from a Magic booster pack).

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are four exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (4) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are four exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (4) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

217.6a.

When a spell is played, the physical card is put on the stack. When an ability is played, it goes on top of the stack without any card associated with it. (See rule 409.1, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.")

217.6a.

When a spell is played, the physical card is put on the stack. When an ability is played, it goes on top of the stack without any card associated with it (see rule 409.1a).

217.6c.

Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated or triggered ability that's on the stack has the text of the ability that created it and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the person who played the spell. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability's source when it triggered.

217.6c.

Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated or triggered ability that's on the stack has the text of the ability that created it and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the person who played the spell. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability's source when it triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.

217.7a.

Effects can remove objects from the game. Some effects may provide a way for a card to return to a zone and use the term "set aside." Cards that are set aside this way are still removed from the game, even though that removal may be temporary. Objects that aren't cards that would return to a zone remain removed from the game instead.

217.7a.

Objects can be removed from the game. Some effects may provide a way for a card to return to a zone and use the term "set aside." Cards that are set aside this way are still removed from the game, even though that removal may be temporary. Objects that aren't cards that would return to a zone remain removed from the game instead.

305.3.

As the main phase begins, any abilities that trigger at the beginning of that main phase go on the stack. (See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities.") Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. (This is the only phase in which a player can normally play artifact, creature, enchantment, and sorcery spells, and only the active player may play these spells.)

305.3.

As the main phase begins, any abilities that trigger at the beginning of that main phase go on the stack. (See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities.") Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. (This is the only phase in which a player can normally play artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker, and sorcery spells, and only the active player may play these spells.)

306.1.

The combat phase has five steps, which proceed in order: beginning of combat, declare attackers, declare blockers, combat damage, and end of combat. The declare blockers and combat damage steps are skipped if no creatures are declared as attackers (see rule 308.4). There are two combat damage steps if any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502.2) or double strike (see rule 502.28).

306.1.

The combat phase has five steps, which proceed in order: beginning of combat, declare attackers, declare blockers, combat damage, and end of combat. The declare blockers and combat damage steps are skipped if no creatures are declared as attackers or put into play attacking (see rule 308.5). There are two combat damage steps if any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502.2) or double strike (see rule 502.28).

306.3.

During the combat phase, the active player is attacking and is the attacking player. As the combat phase starts, the active player chooses one of his or her opponents. The chosen opponent is being attacked and is the defending player. Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple other players. See rule 602, "Attack Multiple Players Option" and rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

306.2.

During the combat phase, the active player is the attacking player; creatures that player controls may attack. As the combat phase starts, the active player chooses one of his or her opponents. The chosen opponent is the defending player; that player and planeswalkers he or she controls may be attacked. Some multiplayer games allow the active player to attack multiple other players. See rule 602, "Attack Multiple Players Option," and rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

306.3.

Only a creature can attack or block. Only a player or a planeswalker can be attacked.

306.3a.

If an effect would put a noncreature permanent into play attacking or blocking, the permanent does come into play but it's never considered to be an attacking or blocking permanent.

306.2.

A creature is removed from combat if it leaves play (such as by being destroyed or removed from the game), if it regenerates (see rule 419.6b), if its controller changes, if it stops being a creature, or if an effect removes it from combat. Removed from combat means the creature stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature.

306.4.

A creature or planeswalker is removed from combat if it leaves play (such as by being destroyed or removed from the game); if its controller changes; if it stops being a creature or planeswalker, respectively; or if an effect removes it from combat. A creature is also removed from combat if it regenerates (see rule 419.6b). A creature that's removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that's removed from combat stops being attacked.

306.2a.

Once a creature has been declared as an attacking or blocking creature, spells or abilities that would have kept that creature from attacking or blocking don't remove the creature from combat.

306.4a.

Once a creature has been declared as an attacking or blocking creature, spells or abilities that would have kept that creature from attacking or blocking don't remove the creature from combat.

306.2b.

Tapping or untapping a creature that's already been declared as an attacker or blocker doesn't remove it from combat and doesn't prevent its combat damage.

306.4b.

Tapping or untapping a creature that's already been declared as an attacker or blocker doesn't remove it from combat and doesn't prevent its combat damage.

306.4c.

If a creature is attacking a planeswalker, removing that planeswalker from combat doesn't remove that creature from combat. It continues to be an attacking creature, although it is attacking neither a player nor a planeswalker. It may be blocked. If it is unblocked, it will deal no combat damage.

306.4.

An attacking creature is attacking alone if no other creatures are attacking. A blocking creature is blocking alone if no other creatures are blocking.

306.5.

An attacking creature is attacking alone if no other creatures are attacking. A blocking creature is blocking alone if no other creatures are blocking.

308.1.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active player declares attackers (this game action doesn't use the stack). If the game allows the active player to attack multiple other players, he or she declares which player each creature is attacking. Effects from a creature that refer to a defending player refer only to the defending player it is attacking. Then any abilities that triggered on attackers being declared go on the stack. (See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities.") Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.

Example: Tanglewalker reads, "Creatures you control are unblockable as long as defending player controls an artifact land." Whether a creature you control is unblockable depends only on whether the player being attacked by it controls an artifact land.

Example: Guiltfeeder reads, in part, "Whenever Guiltfeeder attacks and isn't blocked, defending player loses 1 life for each card in his or her graveyard." Only the player being attacked loses life due to Guiltfeeder's ability.

308.1.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active player declares attackers. This game action doesn't use the stack. If the defending player controls any planeswalkers, or the game allows the active player to attack multiple other players, he or she declares which player or planeswalker each creature is attacking. Effects from a creature that refer to a defending player refer only to the defending player it's attacking (if it's attacking a player) or the controller of the planeswalker it's attacking (if it's attacking a planeswalker). Then any abilities that triggered on attackers being declared go on the stack. (See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities.") Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.

308.2a.

The active player either chooses to not attack, or chooses one or more creatures he or she controls and then determines whether this set of creatures could attack. Only creatures can attack, and the following creatures can't attack: tapped creatures (even those that can attack without tapping) and creatures the active player didn't control continuously since the beginning of the turn (except those with haste). Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could attack. (See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks.")

308.2a.

For each untapped creature the active player controls that he or she has controlled continuously since the beginning of the turn or that has haste, that player either chooses not to attack with it, or chooses an opponent or a planeswalker controlled by an opponent for that creature to attack. Then he or she determines whether this set of attackers is legal. (See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks.")

308.2g.

Each chosen creature becomes an attacking creature if all costs have been paid, but only if it's still controlled by the active player. It remains an attacking creature until it's removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 306.2.

308.2g.

Each chosen creature becomes an attacking creature if all costs have been paid, but only if it's still controlled by the active player. It remains an attacking creature until it's removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 306.4.

308.3.

Abilities that trigger on a creature attacking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as an attacker. They will not trigger if a creature attacks and then that creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition. They will not trigger if a creature is put into play attacking.

Example: A permanent has the ability "Whenever a green creature attacks, destroy that creature at end of combat." If a blue creature attacks and is later turned green, the ability will not trigger.

308.3.

Abilities that trigger on a creature attacking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as an attacker. They will not trigger if a creature attacks and then that creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition.

Example: A permanent has the ability "Whenever a green creature attacks, destroy that creature at end of combat." If a blue creature attacks and is later turned green, the ability will not trigger.

308.4.

If a creature is put into play attacking, its controller chooses which defending player or which planeswalker a defending player controls it's attacking as it comes into play (unless the effect that put it into play specifies what it's attacking). Such creatures are "attacking" but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, they never "attacked."

308.4.

If no creatures are declared as attackers, skip the declare blockers and combat damage steps.

308.5.

If no creatures are declared as attackers or put into play attacking, skip the declare blockers and combat damage steps.

309.2a.

The defending player chooses zero or more creatures he or she controls, chooses one attacking creature for each one to block, then determines whether this set of blocks is legal. Only untapped creatures can block, but blocking does not cause creatures to tap. Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could block. (See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks.")

309.2a.

For each untapped creature the defending player controls, that player either chooses not to block with it, or chooses one creature for it to block that's attacking him, her, or a planeswalker he or she controls. Then he or she determines whether this set of blocks is legal. (See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks.")

309.2e.

Each chosen creature becomes a blocking creature, but only if it's controlled by the defending player. Each one is blocking the attacking creature chosen for it. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 306.2.

309.2e.

Each chosen creature becomes a blocking creature, but only if it's controlled by the defending player. Each one is blocking the attacking creature chosen for it. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 306.4.

309.3.

Abilities that trigger on a creature blocking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as a blocker. They will not trigger if a creature blocks, and then that creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition. They will not trigger if a creature is put into play blocking.

309.3.

Abilities that trigger on a creature blocking trigger only at the point the creature is declared as a blocker. They will not trigger if a creature blocks, and then that creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition.

309.5.

If a creature is put into play blocking, its controller chooses which attacking creature it's blocking as it comes into play (unless the effect that put it into play specifies what it's blocking). Such creatures are "blocking" but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, they never "blocked."

310.2a.

Each attacking creature and each blocking creature will assign combat damage equal to its power. Creatures with 0 or less power don't assign combat damage.

310.2a.

Each attacking creature and each blocking creature will assign combat damage equal to its power. Creatures that would assign 0 or less damage this way don't assign combat damage at all.

310.2b.

An unblocked attacking creature will assign all its combat damage to the defending player.

310.2b.

An unblocked attacking creature that's attacking a player will assign all its combat damage to the defending player. An unblocked attacking creature that's attacking a planeswalker will assign all its combat damage to the planeswalker it's attacking. If the creature isn't currently attacking anything (if, for example, it was attacking a planeswalker that has left play), it will assign no combat damage.

310.4c.

If a creature that was supposed to receive combat damage is no longer in play or is no longer a creature, the damage assigned to it isn't dealt.

310.4c.

If a creature or planeswalker that was assigned combat damage is no longer in play, or is neither a creature nor planeswalker, the damage assigned to it isn't dealt.

311.2.

As soon as the end of combat step ends, all creatures are removed from combat. After the end of combat step ends, the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins.

311.2.

As soon as the end of combat step ends, all creatures and planeswalkers are removed from combat. After the end of combat step ends, the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins.

400.1.

An ability is something an object does or can do. Abilities generate effects. An object's abilities are defined in the object's text box (if it has one) or by the effect that created the object. Abilities can also be granted to objects by effects. Reminder text and flavor text are not abilities. Reminder text and flavor text always appear in italics.

400.1.

An ability is something an object does or can do. Abilities generate effects. An object's abilities are defined in the object's text box (if it has one) or by the effect that created the object. Abilities can also be granted to objects by effects or rules. Reminder text and flavor text are not abilities. Reminder text and flavor text always appear in italics.

401.7.

As the final part of an instant or sorcery spell's resolution, the card is put into its owner's graveyard. As the final part of an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell's resolution, the card becomes a permanent and is put into the in-play zone under the control of the spell's controller. If any spell is countered, the card is put into its owner's graveyard as part of the resolution of the countering spell or ability. (See rule 413, "Resolving Spells and Activated Abilities.")

401.7.

As the final part of an instant or sorcery spell's resolution, the card is put into its owner's graveyard. As the final part of an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell's resolution, the card becomes a permanent and is put into the in-play zone under the control of the spell's controller. (See rule 413, "Resolving Spells and Activated Abilities.") If any spell is countered, the card is put into its owner's graveyard as part of the resolution of the countering spell or ability.

402.8g.

A trigger condition that can trigger only in a zone other than the in-play zone triggers from that zone. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull comes into play or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition triggers from the in-play zone and the second trigger condition functions from the removed-from-the-game zone.

402.8g.

A trigger condition that can trigger only in a zone other than the in-play zone triggers from that zone. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull comes into play or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition triggers from the in-play zone and the second trigger condition functions from the removed-from-the-game zone. (See rule 502.51, "Haunt.")

404.4e.

The source of a delayed triggered ability created by a spell is that spell. The source of a delayed triggered ability created by another ability is the same as the source of that other ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the same as the controller of the spell or ability that created it, even if that player no longer controls its source.

408.1b.

Spells and activated abilities are played by players (if they choose) using a system of priority, while other types of abilities and effects are automatically generated by the game rules. Each time a player would get priority, all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420, "State-Based Effects"). Then, if any new state-based effects have been generated, they resolve as a single event. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities"). These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated. Then the player who would have received priority does so and may play a spell or ability, take a special action (such as playing a land), or pass, as governed by the rules for that phase or step.

408.1b.

Spells and activated abilities are played by players (if they choose) using a system of priority, while other kinds of abilities and effects are automatically generated by the game rules. Each time a player would get priority, all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420, "State-Based Effects"). Then, if any new state-based effects have been generated, they resolve as a single event. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities"). These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated. Then the player who would have received priority does so and may play a spell or ability, take a special action (such as playing a land), or pass, as governed by the rules for that phase or step.

408.2d.

Playing a land is a special action consisting of putting that land into play. (See rule 212.6, "Lands.") A player can play a land only during a main phase of his or her turn, when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. The player who played the land gets priority after this special action.

408.2d.

Playing a land is a special action consisting of putting that land into play. (See rule 212.6, "Lands.") A player can choose to perform this special action only during a main phase of his or her turn, when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. If a player had priority before playing a land, that player gets priority after this special action.

408.2g.

Game actions don't use the stack. The game actions are phasing in and out during the untap step (see rule 302.1), untapping during the untap step (see rule 302.2), drawing a card during the draw step (see rule 304.1), declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308.1), declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.1), cleanup (see rule 314), and mana burn as each phase ends (see rule 300.3).

408.2g.

Game actions don't use the stack. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.1), untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.2), drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304.1), declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308.1), declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.1), the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314.1), removing damage from permanents and ending "until end of turn effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314.2), and mana burn as each phase ends (see rule 300.3).

409.1b.

If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase "Choose one -" or "[specified player] chooses one -"), the player announces the mode choice. If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell, he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell or ability has a variable mana cost (indicated by {X}) or some other variable cost, the player announces the value of that variable at this time. If the spell or ability has alternative, additional, or other special costs (such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409.1f). You can't apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

409.1b.

If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase "Choose one -," "Choose two -,"or "[specified player] chooses one -"), the player announces the mode choice. If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 502.40), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell or ability has a variable mana cost (indicated by {X}) or some other variable cost, the player announces the value of that variable at this time. If the spell or ability has alternative, additional, or other special costs (such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409.1f). You can't apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

410.2.

Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability's trigger event, that ability triggers. When a phase or step begins, all abilities that trigger "at the beginning of" that phase or step trigger. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. The ability doesn't do anything when it triggers, but it's automatically put on the stack by its controller as soon as a player would receive priority.

410.2.

Whenever a game event or game state matches a triggered ability's trigger event, that ability triggers. When a phase or step begins, all abilities that trigger "at the beginning of" that phase or step trigger. The ability is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered,unless it's a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. The ability doesn't do anything when it triggers, but it's automatically put on the stack by its controller as soon as a player would receive priority. Each triggered ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics.

410.9e.

If an ability triggers when a creature blocks or becomes blocked by a particular number of creatures, the ability triggers if the creature blocks or is blocked by that many creatures when the attack or block declaration is made. Effects that add or remove blockers can cause such abilities to trigger. This also applies to abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or being blocked by at least a certain number of creatures.

410.9e.

If an ability triggers when a creature blocks or becomes blocked by a particular number of creatures, the ability triggers if the creature blocks or is blocked by that many creatures when blockers are declared. Effects that add or remove blockers can also cause such abilities to trigger. This applies to abilities that trigger on a creature blocking or being blocked by at least a certain number of creatures as well.

410.10.

Trigger events that involve objects changing zones are called "zone-change triggers." Many abilities with zone-change triggers attempt to do something to that object after it changes zones. During resolution, these abilities look for the object in the zone that it moved to. If the object is unable to be found in the zone it went to, the part of the ability attempting to do something to the object will fail to do anything. The ability could be unable to find the object because the object never entered the specified zone, because it left the zone before the ability resolved, or because it is in a zone that is hidden from a player, such as a library or an opponent's hand. (This rule applies even if the object leaves the zone and returns again before the ability resolves.) The most common types of zone-change triggers are comes-into-play triggers and leaves-play triggers.

410.10.

Trigger events that involve objects changing zones are called "zone-change triggers." Many abilities with zone-change triggers attempt to do something to that object after it changes zones. During resolution, these abilities look for the object in the zone that it moved to. If the object is unable to be found in the zone it went to, the part of the ability attempting to do something to the object will fail to do anything. The ability could be unable to find the object because the object never entered the specified zone, because it left the zone before the ability resolved, or because it is in a zone that is hidden from a player, such as a library or an opponent's hand. (This rule applies even if the object leaves the zone and returns again before the ability resolves.) The most common zone-change triggers are comes-into-play triggers and leaves-play triggers.

410.11.

Some triggered abilities trigger on a game state, such as a player controlling no permanents of a particular type, rather than triggering when an event occurs. These abilities trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. They'll go onto the stack at the next available opportunity. These are called state triggers. (Note that state triggers aren't the same as state-based effects.) A state-triggered ability doesn't trigger again until the ability has resolved, has been countered, or has otherwise left the stack. Then, if the object with the ability is still in the same zone and the game state still matches its trigger condition, the ability will trigger again.

Example: A permanent's ability reads, "Whenever you have no cards in hand, draw a card." If its controller plays the last card from his or her hand, the ability will trigger once and won't trigger again until it has resolved. If its controller plays a spell that reads "Discard your hand, then draw that many cards," the ability will trigger during the spell's resolution because the player's hand was momentarily empty.

410.11.

Some triggered abilities trigger on a game state, such as a player controlling no permanents of a particular card type, rather than triggering when an event occurs. These abilities trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. They'll go onto the stack at the next available opportunity. These are called state triggers. (Note that state triggers aren't the same as state-based effects.) A state-triggered ability doesn't trigger again until the ability has resolved, has been countered, or has otherwise left the stack. Then, if the object with the ability is still in the same zone and the game state still matches its trigger condition, the ability will trigger again.

Example: A permanent's ability reads, "Whenever you have no cards in hand, draw a card." If its controller plays the last card from his or her hand, the ability will trigger once and won't trigger again until it has resolved. If its controller plays a spell that reads "Discard your hand, then draw that many cards," the ability will trigger during the spell's resolution because the player's hand was momentarily empty.

412.4.

Some static abilities apply while a card is in any zone that you could play it from (usually your hand). These are limited to those that read, "You may play [this card] . . .," "You can't play [this card] . . .," and "Play [this card] only . . . ."

412.4.

Some static abilities apply while a card is in any zone that you could play it from (usually your hand). These are limited to those that read, "You may play [this card] . . . ," "You can't play [this card] . . . ," and "Play [this card] only . . . ."

413.2e.

If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana, he or she may play mana abilities before taking that action. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to play a spell during resolution, he or she does so by putting that spell on top of the stack, then continuing to play it by following the steps in rules 409.1a-i (except no player receives priority after it's played). The currently resolving spell or ability then continues to resolve, which may include playing other spells this way. No other spells or abilities can normally be played during resolution.

413.2e.

If an effect gives a player the option to pay mana, he or she may play mana abilities before taking that action. If an effect specifically instructs or allows a player to play a spell during resolution, he or she does so by putting that spell on top of the stack, then continuing to play it by following the steps in rules 409.1a-i, except no player receives priority after it's played. The currently resolving spell or ability then continues to resolve, which may include playing other spells this way. No other spells or abilities can normally be played during resolution.

413.2f.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures in play), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself, the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn't changed zones; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. There are two exceptions. If an effect deals damage divided among some number of creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put into the stack; see rule 402.6. Also, static abilities can't use last known information; see rule 412.5. If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists (or most recently existed) that does it, not the ability.

413.2f.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures in play), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself, the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn't changed zones; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. There are two exceptions: (1) if an effect deals damage divided among some number of creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put into the stack (see rule 402.6), and (2) static abilities can't use last known information (see rule 412.5). If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists-or as it most recently existed-that does it, not the ability.

416.1.

When a spell or ability resolves, it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. State-based effects are not created by spells or abilities; they are generated by specific rules of the game.

416.1.

When a spell or ability resolves, it may create one or more one-shot or continuous effects. Static abilities may create one or more continuous effects. Some effects are replacement effects or prevention effects. State-based effects are not created by spells or abilities; they are generated by specific rules of the game (see rule 420).

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first, then all other effects in timestamp order. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-defining abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c), making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play (layer 6d), making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-changing effects (which includes effects that change an object's card type, subtype, and/or supertype); (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first, then all other effects in timestamp order. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-defining abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c), making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play (layer 6d), making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

419.6c.

Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature or player with the same damage dealt to another creature or player; such effects are called "redirection" effects. If either creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature when the damage would be redirected, the effect does nothing.

419.6c.

Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature, planeswalker, or player with the same damage dealt to another creature, planeswalker, or player; such effects are called "redirection" effects. If either creature or planewalker is no longer in play when the damage would be redirected, or is no longer a creature or planeswalker when the damage would be redirected, the effect does nothing.

419.8a.

Some effects apply to damage from a source-for example, "The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn, prevent that damage." If an effect requires a player to choose a source, he or she may choose a permanent, a spell on the stack (including an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell), or any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack (including a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack, even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature). The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the prevention will apply to the next damage from that permanent, regardless of whether it's from one of that permanent's abilities or combat damage dealt by it. If the player chooses an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell, the prevention will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves.

419.8a.

Some effects apply to damage from a source-for example, "The next time a red source of your choice would deal damage to you this turn, prevent that damage." If an effect requires a player to choose a source, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including an artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker spell); any card or permanent referred to by an object on the stack; or a creature that assigned combat damage on the stack, even if the creature is no longer in play or is no longer a creature. The source is chosen when the effect is created. If the player chooses a permanent, the prevention will apply to the next damage from that permanent, regardless of whether it's from one of that permanent's abilities or combat damage dealt by it. If the player chooses an artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker spell, the prevention will apply to any damage from that spell and from the permanent that it becomes when it resolves.

420.5p.

A planeswalker with loyalty 0 is put into its owner's graveyard.

420.5q.

If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards.

432.2b.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

423.2b.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

501.10.

Clash

501.10a.

To clash, a player reveals the top card of his or her library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.

501.10b.

"Clash with an opponent" means "Choose an opponent. You and that opponent each clash."

501.10c.

A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash.

502.4b.

A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step" and rule 502.70, "Reach.")

502.4b.

A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step," and rule 502.70, "Reach.")

502.5b.

A creature with haste can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol even if it hasn't been controlled by its controller continuously since the beginning of his or her most recent turn. (See rule 212.3f.)

502.5b.

A creature with haste can attack or use activated abilities whose cost includes the tap symbol even if it hasn't been controlled by its controller continuously since the start of his or her most recent turn. (See rule 212.3f.)

502.6c.

Snow landwalk is a special type of landwalk. A creature with snow landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one snow land with the specified subtype. If a player is allowed to choose any landwalk ability, that player may choose a snow landwalk ability. If an effect causes a permanent to lose all landwalk abilities, snow landwalk abilities are removed as well.

502.6c.

Snow landwalk is a special kind of landwalk. A creature with snow landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one snow land with the specified subtype. If a player is allowed to choose any landwalk ability, that player may choose a snow landwalk ability. If an effect causes a permanent to lose all landwalk abilities, snow landwalk abilities are removed as well.

502.6e.

Multiple instances of the same type of landwalk or snow landwalk on the same creature are redundant.

502.6e.

Multiple instances of the same kind of landwalk or snow landwalk on the same creature are redundant.

502.7a.

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." This quality is usually a color (as in "protection from black") but can be any characteristic value. If the quality is a type, subtype, or supertype, the protection applies to sources that are permanents with that type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not in play that are of that type, subtype, or supertype. This is an exception to rule 200.9.

502.7a.

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." This quality is usually a color (as in "protection from black") but can be any characteristic value. If the quality is a card type, subtype, or supertype, the protection applies to sources that are permanents with that card type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not in play that are of that card type, subtype, or supertype. This is an exception to rule 200.9.

502.7f.

If a creature with protection attacks, it can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

502.7f.

Attacking creatures with protection can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

502.9b.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. If all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the defending player. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already on the creature and damage from other creatures that will be assigned at the same time (see rule 502.9e). The controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the defending player.

502.9b.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. If all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already on the creature and damage from other creatures that will be assigned at the same time (see rule 502.9e). The controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

502.9c.

If all the creatures blocking an attacking creature with trample are removed from combat before the combat damage step, all its damage is assigned to the defending player.

502.9c.

If an attacking creature with trample is blocked, but there are no creatures blocking it when damage is assigned, all its damage is assigned to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

502.10b.

As a player declares attackers, he or she may declare that any number of those creatures with banding, and up to one of those creatures without banding, are all in a "band." (Defending players can't declare bands but may use banding in a different way; see rule 502.10h.)

502.10b.

As a player declares attackers, he or she may declare that any number of those creatures with banding, and up to one of those creatures without banding, are all in a "band." All of those creatures must attack the same player or planeswalker. (Defending players can't declare bands but may use banding in a different way; see rule 502.10h.)

502.11d.

Multiple instances of bands with other of the same type on the same creature are redundant.

502.11d.

Multiple instances of bands with other of the same kind on the same creature are redundant.

502.34b.

The phrase "imprinted [type] card" means the card of that type that's imprinted on the permanent. If a permanent has more than one card of that type imprinted on it, each of those cards is an "imprinted [type] card."

502.34b.

The phrase "imprinted [quality] card" means the card with that quality that's imprinted on the permanent. If a permanent has more than one card with that quality imprinted on it, each of those cards is an "imprinted [quality] card."

502.40a.

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [type or subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [type or subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

Example: Since the card with splice remains in the player's hand, it can later be played normally or spliced onto another spell. It can even be discarded to pay a "discard a card" cost of the spell it's spliced onto.

502.40a.

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

Example: Since the card with splice remains in the player's hand, it can later be played normally or spliced onto another spell. It can even be discarded to pay a "discard a card" cost of the spell it's spliced onto.

502.40c.

The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied.

Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads, "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists, a blue spell. The spell is still blue, and Reach Through Mists deals the damage. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature.

502.40c.

The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied.

Example: Glacial Ray is a red card with splice onto Arcane that reads, "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Suppose Glacial Ray is spliced onto Reach Through Mists, a blue spell. The spell is still blue, and Reach Through Mists deals the damage. This means that the ability can target a creature with protection from red and deal 2 damage to that creature.

502.43c.

A ninjutsu ability may be played only while a creature in play is unblocked (see rule 309.2f). The creature with ninjutsu is put into play unblocked. It will be attacking the same player as the creature that was returned to its owner's hand.

502.43c.

A ninjutsu ability may be played only while a creature in play is unblocked (see rule 309.2f). The creature with ninjutsu is put into play unblocked. It will be attacking the same player or planeswalker as the creature that was returned to its owner's hand.

502.72.

Champion

502.72a.

Champion represents two triggered abilities. "Champion an [object]" means "When this permanent comes into play, sacrifice it unless you remove another [object] you control from the game" and "When this permanent leaves play, return the removed card to play under its owner's control."

502.72b.

The two abilities represented by champion are linked abilities as defined by rule 217.7d.

502.72c.

A permanent is "championed" by another permanent if the latter removes the former from the game as the direct result of a champion ability.

502.73.

Changeling

502.73a.

Changeling is a characteristic-defining ability. "Changeling" means "This object is every creature type." This ability works in all zones. See rule 405.2.

502.73b.

Multiple instances of changeling on the same object are redundant.

502.74.

Evoke

502.74a.

Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be played and a triggered ability that functions in play. "Evoke [cost]" means "You may play this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "When this permanent comes into play, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it." Paying a card's evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

502.75.

Hideaway

502.75a.

Hideaway represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent comes into play tapped" and "When this permanent comes into play, look at the top four cards of your library. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. As long as that card remains removed from the game, it may be looked at by any player who has controlled this permanent."

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . comes into play" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, card type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, toughness, loyalty) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . comes into play" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

503.3.

The copy's copiable values become the copied information, as modified by the copy's status. Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, "As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains 'At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. If you do, this creature gains this ability.'" A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger's upkeep-triggered ability.

Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Tomoya's characteristics become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious, which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). The Demon's characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. However, since the creature is face down, it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. It can be turned face up for {G}. If it's turned face up, it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn't have morph). It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. Its controller can't turn it face up as a special action. If an effect turns it face up, it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.

503.3.

The copy's copiable values become the copied information, as modified by the copy's status (see rule 510). Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, "As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains 'At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. If you do, this creature gains this ability.'" A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger's upkeep-triggered ability.

Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Tomoya's characteristics become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious, which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). The Demon's characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. However, since the creature is face down, it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. It can be turned face up for {G}. If it's turned face up, it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn't have morph). It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. Its controller can't turn it face up as a special action. If an effect turns it face up, it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.

503.4.

Some effects cause a permanent that's copying a permanent to copy a different permanent while remaining in play. The change doesn't trigger comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities. This also doesn't change any noncopy effects presently affecting the permanent.

Example: Unstable Shapeshifter reads, "Whenever a creature comes into play, Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability." A Shapeshifter is affected by Giant Growth, which reads "Target creature gets +3/+3 until end of turn." If a creature comes into play later this turn, the Shapeshifter will become a copy of that creature, but it will still get +3/+3 from the Giant Growth.

503.4.

Some effects cause a permanent that's copying a permanent to copy a different object while remaining in play. The change doesn't trigger comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities. This also doesn't change any noncopy effects presently affecting the permanent.

Example: Unstable Shapeshifter reads, "Whenever a creature comes into play, Unstable Shapeshifter becomes a copy of that creature and gains this ability." It's affected by Giant Growth, which reads "Target creature gets +3/+3 until end of turn." If a creature comes into play later this turn, Unstable Shapeshifter will become a copy of that creature, but it will still get +3/+3 from the Giant Growth.

503.5.

An object that comes into play "as a copy" of another permanent becomes a copy as it comes into play. It doesn't come into play, and then become a copy of that permanent. If the text that's being copied includes any abilities that replace the comes-into-play event (such as "comes into play with" or "as [this] comes into play" abilities), those abilities will take effect. Also, any comes-into-play triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger.

Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads, "Fading 2 (This creature comes into play with two fade counters on it. At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from it. If you can't, sacrifice it.)" and "Skyshroud Behemoth comes into play tapped." A Clone that comes into play as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also come into play tapped with two fade counters on it.

Example: Striped Bears reads, "When Striped Bears comes into play, draw a card." A Clone comes into play as a copy of Striped Bears. The Clone has the Bears' comes-into-play triggered ability, so the Clone's controller draws a card.

503.5.

An object that comes into play "as a copy" of another object becomes a copy as it comes into play. It doesn't come into play, and then become a copy of that permanent. If the text that's being copied includes any abilities that replace the comes-into-play event (such as "comes into play with" or "as [this] comes into play" abilities), those abilities will take effect. Also, any comes-into-play triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger.

Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads, "Fading 2 (This creature comes into play with two fade counters on it. At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from it. If you can't, sacrifice it.)" and "Skyshroud Behemoth comes into play tapped." A Clone that comes into play as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also come into play tapped with two fade counters on it.

Example: Striped Bears reads, "When Striped Bears comes into play, draw a card." A Clone comes into play as a copy of Striped Bears. The Clone has the Bears' comes-into-play triggered ability, so the Clone's controller draws a card.

503.7.

Because any choices that have been made for a permanent aren't copied, sometimes a copy card will gain an ability that refers to a choice that was never made. In that case, the choice is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability has no effect.

Example: Voice of All comes into play and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. Voice of All reads, in part, "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color." and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." Unstable Shapeshifter never got a chance to choose a color, because it didn't come into play as a Voice of All card, so the Shapeshifter's protection ability doesn't protect it from anything at all.

503.7.

Because any choices that have been made for a permanent aren't copied, sometimes a copy card will gain an ability that refers to a choice that was never made. In that case, the choice is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability has no effect.

Example: Voice of All comes into play and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. Voice of All reads, in part, "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color." and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." Unstable Shapeshifter never had a chance for a color to be chosen for it, because it didn't come into play as a Voice of All card, so the protection ability doesn't protect it from anything at all.

503.10.

To copy a spell means to put a copy of the spell onto the stack; a copy of a spell isn't "played." In addition to copying the characteristics of the spell, all decisions made when the spell was played are copied. These include mode, targets, the value of X, and optional additional costs such as buyback. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, but it has no spell card associated with it. It works just like a normal spell: it can be countered or it can resolve, and it uses the same timing rules as normal spells.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

503.10.

To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack; a copy of a spell or ability isn't "played." A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made when it was played, including mode, targets, the value of X, and optional additional costs such as buyback. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, even though it has no spell card associated with it. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

503.10b.

A copy of an ability has the same source as the original ability. If the ability refers to its source by name, the copy refers to that same object and not to any other object with the same name. The copy is considered to be the same ability by effects that count how many times that ability has resolved during the turn.

503.10b.

Some effects copy a spell and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal. Once the player has decided what the copy's targets will be, the copy is put onto the stack with those targets.

503.10c.

Some effects copy a spell or ability and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal. Once the player has decided what the copy's targets will be, the copy is put onto the stack with those targets.

503.12.

An effect that instructs a player to "play a copy" of an object follows the rules for playing spells and abilities, except that the copy is played while another spell or ability is resolving. Playing a copy of a nonland object follows steps 409.1a-409.1h of rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities," then the copy becomes played. The played copy is a spell on the stack, and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered.

503.12.

An effect that instructs a player to "play a copy" of an object follows the rules for playing spells and abilities, except that the copy is played while another spell or ability is resolving. Playing a copy of a nonland object follows steps 409.1a-h of rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities," then the copy becomes played. The played copy is a spell on the stack, and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered.

507.3.

The controller of another player's turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make or is told to make during that turn by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which spells to play and what those spells target, and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which of the player's creatures attack, and how those creatures assign their combat damage.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which card the player chooses from outside the game with one of the Judgment (tm) Wishes. The player can't choose a card of the wrong type.

507.3.

The controller of another player's turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make or is told to make during that turn by the rules or by any objects. This includes choices and decisions about what to play, and choices and decisions called for by spells and abilities.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which spells to play and what those spells target, and makes any required decisions when those spells resolve.

Example: The controller of the turn decides which of the player's creatures attack, and how those creatures assign their combat damage.

508.2.

In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says "search for library for a legendary card" can't find this flip card. An effect that says "legendary creatures get +2/+2" doesn't affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.

508.2.

In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead.

Example: Akki Lavarunner is a nonlegendary creature that flips into a legendary creature named Tok-Tok, Volcano Born. An effect that says "search your library for a legendary card" can't find this flip card. An effect that says "legendary creatures get +2/+2" doesn't affect Akki Lavarunner, but it does affect Tok-Tok.

508.4.

Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it's impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if a flipped permanent leaves play, it retains no memory of its status.

508.4.

Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it's impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if a flipped permanent leaves play, it retains no memory of its status. See rule 510, "Status."

509.1a.

Remove every object on the stack from the game. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures, if any, from combat. All objects not in play or on the stack that aren't represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based effects are checked (see rule 420, "State-Based Effects).

509.1a.

Remove every object on the stack from the game. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures, if any, from combat. Remove all planewalkers from combat. All objects not in play or on the stack that aren't represented by cards will cease to exist the next time state-based effects are checked (see rule 420, "State-Based Effects).

510.1.

A permanent's "status" is its physical state. There are three status categories, each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped, flipped/unflipped, and face up/face down. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories.

510.1.

A permanent's status is its physical state. There are three status categories, each of which has two possible values: tapped/untapped, flipped/unflipped, and face up/face down. Each permanent always has one of these values for each of these categories.

600.4e.

If an effect requires information about a specific player, the effect uses the current information about that player if he or she is still in the game; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game.

600.4e.

If a player leaves the game during his or her turn, that turn continues to its completion without an active player. If the active player would receive priority, instead the next player in turn order receives priority, or the top object on the stack resolves, or the phase or step ends, whichever is appropriate.

600.4f.

If a player leaves the game during his or her turn, that turn continues to its completion without an active player. If the active player would receive priority, instead the next player in turn order receives priority, or the top object on the stack resolves, or the phase or step ends, whichever is appropriate.

601.2.

A player's range of influence is the maximum distance from that player, measured in player seats, that the player can affect. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player's range of influence. Objects controlled by players within a player's range of influence are also within that player's range of influence. Range of influence covers spells, abilities, effects, damage dealing, attacking, and making choices.

601.2.

A player's range of influence is the maximum distance from that player, measured in player seats, that the player can affect. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player's range of influence. Objects controlled by players within a player's range of influence are also within that player's range of influence. Range of influence covers spells, abilities, effects, damage dealing, attacking, making choices, and winning the game.

601.15.

If an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents within his or her range of influence lose the game instead.

606.6a.

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. First, the starting team takes any mulligans. For a team to take a mulligan, each player on that team decides whether to shuffle his or her hand back into the deck and then draw a new hand of seven cards. All players on that team who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand, the team repeats the process, resulting in a hand of one fewer card each time, until the hand size reaches zero cards. Teammates may consult during this process, but a player can't see the result of his or her teammate's mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. Once a player has decided to keep a hand, those cards become his or her opening hand. That player can't take any more mulligans, but his or her teammate may. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand, the other team may take mulligans.

606.6a.

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. First, the starting team takes any mulligans. For a team to take a mulligan, each player on that team decides whether to shuffle his or her hand back into the deck and then draw a new hand of seven cards (see rule 101.4a). All players on that team who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand, the team repeats the process, resulting in a hand of one fewer card each time, until the hand size reaches zero cards. Teammates may consult during this process, but a player can't see the result of his or her teammate's mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. Once a player has decided to keep a hand, those cards become his or her opening hand. That player can't take any more mulligans, but his or her teammate may. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand, the other team may take mulligans.

608.1.

The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players.

608.1.

The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant, in which a group of players compete against each other as individuals. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players.

608.4b.

The player who starts the game gets the first turn marker. The player four seats to that player's left (the fifth player) takes the second turn marker, and so on until all the turn markers have been handed out. Each turn marker is assigned a number in this way. Then all players with turn markers start their turns at the same time.

608.4b.

The starting player in the game gets the first turn marker. The player four seats to that player's left (the fifth player) takes the second turn marker, and so on until all the turn markers have been handed out. Each turn marker is assigned a number in this way. Then all players with turn markers start their turns at the same time.

608.4c.

When a player ends his or her turn, that player passes the turn marker to the player on his or her left. A player can't receive a turn marker if any player in the three seats to his or her left has a turn marker. If this is the case, the turn marker waits until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker.

608.4c.

When a player ends his or her turn, that player passes the turn marker to the player on his or her left. A player can't receive a turn marker if any player in the three seats to his or her left has a turn marker. If this is the case, wait until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker.

608.4d.

If an effect causes a player with a turn marker to take an extra turn after the current one, that player keeps the turn marker and starts his or her next turn after the current turn ends, unless another turn marker is too close on either side at that time. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player's left, the extra turn waits to begin until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player's right, the player passes the turn marker to his or her left when the turn ends rather than keeping it, and the player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn.

608.4d.

If a player leaves the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game, a turn marker is removed. Turn markers are removed only between turns. Remove the turn marker immediately to the departed player's right. If more than one player has left the game and there are multiple turn markers that could be removed, remove the marker with the lower number.

608.4e.

If a player leaves the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game, a turn marker is removed. Turn markers are removed only between turns. Remove the turn marker immediately to the departed player's right. If more than one player has left the game and there are multiple turn markers that could be removed, remove the marker with the lower number.

608.4e.

If a player would take an extra turn after the current turn and it's not currently that player's turn, that player instead takes the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn.

608.4f.

If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn, but that player wouldn't have a turn marker at the start of that turn, that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead.

Example: During Alex's turn, he plays Time Walk, which causes him to get an extra turn after this one. During the same turn, the player to Alex's left leaves the game, which causes the number of turn markers to be reduced. After Alex's current turn ends, his turn marker is removed. He won't take the extra turn from Time Walk until just before his normal turn the next time he receives a turn marker.

608.5.

Rather than having a single stack, Grand Melee games contain multiple stacks. Each turn marker represents its own stack.

608.5a.

A player gets priority for a particular turn marker's stack only if the turn marker is within his or her range of influence or an object on that stack is controlled by a player within his or her range of influence.

608.5b.

If a player has priority for multiple stacks and plays a spell or ability, or a triggered ability he or she controls triggers, the player must specify which one of those stacks the spell or ability is put on. If an object on one of those stacks caused the triggered ability to trigger, the player must put it on that stack. If a resolving spell or ability on one of those stacks causes a player to play a spell or create a copy of a spell, the new spell must be put on the same stack. If a spell or ability targets an object on one of those stacks, it must be put on the same stack as its target; it can't target objects on multiple stacks.

608.5.

The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game.

608.6.

The Grand Melee variant uses the normal rules for winning and losing the game.

609.2a.

The recommended range of influence is 2.

609.2a.

The recommended range of influence is 2. See rule 601, "Limited Range of Influence Option."

609.2b.

Exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used. See rule 604, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 603, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

609.2b.

Exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used. See rule 604, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 602, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

"As though"

Text that states a player may do something "as though" some condition were true or a creature can do something "as though" some condition were true applies only to the stated action. For purposes of that action, treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. For all other purposes, treat the game normally. If two cards state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing "as though" different conditions were true, both conditions could apply. If one "as though" effect satisfies the requirements for another "as though" effect, then both effects will apply.

"As Though"

Text that states a player may do something "as though" some condition were true or a creature can do something "as though" some condition were true applies only to the stated action. For purposes of that action, treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. For all other purposes, treat the game normally. If two cards state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing "as though" different conditions were true, both conditions could apply. If one "as though" effect satisfies the requirements for another "as though" effect, then both effects will apply.

Active Player

The active player is the player whose turn it is. The active player gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps), after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves, and after combat damage resolves. See rule 200.3.

Active Player

The active player is the player whose turn it is. The active player gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps), after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves, and after combat damage resolves.

Active Team

In the Two-Headed Giant variant, the active team is the team whose turn it is. The active team gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps), after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves, and after combat damage resolves. See rule 200.3 and rule 606.6d.

Active Team

In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, the active team is the team whose turn it is. The active team gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps), after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves, and after combat damage resolves. See rule 606.6d.

Artifact

Artifact is a type. The active player may play artifacts during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. When an artifact spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. See rule 212.2, "Artifacts."

Artifact

Artifact is a card type. The active player may play artifacts during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. When an artifact spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. See rule 212.2, "Artifacts."

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Lorwyn (tm) set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Attack Alone

A creature is attacking alone when it's the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase. See rule 306.4.

Attack Alone

A creature is attacking alone when it's the only creature declared as an attacker in a given combat phase. See rule 306.5.

Attacking Creature

A creature becomes an attacking creature when (a) it's declared as part of a legal attack during the combat phase and (b) all costs to attack, if any, have been paid. It remains an attacking creature until it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. Attacking creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step."

Attacking Creature

A creature becomes an attacking creature when (a) it's declared as part of a legal attack during the combat phase and (b) all costs to attack, if any, have been paid. It remains an attacking creature until it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. A creature may also be put into play attacking. Attacking creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step."

Block Alone

A creature is blocking alone when it's the sole creature controlled by the defending player declared as a blocker in a given combat phase. See rule 306.4.

Block Alone

A creature is blocking alone when it's the sole creature controlled by the defending player declared as a blocker in a given combat phase. See rule 306.5.

Blocking Creature

A creature becomes a blocking creature when (a) it's declared as part of a legal block during the combat phase and (b) all costs to block, if any, have been paid. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. Blocking creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step."

Blocking Creature

A creature becomes a blocking creature when (a) it's declared as part of a legal block during the combat phase and (b) all costs to block, if any, have been paid. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. A creature may also be put into play blocking. Blocking creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step."

Card Type

The card type is printed on a card's type line, directly below its illustration. Each card type has its own rules for how to play with one. The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, planeswalker, sorcery, and tribal. See rule 205, "Type Line," and rule 212, "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." Tokens and copies of spells have card types, even though they're not cards. When an effect changes an object's card type, the new card type replaces all previous card types. If the effect is adding a card type, or allowing an object to retain its card types, it will say so. See rule 212.1c.

Champion

Champion is a keyword ability that represents two triggered abilities. "Champion an [object]" means "When this permanent comes into play, sacrifice it unless you remove another [object] you control from the game" and "When this permanent leaves play, return the removed card to play under its owner's control." See rule 502.72, "Champion." A permanent is "championed" by another permanent if the latter removes the former from the game as the direct result of a champion ability.

Changeling

Changeling is a keyword ability that represents a characteristic-defining ability. "Changeling" means "This object is every creature type." This ability works in all zones. See rule 502.73, "Changeling."

Characteristics

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, and toughness. Characteristics don't include any other information, such as whether a permanent is tapped, a spell or permanent's controller, a spell's target, what an Aura enchants, and so on. See rule 201, "Characteristics."

Characteristics

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, card type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, toughness, and loyalty. Characteristics don't include any other information, such as whether a permanent is tapped, a spell or permanent's controller, a spell's target, what an Aura enchants, and so on. See rule 201, "Characteristics."

Clash

To "clash," a player reveals the top card of his or her library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library. "Clash with an opponent" means "Choose an opponent. You and that opponent each clash." A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash. See rule 501.10, "Clash."

Collector Number

Some card sets feature collector numbers. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set], immediately following the legal text. These numbers have no effect on game play. See rule 211, "Collector Number."

Collector Number

Some card sets feature collector numbers. This information is printed in the form [card number]/[total cards in the set], immediately following the legal text. These numbers have no effect on game play. See rule 210, "Information Below the Text Box."

Comes into Play

A permanent comes into play when the card or token representing it is moved into the in-play zone. A permanent whose type or controller changes doesn't "come into play." Permanents come into play untapped and under the control of whoever put them into play. When a permanent comes into play, first apply any replacement effects, then apply continuous effects, then check to determine if the current form of the permanent generates any triggered abilities.

Example: If an instruction causes something to come into play tapped, it isn't put into play untapped and then tapped.

Comes into Play

A permanent comes into play when the card or token representing it is moved into the in-play zone. A permanent whose card type or controller changes doesn't "come into play." Permanents come into play untapped and under the control of whoever put them into play. When a permanent comes into play, first apply any replacement effects, then apply continuous effects, then check to determine if the current form of the permanent generates any triggered abilities.

Example: If an instruction causes something to come into play tapped, it isn't put into play untapped and then tapped.

Concede

A player may concede a game at any time. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately. He or she loses the game. See rule 102.

Concede

A player may concede a game at any time. A player who concedes leaves the game immediately. He or she loses the game. See rule 102, "Winning and Losing."

Control, Controller

A permanent's controller is whoever put it into play unless the spell or ability that put the permanent into play states otherwise. Other effects can later change a permanent's controller. A spell or activated ability on the stack is controlled by whoever played it. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A triggered ability on the stack is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered. Objects in zones other than in play or the stack have no controller. If anything asks for the controller of an object that doesn't have a controller, use its owner instead.

Control, Controller

A permanent's controller is whoever put it into play unless the spell or ability that put the permanent into play states otherwise. Other effects can later change a permanent's controller. A spell or activated ability on the stack is controlled by whoever played it. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A triggered ability on the stack is controlled by the player who controlled its source at the time it triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. Objects in zones other than in play or the stack have no controller. If anything asks for the controller of an object that doesn't have a controller, use its owner instead.

Creature

Creature is a type. The active player may play creatures during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. When a creature spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. See rule 212.3, "Creatures."

Creature

Creature is a card type. The active player may play creatures during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. When a creature spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. See rule 212.3, "Creatures."

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Abomination, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Eye, Faerie, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gamer, Gargoyle, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Hellion, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Master, Masticore, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Metathran, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poltergeist, Pony, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Sorceress, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Spuzzem, Spy, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Survivor, Tactician, Tarpan, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Advisor, Anemone, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Damage

Damage can be dealt to creatures and/or players. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until end of turn, even if it stops being a creature. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Damage doesn't alter a creature's toughness. A noncreature permanent isn't affected by damage (but if it becomes a creature again before the damage is removed, the creature may be destroyed). During the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents. Costs and effects that read "lose life" or "pay life" don't deal damage, and that loss of life can't be prevented or otherwise altered by effects that prevent or replace damage.

Damage

Damage can be dealt to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life. Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that planeswalker to lose that much loyalty. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until the cleanup step, even if it stops being a creature. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Damage doesn't alter a creature's toughness. During the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents. Costs and effects that read "lose life" or "pay life" don't deal damage, and that loss of life can't be prevented or otherwise altered by effects that prevent or replace damage.

Declare Attackers

To declare attackers, the active player chooses a set of creatures that will attack and pays any costs they require to attack. Only creatures can attack, and the following creatures can't attack: tapped creatures (even those that can attack without tapping) and creatures the active player didn't control continuously since the beginning of the turn (except those with haste). Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could attack. See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks."

Declare Attackers

To declare attackers, the active player chooses a set of creatures that will attack, declares whether each creature is attacking the defending player or a planeswalker that player controls, and pays any costs required to allow those creatures to attack. Only creatures can attack, and the following creatures can't attack: tapped creatures (even those that can attack without tapping) and creatures the active player didn't control continuously since the beginning of the turn (except those with haste). Other effects may also affect whether or not a set of creatures could attack. See rule 500, "Legal Attacks and Blocks."

Defending Player

During the combat phase, the active player is attacking and is the attacking player. As the combat phase starts, the active player chooses one opponent. The chosen opponent is being attacked and is the defending player. Creatures can attack only the defending player; they can't attack other creatures. During phases other than combat, there is no defending player. See rule 306.3. If the "attack multiple players" option is used in a multiplayer game, there can be more than one defending player. See rule 602, "Attack Multiple Players Option." The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants; see rule 606.7.

Defending Player

During the combat phase, the active player is attacking and is the attacking player. As the combat phase starts, the active player chooses one opponent. The chosen opponent is the defending player. Creatures can attack only the defending player or a planeswalker the defending player controls; they can't attack other creatures. During phases other than combat, there is no defending player. See rule 306.2. If the "attack multiple players" option is used in a multiplayer game, there can be more than one defending player. See rule 602, "Attack Multiple Players Option." The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants; see rule 606.7.

Dual Land (Informal)

The Ravnica block and early Magic core sets contain "dual lands"; each of these has two basic land types. For example, Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those types. However, they are not basic lands. A dual land doesn't count as two lands while in play-it's just one land with multiple land types.

Dual Land (Informal)

The Ravnica block and early Magic core sets contain "dual lands"; each of these has two basic land types. For example, Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those land types. However, they are not basic lands. A dual land doesn't count as two lands while in play-it's just one land with multiple land types.

Emperor

Emperor is a multiplayer variant with its own rules. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team has one emperor, who sits in the middle of the team. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor. In addition to the normal rules for winning and losing, a team loses if its emperor loses the game. See rule 607, "Emperor Variant." The Emperor variant uses the following default options: (a) The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals (see rule 601), (b) Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603), and (c) a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.

Emperor

Emperor is a multiplayer variant with its own rules. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team has one emperor, who sits in the middle of the team. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor. In addition to the normal rules for winning and losing, a team loses if its emperor loses the game. See rule 607, "Emperor Variant." The Emperor variant uses the following default multiplayer options: (a) The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals (see rule 601), (b) Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603), and (c) a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.

Enchantment

Enchantment is a type. The active player may play enchantments during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. See rule 212.4, "Enchantments." See also Aura.

Enchantment

Enchantment is a card type. The active player may play enchantments during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. See rule 212.4, "Enchantments." See also Aura.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Ending the Turn

One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when its resolves. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order: Remove every object on the stack from the game. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures, if any, from combat. Check state-based effects. The current step and/or phase ends. The game skips straight to the cleanup step. See rule 509, "Ending the Turn."

Ending the Turn

One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when its resolves. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order: Remove every object on the stack from the game. Remove all attacking and blocking creatures, if any, from combat. Remove all planeswalkers from combat. Check state-based effects. The current step and/or phase ends. The game skips straight to the cleanup step. See rule 509, "Ending the Turn."

Evoke

Evoke is a keyword ability that represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be played and a triggered ability that functions in play. "Evoke [cost]" means "You may play this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "When this permanent comes into play, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it." Paying a card's evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.74, "Evoke."

Extra Turn

Some spells and abilities can give a player extra turns. They do this by adding the turns directly after the current turn. If a player gets multiple extra turns or if multiple players get extra turns during a single turn, the extra turns are added one at a time. The most recently created turn will be taken first. See rule 300.6. The Grand Melee multiplayer variant has a special rule to handle when extra turns are taken: If a player would take an extra turn after the current turn and it's not currently that player's turn, that player instead takes the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn. See rule 608, "Grand Melee Variant."

Extra Turn

Some spells and abilities can give a player extra turns. They do this by adding the turns directly after the current turn. If a player gets multiple extra turns or if multiple players get extra turns during a single turn, the extra turns are added one at a time. The most recently created turn will be taken first. See rule 300.6. The Grand Melee multiplayer variant has special rules to handle what happens when extra turns are created. See rule 608, "Grand Melee Variant."

Face Down

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card, spell, or permanent to be turned face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. At any time, you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack, a face-down permanent you control, or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. You can't look at face-down cards in any other zone, face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player, or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. The ability or rules that allowed a permanent to be turned face down may also allow the permanent's controller to turn it face up. Spells normally can't be turned face up. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play, you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," and rule 502.26, "Morph."

Face Down

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card, spell, or permanent to be turned face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. At any time, you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack, a face-down permanent you control, or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. You can't look at face-down cards in any other zone (including cards "removed from the game face down"), face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player, or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. The ability or rules that allowed a permanent to be turned face down may also allow the permanent's controller to turn it face up. Spells normally can't be turned face up. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play, you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," and rule 502.26, "Morph."

Fizzle (Informal)

The term "fizzle" is an informal term, used when a spell or ability was countered as a result of all its targets being missing or illegal when it resolved. See rule 413.2a.

Fizzle (Informal)

The term "fizzle" is an informal term, used for when a spell or ability was countered as a result of all its targets being missing or illegal when it resolved. See rule 413.2a.

Flying

Flying is an evasion ability. A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach.. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. See rule 502.4, "Flying."

Flying

Flying is an evasion ability. A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. See rule 502.4, "Flying."

Forest

"Forest" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Forest has the ability "{T}: Add {G} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6d.

Forest

"Forest" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Forest has the ability "{T}: Add {G} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6h.

Game Action

Several steps contain actions that don't use the stack. These actions are game actions. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.1), untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.2), drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304.1), declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308.1), declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.1), the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314), and removing damage from permanents and ending "until end of turn" effects at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314). Mana burn at the end of a phase is also a game action (see rule 300.3).

Game Action

Several steps contain actions that don't use the stack. These actions are game actions. The game actions are phasing in and out at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.1), untapping at the start of the untap step (see rule 302.2), drawing a card at the start of the draw step (see rule 304.1), declaring attackers at the start of the declare attackers step (see rule 308.1), declaring blockers at the start of the declare blockers step (see rule 309.1), the active player discarding down to his or her maximum hand size at the start of the cleanup step (see rule 314.1), and removing damage from permanents and ending "until end of turn" effects during the cleanup step (see rule 314.2). Mana burn at the end of a phase is also a game action (see rule 300.3).

Grand Melee

The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players. The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. Each turn marker represents an active player's turn. See rule 608, "Grand Melee Variant." The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options: (a) Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 601), and (b) the attack left option is used (see rule 604). The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren't used in the Grand Melee variant.

Grand Melee

The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players. The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. Each turn marker represents both an active player's turn and an individual stack. See rule 608, "Grand Melee Variant." The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options: (a) Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 601), and (b) the attack left option is used (see rule 604). The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren't used in the Grand Melee variant.

Graveyard

Each player's discard pile is his or her graveyard. Countered spells, destroyed or sacrificed permanents, and discarded cards are put into their owner's graveyard. See rule 217, "Zones."

Graveyard

Each player's discard pile is his or her graveyard. Countered spells, destroyed or sacrificed permanents, and discarded cards are put into their owner's graveyard. Instant and sorcery spells are put into their owner's graveyard as the last step in resolving. See rule 217, "Zones."

Haste

Normally a creature can't attack or use activated abilities with costs that include the tap symbol unless it's been controlled by the player continuously since the beginning of that controller's most recent turn. Haste is a static ability that allows a creature to ignore this rule. See rule 502.5, "Haste."

Haste

Normally a creature can't attack or use activated abilities with costs that include the tap symbol unless its controller has controlled it continuously since the start of his or her most recent turn. Haste is a static ability that allows a creature to ignore this rule. See rule 502.5, "Haste."

Hideaway

Hideaway is a keyword ability that represents a static ability and a triggered ability. "Hideaway" means "This permanent comes into play tapped" and "When this permanent comes into play, look at the top four cards of your library. Remove one of them from the game face down and put the rest on the bottom of your library in any order. As long as that card remains removed from the game, it may be looked at by any player who has controlled this permanent." See rule 502.75, "Hideaway."

Illustration Credit

The illustration credit for a card is printed directly below the text box. The credit has no effect on game play. See rule 209, "Illustration Credit."

Illustration Credit

The illustration credit for a card is printed directly below the text box. The credit has no effect on game play. See rule 210, "Information Below the Text Box."

Imprinted [type] card

The phrase "imprinted [type] card" means the card of that type that's imprinted on the permanent. If a permanent has more than one card of that type imprinted on it, each of those cards is an "imprinted [type] card." See rule 502.34, "Imprint."

Imprinted [quality] card

The phrase "imprinted [quality] card" means the card with that quality that's imprinted on the permanent. If a permanent has more than one card with that quality imprinted on it, each of those cards is an "imprinted [quality] card." See rule 502.34, "Imprint."

In Play

In play is the zone in which permanents exist. When an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell resolves, it's put into the in-play zone as a permanent. When a land is played, it's put into the in-play zone as a permanent. Tokens also exist in this zone. See rule 217, "Zones."

In Play

In play is the zone in which permanents exist. When an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell resolves, it's put into the in-play zone as a permanent. When a land is played, it's put into the in-play zone as a permanent. Tokens also exist in this zone. See rule 217, "Zones."

Infinity Rule (Informal)

There's no such thing as "infinity" in Magic rules. Occasionally the game can get into a state where a set of actions could be repeated forever. The "infinity rule" governs how to break such loops. See rule 421, "Handling 'Infinite' Loops."

Infinity Rule (Informal)

There's no such thing as "infinity" in the Magic rules. Occasionally the game can get into a state where a set of actions could be repeated forever. The "infinity rule" governs how to break such loops. See rule 421, "Handling 'Infinite' Loops."

Instant

Instant is a type. A player may play instants whenever he or she has priority. An instant spell is put into its owner's graveyard as the last step of its resolution. Instant subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). See rule 212.5, "Instants," and rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities."

Instant

Instant is a card type. A player may play instants whenever he or she has priority. An instant spell is put into its owner's graveyard as the last step of its resolution. Instant subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). See rule 212.5, "Instants," and rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities."

Interrupt (Obsolete)

Some older cards used the term "interrupt" on the card's type line. All interrupt cards are now instant cards. All abilities that were played as interrupts are now played like normal activated abilities (and are mana abilities if they produce mana).

Interrupt (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the card type "interrupt." All interrupt cards are now instant cards. All abilities that were played as interrupts are now played like normal activated abilities (and are mana abilities if they produce mana).

Island

"Island" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Island has the ability "{T}: Add {U} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6d.

Island

"Island" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Island has the ability "{T}: Add {U} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6h.

Land

Land is a type. Lands aren't spells and don't go on the stack; they are simply played from the hand. The active player may play a land once each turn during his or her main phase when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. If an object is both a land and another type, it can only be played as a land. It can't be played as a spell. See rule 212.6, "Lands."

Land

Land is a card type. Lands aren't spells and don't go on the stack; they are simply played from the hand. The active player may play a land once each turn during his or her main phase when he or she has priority and the stack is empty. If an object is both a land and another card type, it can only be played as a land. It can't be played as a spell. See rule 212.6, "Lands."

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Last Known Information

The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. Effects use last known information if a specific object they require information from isn't in the zone it's expected to be in (unless the effect divides damage). See rule 413.2f.

Last Known Information

The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. Effects use last known information if a specific object they require information from isn't in the zone it's expected to be in (unless the effect divides damage). See rule 413.2f. If an effect requires information about a specific player in a multiplayer game and that player has left the game, the effect uses the last known information about that player before he or she left the game. See rule 600.4e.

Layer

Continuous effects are applied in order, in six layers: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness, and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside layer 6, effects are applied in a series of sublayers. See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects."

Layer

Continuous effects are applied in order, in six layers: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-changing effects (which includes effects that change an object's card type, subtype, and/or supertype); (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness, and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside layer 6, effects are applied in a series of sublayers. See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects."

Legal Text

Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the copyright information. It has no effect on game play. See rule 210, "Legal Text."

Legal Text

Legal text (the fine print at the bottom of the card) lists the trademark and copyright information. It has no effect on game play. See rule 210, "Information Below the Text Box."

Legendary

Legendary is a supertype that may apply to any type ("Legendary Land," "Legendary Artifact," and so on). If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "legend rule" is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a legendary permanent's types or subtypes change, this doesn't change its supertypes. The permanent will still be legendary.

Legendary

Legendary is a supertype that may apply to any permanent type ("Legendary Land," "Legendary Artifact," and so on). If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "legend rule" is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a legendary permanent's card types or subtypes change, this doesn't change its supertypes. The permanent will still be legendary.

Limited Range of Influence

Limited range of influence is an optional rule used in some multiplayer games. A player's range of influence is the maximum distance from that player, measured in player seats, that the player can affect. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player's range of influence. Objects controlled by players within a player's range of influence are also within that player's range of influence. Range of influence covers spells, abilities, effects, damage dealing, attacking, and making choices. See rule 601, "Limited Range of Influence Option." The limited range of influence option is always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 607), and it's often used for games involving five or more players.

Limited Range of Influence

Limited range of influence is an optional rule used in some multiplayer games. A player's range of influence is the maximum distance from that player, measured in player seats, that the player can affect. Players within that many seats of the player are within that player's range of influence. Objects controlled by players within a player's range of influence are also within that player's range of influence. Range of influence covers spells, abilities, effects, damage dealing, attacking, making choices, and winning the game. See rule 601, "Limited Range of Influence Option." The limited range of influence option is always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 607), Grand Melee variant (see rule 608), and it's often used for other games involving five or more players.

Loyalty

Loyalty is a characteristic that only planeswalkers have. Each planeswalker card has a loyalty number printed in its lower right corner. This indicates its loyalty while it's not in play, and it also indicates that the planeswalker comes into play with that many loyalty counters on it. See rule 209, "Loyalty." Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that many loyalty counters to be removed from it. A planeswalker with loyalty 0 is put into its owner's graveyard. This is a state-based effect; see rule 420.

Main Phase

The term "main phase" comprises the first main and second main phases, also called the "precombat" and "postcombat" main phases. Artifact, creature, enchantment, and sorcery spells may be played only by the active player during his or her main phase, and only when the stack is empty. A player may also play one land each turn during his or her main phase.

Main Phase

The term "main phase" comprises the first main and second main phases, also called the "precombat" and "postcombat" main phases. Artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker, and sorcery spells may be played only by the active player during his or her main phase, and only when the stack is empty. A player may also play one land each turn during his or her main phase.

Mana Ability

A mana ability is either activated or triggered. A mana ability doesn't go on the stack-it resolves immediately. See rule 411, "Playing Mana Abilities." A player may play an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority and whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment. This is the only type of ability that can be played in the middle of playing or resolving a spell or ability. See rule 406, "Mana Abilities."

Mana Ability

A mana ability is either activated or triggered. A mana ability doesn't go on the stack-it resolves immediately. See rule 411, "Playing Mana Abilities." A player may play an activated mana ability whenever he or she has priority and whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment. This is the only kind of ability that can be played in the middle of playing or resolving a spell or ability. See rule 406, "Mana Abilities."

Mana Pool

When an effect creates mana, that mana goes into the player's mana pool. From there, it can be used to pay for spells and abilities. The mana can be used immediately to pay a cost, or stored in the mana pool for use later in the phase. The mana pool is cleared at the end of each phase. See also Mana Burn.

Mana Pool

When an effect creates mana, that mana goes into a player's mana pool. From there, it can be used to pay for spells and abilities. The mana can be used immediately to pay a cost, or stored in the mana pool for use later in the phase. The mana pool is cleared at the end of each phase. See also Mana Burn.

Mana Source (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the type "mana source." All mana source cards are now instant cards. Abilities that used to read "Play this ability as a mana source" are now mana abilities.

Mana Source (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the card type "mana source." All mana source cards are now instant cards. Abilities that used to read "Play this ability as a mana source" are now mana abilities.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, and {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. A hybrid mana symbol is each of its component colors. See rule 104.3f. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. See rule 104.3h.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, and {X}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. A hybrid mana symbol is each of its component colors. See rule 104.3f. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. See rule 104.3h.

Modal, Mode

A spell or ability is modal if it is written "choose one -" or "[a specified player] chooses one -." Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects. A modal spell or ability's controller must choose the mode as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities); see rule 409.1b. If a mode has targets, a player can't choose that mode unless all of its targets can be chosen. A modal replacement effect's mode is chosen as it's applied; see rule 419.6g.

Modal, Mode

A spell or ability is modal if it is written "Choose one -," "Choose two -," or "[a specified player] chooses one -." Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects. A modal spell or ability's controller must choose the mode(s) as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities); see rule 409.1b. If a mode has targets, a player can't choose that mode unless all of its targets can be chosen. A modal replacement effect's mode is chosen as it's applied; see rule 419.6g.

Mountain

"Mountain" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Mountain has the ability "{T}: Add {R} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6d.

Mountain

"Mountain" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Mountain has the ability "{T}: Add {R} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6h.

Permanent Card

A permanent card is a card that isn't in play but could be put into play. Specifically, it means an artifact, creature, enchantment, land, or planeswalker card.

Phased Out

The phased-out zone is a special zone for permanents with phasing that are temporarily out of play. See rule 502.15, "Phasing."

Phased Out

The phased-out zone is a special zone for permanents with phasing that are temporarily out of play. See rule 217.8, "Phased Out," and rule 502.15, "Phasing."

Plains

"Plains" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Plains has the ability "{T}: Add {W} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6d.

Plains

"Plains" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Plains has the ability "{T}: Add {W} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6h.

Planeswalker

Planeswalker is a card type. The active player may play planeswalkers during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. When a planeswalker spell resolves, its controller puts it into play under his or her control. See rule 212.9, "Planeswalkers."

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Ajani, Chandra, Garruk, Jace, Liliana.

Play

The act of playing a spell, land, or ability involves announcing the action and taking the necessary steps to complete it. Playing a spell or activated ability requires paying any costs and choosing any required modes and/or targets. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." Playing a land simply requires choosing a land card from the hand and putting it into play. See rule 212.6, "Lands." Playing a mana ability requires paying any costs, then immediately resolving the ability. See rule 411, "Playing Mana Abilities." Triggered abilities and static abilities aren't played-they happen automatically. See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities."

Play

The act of playing a spell, land, or ability involves announcing the action and taking the necessary steps to complete it. Playing a spell or activated ability requires paying any costs and choosing any required modes and/or targets. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." Playing a land simply requires choosing a land card from the hand and putting it into play. See rule 212.6, "Lands." Playing a mana ability requires paying any costs, then immediately resolving the ability. See rule 411, "Playing Mana Abilities." Triggered abilities and static abilities aren't played-they happen automatically. See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities," and rule 412, "Handling Static Abilities."

Poison Counter

Some cards give poison counters to players. If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. See rule 420, "State-Based Effects."

Poison Counter

Some cards, including those with the poisonous ability, give poison counters to players. If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. See rule 420, "State-Based Effects."

Power

The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its power. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power. See rule 310, "Combat Damage Step." Some creature cards have power represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power according to some stated condition. This ability functions in all zones. A noncreature permanent has no power, even if it's a card with a power printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Power

Power is a characteristic that only creatures have. The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its power. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power. See rule 310, "Combat Damage Step." Some creature cards have power represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power according to some stated condition. This ability functions in all zones. A noncreature permanent has no power, even if it's a card with a power printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Protection

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." See rule 502.7, "Protection." A permanent or player with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. A permanent or player with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent, but remain in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent or player with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. If a creature with protection attacks, it can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Protection

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." See rule 502.7, "Protection." A permanent or player with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. A permanent or player with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent, but remain in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent or player with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. Attacking creatures with protection can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Put Into Play

If an effect instructs a player to put an object into play, that object is not considered "played."

Put into Play

If an effect instructs a player to put an object into play, that object is not considered "played."

Range of Influence

See Limited Range of Influence.

Redirect (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the term "redirect" to describe the act of dealing damage to a different player or creature than originally specified by a spell, ability, or combat-damage assignment, without changing the source or type of damage. In general, cards that were printed with the term "redirect" now create replacement effects that modify where the damage will be dealt. "Redirect" is still used informally to describe what these replacement effects do.

Redirect (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the term "redirect" to describe the act of dealing damage to a different player or creature than originally specified by a spell, ability, or combat-damage assignment, without changing the source or kind of damage. In general, cards that were printed with the term "redirect" now create replacement effects that modify where the damage will be dealt. "Redirect" is still used informally to describe what these replacement effects do. See rule 419.6c.

Removed from Combat

An attacking or blocking creature is removed from combat if it leaves play (such as by being destroyed or removed from the game), if it regenerates (see rule 419.6b), if its controller changes, if it stops being a creature, or if an effect removes it from combat. A creature that is removed from combat stops being an attacking or blocking creature and can no longer assign combat damage or have combat damage assigned to it. Any combat damage that's already on the stack assigned to or by the creature will still resolve normally. See rule 306.2 and rule 310.4a.

Removed from Combat

A creature or planeswalker is removed from combat if it leaves play (such as by being destroyed or removed from the game); if its controller changes; if it stops being a creature or planeswalker, respectively; or if an effect removes it from combat. A creature is also removed from combat if it regenerates (see rule 419.6b). A creature that's removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that's removed from combat stops being attacked. A permanent that's removed from combat can't assign combat damage or have combat damage assigned to it. However, if combat damage assigned to or by that permanent is already on the stack, it will resolve normally. See rule 306.4 and rule 310.4a.

Removed from the Game

A card removed from the game is out of play. The effect that removed the card may specify a way for it to return. Some objects use the expression "set aside" for situations in which a card removed from the game can return to play. See rule 217.7, "Removed from the Game."

Removed from the Game

A card removed from the game is put into the removed-from-the-game zone. The effect that removed the card may specify a way for it to return. Some objects use the expression "set aside" for situations in which a card removed from the game can return to another zone. See rule 217.7, "Removed from the Game."

Replacement Effect

A replacement effect is a type of continuous effect that "watches" for a specified event and replaces it with a different one. See rule 419, "Replacement and Prevention Effects."

Replacement Effect

A replacement effect is a kind of continuous effect that "watches" for a specified event and replaces it with a different one. See rule 419, "Replacement and Prevention Effects."

Search

If you're required to search a zone not revealed to all players for cards of a given quality, such as type or color, you aren't required to find some or all of those cards even if they're present; however, if you do choose to find cards, you must reveal those cards to all players. Even if you don't find any cards, you are still considered to have searched the zone. If you're simply searching for a quantity of cards, such as "a card" or "three cards," you must find that many cards (or as many as possible). These cards often aren't revealed.

Example: If an effect causes you to search a player's library for all duplicates of a particular card and remove them from the game, you may choose to leave some of them alone, but if an effect causes you to search your library for three cards and it contains at least three, you can't choose less than three.

Search

If you're required to search a zone not revealed to all players for cards of a given quality, such as card type or color, you aren't required to find some or all of those cards even if they're present; however, if you do choose to find cards, you must reveal those cards to all players. Even if you don't find any cards, you are still considered to have searched the zone. If you're simply searching for a quantity of cards, such as "a card" or "three cards," you must find that many cards (or as many as possible). These cards often aren't revealed.

Example: If an effect causes you to search a player's library for all duplicates of a particular card and remove them from the game, you may choose to leave some of them alone, but if an effect causes you to search your library for three cards and it contains at least three, you can't choose less than three.

Sorcery

Sorcery is a type. The active player may play sorceries during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. A sorcery spell is put into its owner's graveyard as part of its resolution. Sorcery subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). See rule 212.7, "Sorceries."

Sorcery

Sorcery is a card type. The active player may play sorceries during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. A sorcery spell is put into its owner's graveyard as part of its resolution. Sorcery subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). See rule 212.7, "Sorceries."

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: Arcane.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: Arcane.

Splice

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [type or subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [type or subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409.1c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it's countered, it's removed from the game, or it resolves).

Splice

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, card types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409.1c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it's countered, it's removed from the game, or it resolves).

Subtype

A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Artifacts, enchantments, and lands each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creatures and tribals also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. Objects may have multiple subtypes. If a card with multiple types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate type. See rule 205.3, "Subtypes," and rule 212, "Type, Supertype, and Subtype."

Subtype

A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Artifacts, enchantments, lands, and planeswalkers each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creatures and tribals also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. Objects may have multiple subtypes. If a card with multiple types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate type. See rule 205.3, "Subtypes," and rule 212, "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype."

Summon (Obsolete)

Older creature cards were printed with the type "Summon [creature type]." All "Summon [creature type]" cards should be read as "Creature — [creature type]."

Summon (Obsolete)

Older creature cards were printed with "Summon [creature type]" on their type lines. All "Summon [creature type]" cards should be read as "Creature — [creature type]." Many of these cards' creature types have also been updated; use the Oracle card reference to determine their current creature types.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Tenth Edition set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Lorwyn set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Swamp

"Swamp" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Swamp has the ability "{T}: Add {B} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6d.

Swamp

"Swamp" is one of the five basic land types. Any land with the land type Swamp has the ability "{T}: Add {B} to your mana pool." See rule 212.6h.

Team

In a multiplayer game between teams, players win or lose as a group rather than as individuals. The Two-Headed Giant, Emperor, and Teams multiplayer variants all use teams.

Team

In a multiplayer game between teams, players win or lose as a group rather than as individuals. The Two-Headed Giant (see rule 606), Emperor (see rule 607), and Teams multiplayer variants (see rule 609) all use teams.

Toughness

The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its toughness. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." A creature that's been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has lethal damage and will be destroyed the next time any player would receive priority. This is a state-based effect. Some creature cards have toughness represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. This ability functions in all zones. A noncreature permanent has no toughness, even if it's a card with a toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Toughness

Toughness is a characteristic that only creatures have. The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its toughness. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." A creature that's been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. This is a state-based effect; see rule 420. Some creature cards have toughness represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. This ability functions in all zones. A noncreature permanent has no toughness, even if it's a card with a toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Trample

Trample is a static ability modifying the combat damage step of the combat phase. It lets an attacking creature "trample over" blocking creatures and assign part of its combat damage to the defending player. See rule 502.9, "Trample."

Trample

Trample is a static ability modifying the combat damage step of the combat phase. It lets an attacking creature "trample over" blocking creatures and assign part of its combat damage to the player or planeswalker it's attacking. See rule 502.9, "Trample."

Tribal

Tribal is a type. Each tribal card has another card type. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other type. The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. See Creature Types and rule 212.8, "Tribals."

Tribal

Tribal is a card type. Each tribal card has another card type. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other card type. The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. See Creature Types and rule 212.8, "Tribals."

Turn Marker

The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. Each turn marker represents an active player's turn. See rule 608, "Grand Melee."

Turn Marker

The Grand Melee multiplayer variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. Each turn marker represents both an active player's turn and an individual stack. See rule 608, "Grand Melee Variant."

Type

The word "type" has two meanings: 1. A card's type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) is printed directly below the illustration on the card, on its type line. Cards, tokens, permanents, and spells all have types. Abilities don't have types. See rule 205, "Type Line," and rule 212, "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." When an effect changes an object's type, the new type replaces all previous types. If the effect is adding a type, or allowing an object to retain its types, it will say so. See rule 212.1c. 2. The "type" of mana is its color, or lack thereof (for colorless mana). See also Mana.

Type

The word "type" has two meanings: 1. The "type" of an object is its card type or, more broadly, its card type, subtype, and/or supertype. Cards, tokens, permanents, and spells all have types. Abilities don't have types. See rule 205, "Type Line," and rule 212, "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." 2. The "type" of mana is its color, or lack thereof (for colorless mana). See also Mana.

Type Line

The type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. See rule 205, "Type Line," and rule 212, "Type, Supertype, and Subtype."

Type Line

The card type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) of a card is printed directly below the illustration. See rule 205, "Type Line," and rule 212, "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype."

Type-Changing Effect

A type-changing effect is an effect that changes the type of an object. It's generated by a type-changing ability. See rule 418.5a.

Type-Changing Effect

A type-changing effect is an effect that changes the card type, subtype, and/or supertype of an object. It's generated by a type-changing ability. See rule 418.5a.

Vanguard and Avatars

The Vanguard (tm) supplements consist of oversized placards and Magic Online(r) avatars that modify the game. A Vanguard placard or avatar is selected before the game begins, adjusting a player's starting and maximum hand size and starting life total. A Vanguard placard or avatar has no color or type, and it can't be affected by spells or abilities.

Vanguard and Avatars

The Vanguard (tm) supplements consist of oversized placards and Magic Online(r) avatars that modify the game. A Vanguard placard or avatar is selected before the game begins, adjusting a player's starting and maximum hand size and starting life total. A Vanguard placard or avatar has no color or types, and it can't be affected by spells or abilities.

World

World is a supertype that normally applies to enchantments. If two or more permanents have the supertype world, all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners' graveyards. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "world rule" is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a world permanent's types or subtypes change, this doesn't change its supertypes. The permanent will still be a world permanent.

World

World is a supertype that normally applies to enchantments. If two or more permanents have the supertype world, all except the one that has been a permanent with the world supertype for the shortest amount of time are put into their owners' graveyards. In the event of a tie for the shortest amount of time, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "world rule" is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a world permanent's card types or subtypes change, this doesn't change its supertypes. The permanent will still be a world permanent.

X

If a spell or ability has a cost with an "{X}" in it, the value of X must be announced as part of playing the spell or ability. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") While the spell or ability is on the stack, the {X} in its mana cost equals the amount announced as part of playing the spell or ability. If a card in any other zone has {X} in its mana cost, the amount is treated as 0. If you're playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost and an effect lets you play it without paying any cost that includes X, the only legal choice for X is 0. This does not apply to effects that only reduce a cost, even if they reduce it to zero. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." If a cost associated with a special action, such as a suspend cost or a morph cost, has an "{X}" in it, the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost. In triggered abilities, X is defined when the ability resolves. It may be defined by the text of the ability, by a keyword ability of the card, or by the trigger event. See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities." In other cases, X is defined by the text of a spell or ability. If X isn't defined, the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. All Xs on an object have the same value.

X

If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an "{X}" in it, the value of X must be announced as part of playing the spell or ability. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") While the spell or ability is on the stack, the {X} in its mana cost equals the amount announced as part of playing the spell or ability. If a card in any other zone has {X} in its mana cost, the amount is treated as 0. If you're playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost and an effect lets you play it without paying any cost that includes X, the only legal choice for X is 0. This does not apply to effects that only reduce a cost, even if they reduce it to zero. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." If a cost associated with a special action, such as a suspend cost or a morph cost, has an "{X}" in it, the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost. In other cases, X is defined by the text of a spell or ability. Note that the value of X may change while that spell or ability is on the stack. If X isn't defined, the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. All Xs on an object have the same value.

Y, Z

See X.

Y

See X.

You, Your

The words "you" and "your" on an object refer to the object's controller, its would-be controller (if a player is attempting to play it), or its owner (if it has no controller). For a static ability, this is the current controller of the object it's on. For an activated ability, this is the player who played the ability. For a triggered ability, this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered. See also Controller, Owner.

You, Your

The words "you" and "your" on an object refer to the object's controller, its would-be controller (if a player is attempting to play it), or its owner (if it has no controller). For a static ability, this is the current controller of the object it's on. For an activated ability, this is the player who played the ability. For a triggered ability, this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. For a delayed triggered ability, this is the controller of the spell or ability that created it. See also Controller, Owner.