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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Planar Chaos to Future Sight

General changes

Old rule (Planar Chaos) New rule (Future Sight)

101.3a.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team starts with a shared life total of 30 instead.

101.5b.

In multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn. However, the Two-Headed Giant variant has a special rule: Although the starting team's first draw step isn't skipped, only the secondary player on that team draws a card during that step. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

101.5b.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. In all other multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn.

104.1.

The Magic game uses only natural numbers. You can't choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, and so on. When a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down.

104.1.

The Magic game uses only integers.

104.1a.

You can't choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, gain fractional life, and so on. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down.

104.1b.

Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a creature's power or toughness, changes a creature's power or toughness, or sets a player's life total.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It deals no damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says "{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner's power." An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool.

104.2.

If a numerical value (such as a creature's power, toughness, or total power and toughness; a mana cost; a player's life total; or an amount of damage) would be less than 0, it's treated as 0 for all purposes except changing that total, if applicable. If anything needs to use a number that can't be determined, it uses 0 instead.

Example: If a 3/3 creature gets -5/-0, it deals 0 damage in combat. But to raise its power back to 1, you'd have to give it +3/+0 (3 minus 5 plus 3 is 1).

Example: If you control no permanents, the "highest converted mana cost among permanents you control" can't be determined, so 0 is used instead.

104.2.

If anything needs to use a number that can't be determined, either as a result or in a calculation, it uses 0 instead.

104.3f.

Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue.

Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}.

104.3f.

Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. A hybrid mana symbol is each of its component colors.

Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}.

200.9.

If a spell or ability uses a type or subtype without the word "card," "spell," or "source," it means a permanent of that type in play.

200.9.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a type or subtype, but doesn't include the word "card," "spell," or "source," it means a permanent of that type or subtype in play.

200.9a.

If a spell or ability uses a type, supertype, or subtype in conjunction with the word "card" and the name of a zone, it means a card with that type in the stated zone.

200.9a.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word "card" and the name of a zone, it means a card matching that description in the stated zone.

200.9b.

If a spell or ability uses a type, supertype, or subtype in conjunction with the word "spell," it means a spell of that type on the stack.

200.9b.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word "spell," it means a spell matching that description on the stack.

200.9c.

If a spell or ability uses a type, supertype, or subtype in conjunction with the word "source," it means a source of that type-either a source of an ability or a source of damage. See rule 419.8 "Sources of Damage."

200.9c.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes the word "source," it means a source matching that description-either a source of an ability or a source of damage-in any zone. See rule 419.8 "Sources of Damage."

203.1.

The mana cost of a card is indicated by mana symbols printed on its upper right corner. If a card has no mana symbols printed in its upper right corner, it has no mana cost. Paying an object's mana cost requires matching the color of any colored mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost.

203.1.

The mana cost of a card is indicated by mana symbols near the top of the card. On most cards, these symbols are printed in the upper right corner. Some cards from the Future Sight (tm) set have alternate frames in which the mana symbols appear to the left of the art. Paying an object's mana cost requires matching the color of any colored mana symbols as well as paying the generic mana indicated in the cost.

203.1a.

Lands normally have no mana cost. Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise. A copy of an object copies that object's mana cost.

203.1a.

A copy of an object copies that object's mana cost. See rule 503, "Copying Objects."

203.1b.

Some cards have no mana symbols where their mana cost would appear. This represents an unpayable cost. An ability can also have an unpayable cost if its cost is based on the mana cost of a spell with no mana cost. Attempting to play a spell or ability that has an unpayable cost is a legal action. However, attempting to pay an unpayable cost is an illegal action. If an unpayable cost is increased by an effect or an additional cost is imposed, the cost is still unpayable. If an alternative cost is applied to an unpayable cost, including an effect that allows you to play a spell without paying its mana cost, the alternative cost may be paid.

203.1c.

Lands normally have no mana cost. Lands are played without paying any costs.

203.1d.

Tokens have no mana cost unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise.

203.3b.

When calculating the converted mana cost of an object with an {X} in its mana cost, X is treated as 0 while the object is not on the stack, and X is treated as the number chosen for it while the object is on the stack.

205.2a.

The types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, and sorcery.

205.2a.

The types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, sorcery, and tribal.

205.3d.

Most card types each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. (You can find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under "Creature Types," "Land Types," and so on.) However, instants and sorceries can share subtypes. Collectively, instant and sorcery subtypes are called spell types.

205.3d.

Artifact, enchantment, and land each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instant and sorcery share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creature and tribal also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. (You can find complete lists of subtypes in the glossary at the end of this document under "Creature Types," "Land Types," and so on.)

205.3e.

If an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types.

205.3e.

If a card with multiple types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate type.

Example: Dryad Arbor's type line says "Land Creature — Forest Dryad." Forest is a land type, and Dryad is a creature type.

207.3.

A guild icon appears in the text box of many Ravnica (tm) block cards. These cards either have the specified guild's exclusive mechanic or somehow relate to the two colors associated with that guild. Guild icons have no effect on game play.

207.3.

A guild icon appears in the text box of many Ravnica(r) block cards. These cards either have the specified guild's exclusive mechanic or somehow relate to the two colors associated with that guild. Guild icons have no effect on game play.

208.2.

Some creature cards have power and/or toughness of *, where * is a value determined by the abilities of that object. As long as the object is in play, the ability sets the value of *. The * is 0 while the object is not in play.

208.2.

Some creature cards have power and/or toughness represented by a * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power and/or toughness according to some stated condition. This ability functions in all zones. If the ability needs to use a number that can't be determined, use 0 instead of that number.

Example: Lost Order of Jarkeld has power and toughness each equal to 1+*. It says "As Lost Order of Jarkeld comes into play, choose an opponent" and "Lost Order of Jarkeld's power and toughness are each equal to 1 plus the number of creatures that opponent controls." While Lost Order of Jarkeld isn't in play, there won't be a chosen opponent. Its power and toughness will each be equal to 1 plus 0, so it's a 1/1.

212.1b.

When an object's type changes, the new type(s) replaces any existing types. Counters, effects, and damage affecting the object remain with it, even if they are meaningless to the new type. Similarly, when the subtypes of one of an object's types change, the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes of that type. If an object's type is removed, the subtypes of its old type don't exist in any way under the new type. Those subtypes disappear completely for the entire time the object's type is removed. Removing an object's subtype doesn't affect its types at all.

212.1b.

When an object's type changes, the new type(s) replaces any existing types. Counters, effects, and damage affecting the object remain with it, even if they are meaningless to the new type. Similarly, when one or more of an object's subtypes changes, the new subtype(s) replaces any existing subtypes from the appropriate set (creature types, land types, artifact types, enchantment types, or spell types). If an object's type is removed, the subtypes correlated with that type will remain if they are also the subtypes of a type the object currently has; otherwise, they are also removed for the entire time the object's type is removed. Removing an object's subtype doesn't affect its types at all.

212.1c.

Some effects change an object's type, supertype, or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior type, supertype, or subtype. In such cases, all the object's prior types, supertypes, and subtypes are retained. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase "in addition to its types" or that state that something is "still a [type]." Some effects state that an object becomes an "artifact creature"; these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior types and subtypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." The affected lands now have two types: creature and land. If there were any lands that also had the artifact type before the ability's effect applied to them, those lands would become "artifact land creatures," not just "creatures," or "land creatures." The effect allows them to retain both the artifact type and the land type.

Example: An ability reads, "All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures." If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment, it will become an "artifact enchantment creature."

212.1c.

Some effects change an object's type, supertype, or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior type, supertype, or subtype. In such cases, all the object's prior types, supertypes, and subtypes are retained. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase "in addition to its types" or that state that something is "still a [type]." Some effects state that an object becomes an "artifact creature"; these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior types and subtypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." The affected lands now have two types: creature and land. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability's effect applied to them, those lands would become "artifact land creatures," not just "creatures," or "land creatures." The effect allows them to retain both the type "artifact" and the type "land."

Example: An ability reads, "All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures." If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment, it will become an "artifact enchantment creature."

212.2c.

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. Artifacts may have multiple subtypes.

212.2c.

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. Artifacts may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of artifact subtypes under "Artifact Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.2d.

Artifacts have no characteristics specific to their type. Because artifacts have no colored mana in their mana costs, they're colorless. Effects can give artifacts one or more colors, however, and colored objects can become artifacts without losing any colors they had.

212.2d.

Artifacts have no characteristics specific to their type. Most artifacts have no colored mana symbols in their mana costs, and are therefore colorless. However, there is no correlation between being colorless and being an artifact: artifacts may be colored, and colorless objects may be types other than artifact.

212.2e.

Artifact creatures combine the characteristics of both the creature and artifact types and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both types.

212.2e.

Artifact creatures combine the characteristics of both creatures and artifacts , and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both types.

212.2f.

Artifact lands combine the characteristics of both the land and artifact types, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both types. Artifact lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells.

212.2f.

Artifact lands combine the characteristics of both lands and artifacts, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both types. Artifact lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells.

212.2m.

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Rules 212.2h-k apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 502.65, "Fortify.")

212.3c.

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes.

Example: "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard.

212.3c.

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of creature subtypes under "Creature Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

Example: "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard.

212.3d.

Each creature has a power (the amount of damage it deals in combat) and a toughness (the amount of damage needed to destroy it). To determine a creature's power and toughness, start with the numbers printed in its lower right corner, then apply any applicable continuous effects. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

212.3e.

Creatures can attack and block. (See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step," and rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

212.3d.

A creature's activated ability with the tap symbol in its activation cost can't be played unless the creature has been under its controller's control since the start of his or her most recent turn. A creature can't attack unless it has been under its controller's control since the start of his or her most recent turn. This rule is informally called the "summoning sickness" rule. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502.5).

212.3f.

A creature's activated ability with the tap symbol in its activation cost can't be played unless the creature has been under its controller's control since the start of his or her most recent turn. A creature can't attack unless it has been under its controller's control since the start of his or her most recent turn. This rule is informally called the "summoning sickness" rule. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 502.5).

212.3g.

Creature lands combine the characteristics of both lands and creatures, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both types. Creature lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells.

212.4c.

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. Enchantments may have multiple subtypes.

212.4c.

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. Enchantments may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of enchantment subtypes under "Enchantment Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.4d.

Some enchantments have the subtype "Aura." An Aura comes into play attached to a permanent or player. What an Aura can be attached to is restricted by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502.45, "Enchant"). Other effects can limit what a permanent can be enchanted by.

212.4d.

Some enchantments have the subtype "Aura." An Aura comes into play attached to an object or player. What an Aura can be attached to is restricted by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502.45, "Enchant"). Other effects can limit what a permanent can be enchanted by.

212.4f.

If an Aura is enchanting an illegal permanent, or the permanent it was attached to no longer exists, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

212.4f.

If an Aura is enchanting an illegal object or player, the object it was attached to no longer exists, or the player it was attached to has left the game, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

212.4g.

An Aura can't enchant itself, and an Aura that's also a creature can't enchant a permanent. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

212.4g.

An Aura can't enchant itself, and an Aura that's also a creature can't enchant anything. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

212.4h.

The permanent an Aura is attached to is called enchanted. The Aura is attached to, or "enchants," that permanent.

212.4h.

The object or player an Aura is attached to is called enchanted. The Aura is attached to, or "enchants," that object or player.

212.4i.

An Aura's controller is separate from the enchanted permanent's controller; the two need not be the same. Changing control of the permanent doesn't change control of the Aura, and vice versa. Only the Aura's controller can play its abilities. However, if the Aura adds an ability to the enchanted permanent (with "gains" or "has"), the enchanted permanent's controller is the only one who can play that ability.

212.4i.

An Aura's controller is separate from the enchanted object's controller; the two need not be the same. Changing control of the object doesn't change control of the Aura, and vice versa. Only the Aura's controller can play its abilities. However, if the Aura adds an ability to the enchanted object (with "gains" or "has"), the enchanted object's controller is the only one who can play that ability.

212.4j.

If an Aura is coming into play by any means other than by being played and the effect putting it into play doesn't specify the permanent or player the Aura will enchant, the player putting it into play chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal permanent or player according to the Aura's enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If the player can't make a legal choice, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play.

212.4j.

If an Aura is coming into play by any means other than by being played and the effect putting it into play doesn't specify the object or player the Aura will enchant, the player putting it into play chooses what it will enchant as the Aura comes into play. The player must choose a legal object or player according to the Aura's enchant ability and any other applicable effects. If the player can't make a legal choice, the Aura remains in its current zone, unless that zone is the stack. In that case, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play.

212.4k.

If an effect attempts to attach an Aura in play to a permanent or player, that permanent or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the permanent or player can't be, the Aura doesn't move.

212.4k.

If an effect attempts to attach an Aura in play to an object or player, that object or player must be able to be enchanted by it. If the object or player can't be, the Aura doesn't move.

212.5c.

Instant subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. Instants may have multiple subtypes.

212.5c.

Instant subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. Instants may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of instant subtypes under "Spell Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.6.

Land

212.6.

Lands

212.6b.

A player may play only one land card during each of his or her own turns. Effects may allow the playing of additional lands; playing an additional land in this way doesn't prevent a player from taking the normal action of playing a land. Players can't begin to play a land that an effect prohibits from being played. As a player plays a land, he or she announces whether he or she is using the once-per-turn action of playing a land. If not, he or she specifies which effect is allowing the additional land play. Effects may also allow you to "put" lands into play. This isn't the same as "playing a land" and doesn't count as the player's one land played during his or her turn.

212.6b.

A player may play only one land card during each of his or her own turns. Effects may allow the playing of additional lands; playing an additional land in this way doesn't prevent a player from taking the normal action of playing a land. Players can't begin to play a land that an effect prohibits from being played. As a player plays a land, he or she announces whether he or she is using the once-per-turn action of playing a land. If not, he or she specifies which effect is allowing the additional land play. Effects may also allow you to "put" lands into play. This isn't the same as "playing a land" and doesn't count as the player's one land played during his or her turn. A player may not play a land during another player's turn, even if an effect would seem to allow the player to do so.

212.6c.

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype.

212.6c.

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of land subtypes under "Land Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype.

212.7c.

Sorcery subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes.

212.7c.

Sorcery subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. Sorceries may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of sorcery subtypes under "Spell Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

212.8.

Tribals

212.8a.

Each tribal card has another card type. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other type.

212.8b.

Tribal subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash: In "Tribal Enchantment — Rebel Aura," "Rebel" is a subtype of tribal. The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. Tribals may have multiple subtypes. (You can find the complete list of tribal subtypes under "Creature Types" in the glossary at the end of this document.)

213.1a.

A nonexistent mana cost can't be paid.

214.1.

A permanent is a card or token in play. Permanents stay in play unless moved to another zone by an effect or rule. There are four types of permanents: artifacts, creatures, enchantments, and lands. Instant and sorcery cards can't come into play.

214.1.

A permanent is a card or token in play. Permanents stay in play unless moved to another zone by an effect or rule. There are four permanent types: artifact, creature, enchantment, and land. Instant and sorcery cards can't come into play. Some tribal cards can come into play and some can't, depending on their other types.

214.1a.

The term "permanent card" is used to refer to a card that could be put into play. Specifically, it means an artifact, creature, enchantment, or land card.

214.1b.

If a permanent somehow loses all its permanent types, it remains in play. It's still a permanent.

214.2.

Permanent type is the type of a card or token that's in play. A nontoken permanent's types, supertypes, and subtypes are the same as those printed on its card. A token's types, supertypes, and subtypes are set by the spell or ability that created it.

214.2.

A nontoken permanent's types, supertypes, and subtypes are the same as those printed on its card. A token's types, supertypes, and subtypes are set by the spell or ability that created it.

214.3.

A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. Permanents come into play untapped. The term "permanent" is used to refer to a card or token while it's in play. The term "card" isn't used to refer to a card that's in play as a permanent; rather, it's used to refer to a card that's not in play, such as a creature card in a player's hand. For more information, see rule 217, "Zones."

214.3.

A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. Permanents come into play untapped. The term "permanent" is used to refer to a card or token while it's in play. The term "card" isn't used to refer to a card that's in play as a permanent; rather, it's used to refer to a card that's not in play or on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. For more information, see rule 217, "Zones."

215.

This section is now empty. See rule 205.4c and rule 420.5e about legendary permanents.

215.

Life

215.1.

Each player begins the game with a life total of 20. In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead; see rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

215.2.

Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life.

215.3.

If an effect causes a player to gain life or lose life, that player's life total is adjusted accordingly.

215.4.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay life, the player may do so only if his or her life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her life total.

215.5.

If an effect sets a player's life total to a specific number, the player gains or loses the necessary amount of life to end up with the new total.

215.6.

If a player has 0 or less life, that player loses the game as a state-based effect. See rule 420.5.

216.1.

Some effects put token creatures into play. A token is controlled by whomever put it into play and owned by the controller of the spell or ability that created it. (If no player controlled the effect that created it, the token is owned by whomever put it into play.) The spell or ability may define any number of characteristics for the token. These characteristics are functionally equivalent to the characteristics that are printed on a card; for example, they define the token's copiable values. A token doesn't have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it. The spell or ability that creates the token sets both its name and its creature type. If the spell or ability doesn't specify the name of the token, its name is the same as its creature type(s). A "Goblin Scout creature token," for example, is named "Goblin Scout" and has the creature subtypes Goblin and Scout. Once a token is in play, changing its name doesn't change its creature type, and vice versa.

216.1.

Some effects put tokens into play. A token is controlled by whomever put it into play and owned by the controller of the spell or ability that created it. (If no player controlled the effect that created it, the token is owned by whomever put it into play.) The spell or ability may define any number of characteristics for the token. This becomes the token's "text." The characteristics defined this way are functionally equivalent to the characteristics that are printed on a card; for example, they define the token's copiable values. A token doesn't have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it.

216.1a.

A spell or ability that creates a creature token sets both its name and its creature type. If the spell or ability doesn't specify the name of the creature token, its name is the same as its creature type(s). A "Goblin Scout creature token," for example, is named "Goblin Scout" and has the creature subtypes Goblin and Scout. Once a token is in play, changing its name doesn't change its creature type, and vice versa.

217.1b.

The order of objects in a library, in a graveyard, or on the stack can't be changed except when effects or rules allow it. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish, although who controls those objects, whether they're tapped or flipped, and what enchants or equips them must remain clear to all players.

217.1b.

The order of objects in a library, in a graveyard, or on the stack can't be changed except when effects or rules allow it. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish, although who controls those objects, whether they're tapped or flipped, and what other objects are attached to them must remain clear to all players.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are three exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are four exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (4) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

217.8c.

Phased-out objects are not in play, so they do not count as tapped or untapped, nor are they controlled by anyone. However, an object in this zone "remembers" the state of the permanent as it phased out and returns to play in the same state as when it left. (See rule 502.15, "Phasing.") This is an exception to rule 217.1c.

217.8c.

Phased-out objects are not in play, so they do not count as tapped or untapped, nor are they controlled by anyone. However, an object in this zone "remembers" the state of the permanent as it phased out and returns to play in the same state as when it left. (See rule 502.15, "Phasing.")

217.8d.

Tokens in the phased-out zone cease to exist. This is a state-based effect (see rule 420, "State-Based Effects"). Any phased-out Auras or Equipment that were attached to those tokens remain phased out for the rest of the game.

217.8d.

Tokens in the phased-out zone cease to exist. This is a state-based effect (see rule 420, "State-Based Effects"). Any phased-out Auras, Equipment, or Fortifications that were attached to those tokens remain phased out for the rest of the game.

310.4b.

The source of the combat damage is the creature as it currently exists, or as it most recently existed if it is no longer in play.

310.4b.

The source of the combat damage is the creature as it currently exists, if it's still in play. If it's no longer in play, its last known information is used to determine its characteristics.

401.1b.

A nonexistent mana cost can't be paid.

402.8a.

A characteristic-setting ability that sets type, subtype, supertype, or color functions in all zones.

402.8a.

Characteristic-defining abilities function in all zones. (See rule 405.2.)

402.8e.

An object's ability that modifies how it comes into play functions as that object is coming into play. See rule 419.6i.

402.8e.

An object's activated ability that has a cost that can't be paid while the object is in play functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid.

402.8f.

An object's activated ability that has a cost that can't be paid while the object is in play functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid.

402.8f.

A trigger condition that can trigger only in a zone other than the in-play zone triggers from that zone. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull comes into play or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition triggers from the in-play zone and the second trigger condition functions from the removed-from-the-game zone.

402.8g.

A trigger condition that can trigger only in a zone other than the in-play zone triggers from that zone. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull comes into play or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition triggers from the in-play zone and the second trigger condition functions from the removed-from-the-game zone.

402.8g.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to play. Play this ability only during your upkeep." A player may play this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

402.8h.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to play. Play this ability only during your upkeep." A player may play this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

403.5.

Activated abilities that read "Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery" mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing a sorcery, though the ability isn't actually a sorcery. Activated abilities that read "Play this ability only any time you could play an instant" mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing an instant, though the ability isn't actually an instant.

403.5.

Activated abilities that read "Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery" mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing a sorcery spell, though the ability isn't actually a sorcery. Activated abilities that read "Play this ability only any time you could play an instant" mean the player must follow the timing rules for playing an instant spell, though the ability isn't actually an instant.

405.2.

Some objects have intrinsic static abilities which state that the object "has" one or more characteristic values; "is" one or more particular types, supertypes, subtypes, or colors; or that one or more of its characteristics "is" or "are" a particular value. These abilities are characteristic-setting abilities. Abilities of an object that affect the characteristics of another object are not characteristic-setting abilities; neither are abilities that an object grants to itself. See rule 201, "Characteristics," and rule 418.5a.

405.2.

Some objects have intrinsic static abilities that define the object's colors, subtypes, power, or toughness. These abilities are characteristic-defining abilities, and they function in all zones. Abilities of an object that affect the characteristics of another object are not characteristic-defining abilities. Neither are abilities that an object grants to itself, or abilities that set the values of such characteristics only if certain conditions are met. See rule 201, "Characteristics," and rule 418.5a.

405.2a.

A characteristic-setting ability that states that an object is one or more particular types, supertypes, subtypes, or colors applies no matter which zone the object it's on is in. This rule doesn't apply to other characteristic-setting abilities.

406.1.

A mana ability is either (a) an activated ability that could put mana into a player's mana pool when it resolves or (b) a triggered ability that triggers from a mana ability and could produce additional mana. A mana ability can generate other effects at the same time it produces mana.

406.1.

A mana ability is either (a) an activated ability without a target that could put mana into a player's mana pool when it resolves or (b) a triggered ability without a target that triggers from a mana ability and could produce additional mana. A mana ability can generate other effects at the same time it produces mana.

406.2.

Spells that put mana into a player's mana pool aren't mana abilities. They're played and resolved exactly like any other spells. Triggered abilities that put mana into a player's mana pool aren't mana abilities if they trigger from events other than activating mana abilities. They go on the stack and resolve like any other triggered abilities.

406.2.

Spells that put mana into a player's mana pool aren't mana abilities. They're played and resolved exactly like any other spells.

406.5.

Abilities (other than mana abilities) that trigger on playing mana abilities do use the stack.

406.5.

Abilities that produce mana but trigger from events other than playing mana abilities do use the stack. So do abilities that don't produce mana but trigger on playing mana abilities.

408.2f.

Characteristic-setting abilities, such as "[This object] is red," are simply read and followed as applicable. (See also rule 405.2.)

408.2f.

Characteristic-defining abilities, such as "[This object] is red," are simply read and followed as applicable. (See also rule 405.2.)

409.1f.

The player determines the total cost of the spell or ability. Usually this is just the mana cost (for spells) or activation cost (for abilities). Some cards list additional or alternative costs in their text, and some effects may increase or reduce the cost to pay. Costs may include paying mana, tapping permanents, sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. The total cost is the mana cost, activation cost, or alternative cost, plus all cost increases and minus all cost reductions. Once the total cost is determined, it becomes "locked in." If effects would change the total cost after this time, they have no effect.

409.1f.

The player determines the total cost of the spell or ability. Usually this is just the mana cost (for spells) or activation cost (for abilities). Some cards list additional or alternative costs in their text. Some effects may increase or reduce the cost to pay, or may provide other alternative costs. Costs may include paying mana, tapping permanents, sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. The total cost is the mana cost, activation cost, or alternative cost, plus all additional costs and cost increases, and minus all cost reductions. If the mana component of the total cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it is considered to be {0}. It can't be reduced to less than {0}. Once the total cost is determined, it becomes "locked in." If effects would change the total cost after this time, they have no effect.

409.1h.

The player pays the total cost in any order. Partial payments are not allowed.

Example: You play Death Bomb, which costs {3}{B} and has an additional cost of sacrificing a creature. You sacrifice Thunderscape Familiar, whose effect makes your black spells cost {1} less to play. Because a spell's total cost is "locked in" before payments are actually made, you pay {2}{B}, not {3}{B}, even though you're sacrificing the Familiar.

409.1h.

The player pays the total cost in any order. Partial payments are not allowed. Unpayable costs can't be paid.

Example: You play Death Bomb, which costs {3}{B} and has an additional cost of sacrificing a creature. You sacrifice Thunderscape Familiar, whose effect makes your black spells cost {1} less to play. Because a spell's total cost is "locked in" before payments are actually made, you pay {2}{B}, not {3}{B}, even though you're sacrificing the Familiar.

409.1i.

Once the steps described in 409.1a-409.1h are completed, the spell or ability becomes played. Any abilities that trigger on a spell or ability being played or put onto the stack trigger at this time. If the spell or ability's controller had priority before playing it, he or she gets priority.

409.1i.

Once the steps described in 409.1a-h are completed, the spell or ability becomes played. Any abilities that trigger on a spell or ability being played or put onto the stack trigger at this time. If the spell or ability's controller had priority before playing it, he or she gets priority.

409.4a.

If an effect allows a card that's prohibited from being played to be played face down, and the face-down spell would not be prohibited, that spell can be played face down. See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents."

410.2a.

If a triggered ability's trigger event is met, but the object with that triggered ability is at no time visible to all players, the ability does not trigger.

410.4a.

If a triggered ability is modal (that is, it uses the phrase "Choose one -" or "[specified player] chooses one -"), its controller announces the mode choice when he or she puts the ability on the stack. If one of the modes would be illegal to play (due to an inability to choose legal targets, for example), that mode can't be chosen. If no mode can be chosen, the ability is removed from the stack.

410.10d.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be in play, no longer be in a zone visible to all players, or no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Abilities that trigger specifically when an object leaves play, when an object leaves any visible zone for a hidden one, or when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

410.10d.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be in play, may have moved to a hand or library, or may no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Abilities that trigger specifically when an object leaves play, when an object is put into a hand or library, or when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

412.2.

Many Auras and Equipment have static abilities that modify the permanent they're attached to, but those abilities don't target that permanent. If an Aura or Equipment is moved to a different permanent, the ability stops applying to the original permanent and starts modifying the new one.

412.2.

Many Auras, Equipment, and Fortifications have static abilities that modify the object they're attached to, but those abilities don't target that object. If an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification is moved to a different object, the ability stops applying to the original object and starts modifying the new one.

413.2a.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's removed from play, or from the zone designated by the spell or ability, is illegal. A target may also become illegal if its characteristics changed since the spell or ability was played or if an effect changed the text of the spell. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally, affecting only the targets that are still legal. If a target is illegal, the spell or ability can't perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions. If the spell or ability needs to know information about one or more targets that are now illegal, it will use the illegal targets' current or last known information.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left play), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell.

413.2a.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's moved out of the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process to determine its characteristics. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally, affecting only the targets that are still legal. If a target is illegal, the spell or ability can't perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left play), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell.

413.2b.

The controller of the spell or ability follows its instructions in the order written. However, replacement effects may modify these actions. In some cases, later text on the card may modify the meaning of earlier text (for example, "Destroy target creature. It can't be regenerated" or "Counter target spell. If you do, put it on top of its owner's library instead of into its owner's graveyard.") Don't just apply effects step by step without thinking in these cases-read the whole text and apply the rules of English to the text.

413.2b.

The controller of the spell or ability follows its instructions in the order written. However, replacement effects may modify these actions. In some cases, later text on the card may modify the meaning of earlier text (for example, "Destroy target creature. It can't be regenerated" or "Counter target spell. If that spell is countered this way, put it on top of its owner's library instead of into its owner's graveyard.") Don't just apply effects step by step without thinking in these cases-read the whole text and apply the rules of English to the text.

413.2d.

Some spells and abilities have multiple steps or actions, denoted by separate sentences or clauses. In these cases, the choices for the first action are made in APNAP order, and then the first action is processed simultaneously. Then the choices for the second action are made in APNAP order, and then that action is processed simultaneously, and so on. See rule 103.4.

413.2d.

Some spells and abilities have multiple steps or actions, denoted by separate sentences or clauses, that involve multiple players. In these cases, the choices for the first action are made in APNAP order, and then the first action is processed simultaneously. Then the choices for the second action are made in APNAP order, and then that action is processed simultaneously, and so on. See rule 103.4.

413.2f.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures in play), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. The effect uses the current information of a specific permanent if that permanent is still in play, or of a specific card in the stated zone; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving that zone. There are two exceptions. If an effect deals damage divided among some number of creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put into the stack; see rule 402.6. Also, static abilities can't use last known information; see rule 412.5. If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists (or most recently existed) that does it, not the ability.

413.2f.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures in play), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself, the effect uses the current information of that object if it hasn't changed zones; otherwise, the effect uses the last known information the object had before leaving the zone it was expected to be in. There are two exceptions. If an effect deals damage divided among some number of creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put into the stack; see rule 402.6. Also, static abilities can't use last known information; see rule 412.5. If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists (or most recently existed) that does it, not the ability.

413.2g.

An effect that refers to characteristics of an object checks only for the value of the specified characteristics, regardless of any related ones the object may also have.

Example: An effect that reads "Destroy all black creatures" destroys a white-and-black creature, but one that reads "Destroy all nonblack creatures" doesn't.

413.2g.

If an effect refers to certain characteristics, it checks only for the value of the specified characteristics, regardless of any related ones an object may also have.

Example: An effect that reads "Destroy all black creatures" destroys a white-and-black creature, but one that reads "Destroy all nonblack creatures" doesn't.

413.2h.

If an ability's effect refers to a specific untargeted object that has been previously referred to by that ability's cost or trigger condition, it still affects that object even if the object has changed characteristics.

Example: Wall of Tears says "Whenever Wall of Tears blocks a creature, return that creature to its owner's hand at end of combat." If Wall of Tears blocks a creature, then that creature ceases to be a creature before the triggered ability resolves, the permanent will still be returned to its owner's hand.

413.2h.

A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell's controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner's graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell's resolution.

413.2i.

A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell's controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner's graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell's resolution.

413.2i.

If an effect could result in a tie, the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. The Magic game has no default for ties.

413.2j.

If an effect could result in a tie, the text of the spell or ability that created the effect will specify what to do in the event of a tie. The Magic game has no default for ties.

415.3.

Aura spells are always targeted. An Aura's target is specified by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502.45, "Enchant"). An Aura permanent doesn't target anything; only the spell is targeted. An activated or triggered ability of an Aura permanent can be targeted. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents target anything. The equip ability is targeted; see rule 502.33, "Equip." An activated or triggered ability of an Equipment permanent can be targeted.

415.3.

Aura spells are always targeted. An Aura's target is specified by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 502.45, "Enchant"). An Aura permanent doesn't target anything; only the spell is targeted. An activated or triggered ability of an Aura permanent can be targeted. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents target anything. The equip ability is targeted; see rule 502.33, "Equip." An activated or triggered ability of an Equipment permanent can be targeted. Neither Fortification spells nor Fortification permanents target anything. The fortify ability is targeted; see rule 502.65, "Fortify." An activated or triggered ability of a Fortification permanent can be targeted.

418.1.

A continuous effect modifies characteristics of objects or modifies the rules of the game for a fixed or indefinite period. A continuous effect may be generated by the resolution of a spell or ability or by a static ability of an object.

418.1.

A continuous effect modifies characteristics of objects, modifies control of objects, or affects players or the rules of the game, for a fixed or indefinite period. A continuous effect may be generated by the resolution of a spell or ability or by a static ability of an object.

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-setting abilities first, then all other effects in timestamp order. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-setting abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c), making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play (layer 6d), making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-defining abilities first, then all other effects in timestamp order. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-setting abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c), making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play (layer 6d), making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

418.5c.

An effect is said to "depend on" another if (a) it's applied in the same layer (and, if applicable, sublayer) as the other effect (see rule 418.5a) and (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect, what it applies to, or what it does to any of the things it applies to. Otherwise, the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect.

418.5c.

An effect is said to "depend on" another if (a) it's applied in the same layer (and, if applicable, sublayer) as the other effect (see rule 418.5a); (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect, what it applies to, or what it does to any of the things it applies to; and (c) neither effect is from a characteristic-defining ability. Otherwise, the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect.

418.5d.

An effect dependent on one or more other effects waits to apply until just after all of those effects have been applied, even if this causes a characteristic-setting ability to apply after another effect. If multiple dependent effects would apply simultaneously in this way, they're applied in "timestamp order" relative to each other. If several dependent effects form a dependency loop, then this rule is ignored and the effects in the dependency loop are applied in timestamp order.

418.5d.

An effect dependent on one or more other effects waits to apply until just after all of those effects have been applied. If multiple dependent effects would apply simultaneously in this way, they're applied in "timestamp order" relative to each other. If several dependent effects form a dependency loop, then this rule is ignored and the effects in the dependency loop are applied in timestamp order.

418.5e.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, with three exceptions: (a) If two or more objects enter a zone (or zones) simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. (b) Whenever an Aura or Equipment becomes attached to a permanent, the Aura or Equipment receives a new timestamp. (c) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out.

418.5e.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, with three exceptions: (a) If two or more objects enter a zone (or zones) simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. (b) Whenever an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification receives a new timestamp. (c) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out.

418.5j.

Some continuous effects affect players rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size. All such effects are applied in timestamp order following the determination of objects' characteristics. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

418.5j.

Some continuous effects affect players rather than objects. For example, an effect might give a player protection from red. All such effects are applied in timestamp order after the determination of objects' characteristics. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

418.5k.

Some continuous effects affect game rules rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size. These effects are applied after all other continuous effects have been applied. Continuous effects that affect the costs of spells or abilities are applied according to the order specified in rule 419.1f. All other such effects are applied in timestamp order. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-g).

419.6i.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent would be put into play. (See rules 419.1b-c.) Such effects check only the copiable characteristics of that permanent as it would exist in play. Continuous effects that affected its characteristics in its previous zone or that will affect its characteristics once it's in play are not taken into account. Replacement effects that have already modified how it would be put into play are taken into account, however. (See rule 503.5.) If, once the permanent is in play, it would have a static ability whose effect would modify how permanents are put into play, it does not affect itself or other permanents coming into play at the same time.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put into play, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk is put into play tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put into play from a graveyard is put into play tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents come into play tapped." It will not affect itself, so Orb of Dreams is put into play untapped.

419.7b.

Some prevention effects refer to a specific amount of damage-for example, "Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn." These work like shields. Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the "shielded" creature or player is prevented. Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1. If damage would be dealt to the shielded creature or player by two or more sources at the same time, the player or the controller of the creature chooses which damage the shield prevents first. Once the shield has been reduced to 0, any remaining damage is dealt normally. Such effects count only the amount of damage; the number of events or sources dealing it doesn't matter.

419.7b.

Some prevention effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability refer to a specific amount of damage-for example, "Prevent the next 3 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn." These work like shields. Each 1 damage that would be dealt to the "shielded" creature or player is prevented. Preventing 1 damage reduces the remaining shield by 1. If damage would be dealt to the shielded creature or player by two or more applicable sources at the same time, the player or the controller of the creature chooses which damage the shield prevents first. Once the shield has been reduced to 0, any remaining damage is dealt normally. Such effects count only the amount of damage; the number of events or sources dealing it doesn't matter.

419.7c.

Some prevention effects generated by static abilities refer to a specific amount of damage-for example, "If a source would deal damage to you, prevent 1 of that damage." Such an effect prevents only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time. It will apply separately to damage from other applicable sources, or to damage that would be dealt by the same source at a different time.

419.7c.

Some prevention effects prevent the next N damage that would be dealt to each of a number of untargeted creatures. Such an effect creates a prevention shield for each applicable creature when the spell or ability that generates that effect resolves.

Example: Wojek Apothecary has an ability that says "{T}: Prevent the next 1 damage that would be dealt to target creature and each other creature that shares a color with it this turn." When the ability resolves, it gives the target creature and each other creature in play that shares a color with it at that time a shield preventing the next 1 damage that would be dealt to it. Changing creatures' colors after the ability resolves doesn't add or remove shields, and creatures that come into play later in the turn don't get the shield.

419.7d.

Some prevention effects prevent the next N damage that would be dealt to each of a number of untargeted creatures. Such an effect creates a prevention shield for each applicable creature when the spell or ability that generates that effect resolves.

Example: Wojek Apothecary has an ability that says "{T}: Prevent the next 1 damage that would be dealt to target creature and each other creature that shares a color with it this turn." When the ability resolves, it gives the target creature and each other creature in play that shares a color with it at that time a shield preventing the next 1 damage that would be dealt to it. Changing creatures' colors after the ability resolves doesn't add or remove shields, and creatures that come into play later in the turn don't get the shield.

420.5d.

An Aura attached to an illegal permanent or player, or not attached to a permanent or player, is put into its owner's graveyard.

420.5d.

An Aura attached to an illegal object or player, or not attached to an object or player, is put into its owner's graveyard.

420.5k.

An Equipment attached to an illegal permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play.

420.5k.

An Equipment or Fortification attached to an illegal permanent becomes unattached from that permanent. It remains in play.

420.5m.

A non-Aura, non-Equipment permanent attached to another permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play.

420.5m.

A permanent that's neither an Aura, an Equipment, nor a Fortification, but is attached to another permanent, becomes unattached from that permanent. It remains in play.

424.

Costs

424.1.

A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action.

424.2.

A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 203, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 403, "Activated Abilities."

424.3.

Unpayable costs can't be paid. (See rule 203.1b.)

424.4.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it is considered to be {0}. Paying a cost altered by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

Example: You play a spell with mana cost {W} that has kicker {1}. You choose to pay the kicker, but a cost reduction effect means you spend only {W} when paying for the spell. The spell's "if the kicker cost was paid" effect will be applied.

424.5.

If a cost includes a mana payment, the player paying the cost has a chance to play mana abilities. Paying the cost to play a spell or activated ability follows the steps in rules 409.1f-h.

423.2b.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

432.2b.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

500.2.

As part of declaring attackers, the active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must attack, can't attack, or has some other attacking restriction or requirement. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed attack, the attack is illegal, and the active player must then propose another set of attacking creatures. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to attack are exempt from effects that would require them to attack.)

Example: A player controls two creatures, each with a restriction that states "[This creature] can't attack alone." It's legal to declare both as attackers.

Example: A player controls two creatures: one that "attacks if able" and one with no abilities. An effect states, "No more than one creature may attack each turn." The only legal attack is for just the creature that "attacks if able" to attack. It's illegal to attack with the other creature, attack with both, or attack with neither.

500.2.

As part of declaring attackers, the active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must attack, can't attack, or is affected by some other attacking restriction or requirement. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed attack, the attack is illegal, and the active player must then propose another set of attacking creatures. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to attack are exempt from effects that would require them to attack.)

Example: A player controls two creatures, each with a restriction that states "[This creature] can't attack alone." It's legal to declare both as attackers.

Example: A player controls two creatures: one that "attacks if able" and one with no abilities. An effect states, "No more than one creature can attack each turn." The only legal attack is for just the creature that "attacks if able" to attack. It's illegal to attack with the other creature, attack with both, or attack with neither.

500.3.

As part of declaring blockers, the defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must block, can't block, or has some other blocking restriction or requirement. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed set of blocking creatures, the block is illegal, and the defending player must then propose another set of blocking creatures. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to block are exempt from effects that would require them to block.)

500.3.

As part of declaring blockers, the defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it must block, can't block, or is affected by some other blocking restriction or requirement. If such a restriction or requirement conflicts with the proposed set of blocking creatures, the block is illegal, and the defending player must then propose another set of blocking creatures. (Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to block are exempt from effects that would require them to block.)

500.3a.

An evasion ability is an ability an attacking creature has that restricts what can block it. Evasion abilities are static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. If a creature gains or loses an evasion ability after a legal block has been declared, it doesn't affect that block. Evasion abilities are cumulative.

Example: A creature with flying and shadow can't be blocked by a creature with flying but without shadow.

500.4.

A restriction conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn't being followed. A requirement conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn't being followed and (1) the requirement could be obeyed without violating a restriction and (2) doing so will allow the total number of requirements that the set obeys to increase.

500.4.

A restriction conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn't being followed. A requirement conflicts with a proposed set of attackers or blockers if it isn't being followed and (1) the requirement could be obeyed without violating a restriction and (2) doing so will allow the total number of requirements that the set obeys to increase. If there are multiple scenarios in which all restrictions are being followed and the maximum possible number of requirements are being followed (even if not all of them are), then any of those scenarios are legal.

Example: A player controls one creature that "blocks if able" and another creature with no abilities. An effect states, "Creatures can't be blocked except by two or more creatures." Having only the first creature block violates the restriction. Having neither creature block fulfills the restriction but not the requirement. Having both creatures block the same attacking creature fulfills both the restriction and the requirement, so that's the only option.

500.5.

When determining what requirements could be obeyed without violating restrictions, you don't need to consider any options for a creature that don't satisfy a requirement on it. But you do need to consider any options for any creature(s) that will satisfy a requirement, as long as the total number of obeyed requirements is increased (even if the option means not obeying another requirement that was previously met).

Example: A player controls one creature that "blocks if able" and another creature with no abilities. An effect states, "Creatures can't be blocked except by two or more creatures." The creature with no abilities isn't required to block. It's legal to declare both creatures as blockers, or to declare neither creature as a blocker, but illegal to block with only one of the two.

501.

Evasion Abilities

501.

Keyword Actions

501.1.

Evasion abilities restrict what can block an attacking creature. These are static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase.

501.1.

Most actions described in a card's rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within, but some specialized verbs are used whose meanings may not be clear. These "keywords" are game terms; sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings.

501.2.

Evasion abilities are cumulative.

Example: A creature with flying and shadow can't be blocked by a creature with flying but without shadow.

501.2.

Attach

501.2a.

To attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to an object means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object. If something is attached to a permanent in play, it's customary to place it so that it's physically touching the permanent. An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification can't be attached to an object it couldn't enchant, equip, or fortify, respectively.

501.2b.

If an effect tries to attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to the object it's already attached to, the effect does nothing.

501.2c.

Attaching an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification in play to a different object causes the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to receive a new timestamp.

501.2d.

To "unattach" an Equipment from a creature means to move it away from that creature so the Equipment is in play but is not equipping anything. It should no longer be physically touching any creature. If an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that was attached to something ceases to be attached to it, that counts as "becoming unattached."

501.3.

Some creatures have abilities that restrict how they can block. As with evasion abilities, these modify only the rules for the declare blockers step of the combat phase. (If a creature gains or loses an evasion ability after a legal block has been declared, it doesn't affect that block.)

501.3.

Counter

501.3a.

To counter a spell or ability means to cancel it, removing it from the stack. It doesn't resolve and none of its effects occur. A countered spell is put into its owner's graveyard. See rule 414, "Countering Spells and Abilities."

501.4.

Destroy

501.4a.

To destroy a permanent, move it from the in-play zone to its owner's graveyard.

501.5.

Regenerate

501.5a.

If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage from it, tap it, and (if it's in combat) remove it from combat."

501.5b.

If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "Instead remove all damage from [permanent], tap it, and (if it's in combat) remove it from combat."

501.6.

Sacrifice

501.6a.

To sacrifice a permanent, its controller moves it from the in-play zone directly to its owner's graveyard. A player can't sacrifice something that isn't a permanent, or something that's a permanent he or she doesn't control. Sacrificing a permanent doesn't destroy it, so regeneration or other effects that replace destruction can't affect this action.

501.7.

Tap

501.7a.

To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position.

501.7b.

To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position.

501.8.

Scry

501.8a.

To "scry N" means to look at the top N cards of your library, put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order, and put the rest on top of your library in any order.

501.9.

Fateseal

501.9a.

To "fateseal N" means to look at the top N cards of an opponent's library, put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order, and put the rest on top of that library in any order.

502.2c.

Adding or removing first strike after the first combat damage step won't prevent a creature from dealing combat damage or allow it to deal combat damage twice.

502.2c.

Adding or removing first strike any time after combat damage has been put on the stack in the first combat damage step won't prevent a creature from dealing combat damage or allow it to deal combat damage twice.

502.4b.

A creature with flying can't be blocked by creatures without flying. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

502.4b.

A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step" and rule 502.70, "Reach.")

502.7a.

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." This quality is usually a color (as in "protection from black") but can be any characteristic value. If the quality is a type, subtype, or supertype, the protection applies to sources that are permanents with that type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not in play that are of that type, subtype, or supertype.

502.7a.

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." This quality is usually a color (as in "protection from black") but can be any characteristic value. If the quality is a type, subtype, or supertype, the protection applies to sources that are permanents with that type, subtype, or supertype and to any sources not in play that are of that type, subtype, or supertype. This is an exception to rule 200.9.

502.7b.

A permanent with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality.

502.7b.

A permanent or player with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality.

502.7c.

A permanent with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.")

502.7c.

A permanent or player with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.")

502.7d.

A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality. Such Equipment become unattached from that permanent, but remain in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.")

502.7d.

A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent, but remain in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.")

502.7e.

Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent that has protection is prevented.

502.7e.

Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent or player that has protection is prevented.

502.7g.

Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent are redundant.

502.7g.

Multiple instances of protection from the same quality on the same permanent or player are redundant.

502.15i.

When a permanent phases out, any Auras or Equipment attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out "indirectly." An Aura or Equipment that phased out indirectly won't phase in by itself, but instead phases in along with the card it's attached to.

502.15i.

When a permanent phases out, any Auras, Equipment, or Fortifications attached to that permanent phase out at the same time. This alternate way of phasing out is known as phasing out "indirectly." An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification that phased out indirectly won't phase in by itself, but instead phases in along with the card it's attached to.

502.15j.

If an Aura or Equipment phased out directly (rather than phasing out along with the permanent it's attached to), then it "remembers" the permanent it was attached to and returns to play attached to that permanent. If an Aura phases in and the permanent it was attached to has left play or is no longer legal to enchant, the Aura returns to play and then is placed in its owner's graveyard. This is a state-based effect; see rule 420. If an Equipment phases in and the permanent it was attached to has left play or is no longer legal to equip, the Equipment returns to play and then stays in play, not equipping anything. This is a state-based effect; see rule 420.

502.15j.

If an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification phased out directly (rather than phasing out along with the permanent it's attached to), then it "remembers" the permanent it was attached to and returns to play attached to that permanent. If an Aura phases in but it's no longer legal for it to be attached to the object or player it was attached to, the Aura returns to play and then is placed in its owner's graveyard. This is a state-based effect; see rule 420. If an Equipment or Fortification phases in but it's no longer legal for it to be attached to the permanent it was attached to, the Equipment or Fortification returns to play and then stays in play, not attached to anything. This is a state-based effect; see rule 420.

502.18c.

Some cards with cycling have abilities that trigger when they're cycled. "When you cycle [this card]" means "When you discard [this card] to pay a cycling cost." These abilities trigger from the graveyard.

502.18c.

Landcycling is a variant of the cycling ability. "[Land type]cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [land type] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card's landcycling ability is played. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from playing cards' landcycling abilities.

502.18d.

Typecycling is a variant of the cycling ability. "[Subtype]cycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a [subtype] card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library."

502.18e.

Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from playing cards' typecycling abilities.

502.26b.

To play a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use morph to play a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it comes into play with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

502.26b.

To play a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to playing a card with these characteristics (and not the face-up card's characteristics) are applied to playing this card. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use morph to play a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it comes into play with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

502.30a.

Storm is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Storm" means "When you play this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any number of the copies."

502.30a.

Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Storm" means "When you play this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies."

502.31b.

The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs; it doesn't reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell. Affinity can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0.

502.31b.

The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs; it doesn't reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell.

502.33a.

Equip is an activated ability of artifact Equipment cards. "Equip [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery."

502.33a.

Equip is an activated ability of Equipment cards. "Equip [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery."

502.33c.

If an artifact has multiple instances of equip, any of its equip abilities may be used.

502.33c.

If an Equipment has multiple instances of equip, any of its equip abilities may be used.

502.36.

Scry

502.36.

Shroud

502.36a.

Scry is a static ability that functions while a spell or ability is resolving. "Scry N" means "Look at the top N cards of your library. Put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order and the rest on top of your library in any order."

502.36a.

Shroud is a static ability. "Shroud" means "This permanent or player can't be the target of spells or abilities."

502.36b.

If a spell or ability has multiple instances of scry, each one works separately.

502.36b.

Multiple instances of shroud on the same permanent or player are redundant.

502.45a.

Enchant is a static ability, written "Enchant [permanent or player]." The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant.

502.45a.

Enchant is a static ability, written "Enchant [object or player]." The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant.

502.45c.

If an Aura has multiple instances of enchant, all of them apply. The Aura's target must follow the restrictions from all the instances of enchant. The Aura can enchant only permanents or players that match all of its enchant abilities.

502.45c.

If an Aura has multiple instances of enchant, all of them apply. The Aura's target must follow the restrictions from all the instances of enchant. The Aura can enchant only objects or players that match all of its enchant abilities.

502.45d.

Auras that can enchant a player can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can't target permanents and can't be attached to permanents. Rules 212.4d-k apply to an Aura with the "enchant player" or "enchant opponent" ability in relation to players as they normally would for permanents.

502.45d.

Auras that can enchant a player can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can't target permanents and can't be attached to permanents.

502.46c.

Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant.

502.46b.

Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant.

502.61.

Absorb

502.61a.

Absorb is a static ability. "Absorb N" means "If a source would deal damage to this creature, prevent N of that damage."

502.61b.

Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. It will apply separately to damage from other sources, or to damage dealt by the same source at a different time.

502.61c.

If an object has multiple instances of absorb, each applies separately.

502.62.

Aura Swap

502.62a.

Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. "Aura swap [cost]" means "[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand."

502.62b.

If either half of the exchange can't be completed, the ability has no effect.

Example: You play the aura swap ability of an Aura. The only Aura card in your hand can't enchant the permanent that's enchanted by the Aura with aura swap. The ability has no effect.

Example: You play the aura swap ability of an Aura that you control but you don't own. The ability has no effect.

502.63.

Deathtouch

502.63a.

Deathtouch is a triggered ability. "Deathtouch" means "Whenever this permanent deals damage to a creature, destroy that creature."

502.63b.

If a permanent has multiple instances of deathtouch, each triggers separately.

502.64.

Delve

502.64a.

Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack. "Delve" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may remove any number of cards in your graveyard from the game. Each card removed this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1}." Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

502.64b.

Multiple instances of delve on the same spell are redundant.

502.65.

Fortify

502.65a.

Fortify is an activated ability of Fortification cards. "Fortify [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery."

502.65b.

For more information about Fortifications, see rule 212.2, "Artifacts."

502.65c.

If a Fortification has multiple instances of fortify, any of its fortify abilities may be used.

502.66.

Frenzy

502.66a.

Frenzy is a triggered ability. "Frenzy N" means "Whenever this creature attacks and isn't blocked, it gets +N/+0 until end of turn."

502.66b.

If a creature has multiple instances of frenzy, each triggers separately.

502.67.

Gravestorm

502.67a.

Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Gravestorm" means "When you play this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from play this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies."

502.67b.

If a spell has multiple instances of gravestorm, each triggers separately.

502.68.

Lifelink

502.68a.

Lifelink is a triggered ability. "Lifelink" means "Whenever this permanent deals damage, you gain that much life."

502.68b.

If a permanent has multiple instances of lifelink, each triggers separately.

502.69.

Poisonous

502.69a.

Poisonous is a triggered ability. "Poisonous N" means "Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player gets N poison counters." (For information about poison counters, see rule 102.3d.)

502.69b.

If a creature has multiple instances of poisonous, each triggers separately.

502.70.

Reach

502.70a.

Reach is a static ability.

502.70b.

A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach. (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step" and rule 502.4, "Flying.")

502.70c.

Multiple instances of reach on the same creature are redundant.

502.71.

Transfigure

502.71a.

Transfigure is an activated ability. "Transfigure [cost]" means "[Cost], Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it into play. Then shuffle your library. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery."

503.1.

Some objects create or become a "copy" of a spell, permanent, or card. (Certain older cards were printed with the phrase "search for a copy." This section doesn't cover those cards, which have received new text in the Oracle card reference.)

503.1.

Some objects become or turn another object into a "copy" of a spell, permanent, or card. Some effects put a token into play as a copy of another object. (Certain older cards were printed with the phrase "search for a copy." This section doesn't cover those cards, which have received new text in the Oracle card reference.)

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, "comes into play as" abilities, and abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, by "as . . . comes into play" and "as . . . is turned face up" abilities that set characteristics, and by abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

504.2.

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card, spell, or permanent to be turned face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") Objects that are put into play face down are turned face down before they come into play, so the permanent's comes-into-play abilities won't trigger (if triggered) or have any effect (if static). Objects that are played face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack, so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell's characteristics.

504.2.

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allowed the card, spell, or permanent to be turned face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") Objects that are put into play face down are turned face down before they come into play, so the permanent's comes-into-play abilities won't trigger (if triggered) or have any effect (if static). Objects that are played face down are turned face down before they are put onto the stack, so effects that care about the characteristics of a spell will see only the face-down spell's characteristics. Any effects or prohibitions that would apply to playing an object with these characteristics (and not the face-up object's characteristics) are applied to playing this object.

601.8.

An Aura can't enchant an object outside its controller's range of influence. If an Aura is attached to an illegal permanent, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based effect. See rule 420.

601.8.

An Aura can't enchant an object or player outside its controller's range of influence. If an Aura is attached to an illegal object or player, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based effect. See rule 420.

601.9.

An Equipment can't equip an object outside its controller's range of influence. If an Equipment is attached to an illegal permanent, it becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.

601.9.

An Equipment can't equip an object outside its controller's range of influence, and a Fortification can't fortify an object outside its controller's range of influence. If an Equipment or Fortification is attached to an illegal permanent, it becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.

601.14b.

If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Alex controls an enchantment that says, "Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures." Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa plays Lightning Blast ("Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player") targeting Rob. In response, Alex plays Honorable Passage ("The next time a source of your choice would deal damage to target creature or player this turn, prevent that damage. If damage from a red source is prevented this way, Honorable Passage deals damage equal to the damage prevented this way to the source's controller.") targeting Rob. The damage to Rob is prevented, but Honorable Passage can't deal damage to Carissa.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature, and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex plays Holy Day ("Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.") Carissa and Rob's creatures deal combat damage to each other.

601.14b.

If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt by a source, it can affect only sources within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage that would be dealt to a creature or player, it can affect only creatures and players within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence. If a spell or ability creates an effect that prevents damage, but neither the source nor the would-be recipient of the damage is specified, it prevents damage only if both the source and recipient of that damage are within the spell or ability's controller's range of influence.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Alex controls an enchantment that says, "Prevent all damage that would be dealt by creatures." Carissa attacks Rob with a creature. The creature deals combat damage to Rob.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa plays Lightning Blast ("Lightning Blast deals 4 damage to target creature or player") targeting Rob. In response, Alex plays Mending Hands ("Prevent the next 4 damage that would be dealt to target creature or player this turn.") targeting Rob. The damage to Rob is prevented.

Example: Rob is within Alex's range of influence, but Carissa is not. Carissa attacks Rob with a creature, and Rob blocks with a creature. Alex plays Holy Day ("Prevent all combat damage that would be dealt this turn.") Carissa and Rob's creatures deal combat damage to each other.

606.4a.

Each team has a shared life total, which starts at 40 life.

606.4a.

Each team has a shared life total, which starts at 30 life.

606.6b.

During the draw step of the starting team's first turn, only the secondary player draws a card. The primary player does not (see rule 101.5).

606.6b.

The team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn.

606.6f.

If multiple triggered abilities have triggered since the last time a team received priority, the members of the active team put all triggered abilities either of them controls on the stack in any order they choose, then the members of the nonactive team do the same.

606.6f.

If neither player on a team wishes to do anything, that team passes. If both teams pass in succession (that is, if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing), the top object on the stack resolves, then the active team receives priority. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession, the phase or step ends and the next one begins.

606.6g.

If a team has priority and neither player on that team wishes to do anything, that team passes. If both teams pass in succession (that is, if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing), the top object on the stack resolves, then the active team receives priority. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession, the phase or step ends and the next one begins.

606.6g.

If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player's turn, that player's team takes the extra turn, phase, or step. If an effect causes a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, that player's team does so. If an effect causes a player to control another player's turn, the controller of that effect controls the affected player's team's turn.

606.6h.

If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player's turn, that player's team takes the extra turn, phase, or step. If an effect causes a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, that player's team does so. If a single effect causes both players on the same team to add or skip the same step, phase, or turn, that team adds or skips only that step, phase, or turn. If an effect causes a player to control another player's turn, the controller of that effect controls the affected player's team's turn.

606.6h.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

606.6i.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

606.7a.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player. Any one-shot effect or characteristic-setting ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect or of the object with the characteristic-setting ability chooses which one the spell or ability refers to. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player."

606.7a.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player. Any one-shot effect or characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect or of the object with the characteristic-setting ability chooses which one the spell or ability refers to. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

606.9a.

If an effect needs to know the value of an individual player's life total, that effect uses the team's life total divided by two, rounded up, instead.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a team is at 17 life when a player activates Heartless Hidetsugu's ability, which reads, "Heartless Hidetsugu deals to each player damage equal to half that player's life total, rounded down." For the purposes of this ability, each player on that team is considered to be at 9 life. Heartless Hidetsugu deals 4 damage to each of those players, for a total of 8 damage. The team will end up at 9 life.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Test of Endurance, an enchantment that reads, "At the beginning of your upkeep, if you have 50 or more life, you win the game." At the beginning of your upkeep, the player's team wins the game only if his or her share of the team's life total is 50 or more. The team's life total must be 99 or more for that to happen.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Lurking Jackals, which reads, "When an opponent has 10 life or less, if Lurking Jackals is an enchantment, it becomes a 3/2 Hound creature." If the opposing team has 22 life and 1 damage to a particular opponent, Lurking Jackals won't become a creature. The opposing team's life total must be 20 or less for that to happen.

606.9a.

If an effect needs to know the value of an individual player's life total, that effect uses the team's life total divided by two, rounded up, instead.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a team is at 17 life when a player activates Heartless Hidetsugu's ability, which reads, "Heartless Hidetsugu deals to each player damage equal to half that player's life total, rounded down." For the purposes of this ability, each player on that team is considered to be at 9 life. Heartless Hidetsugu deals 4 damage to each of those players, for a total of 8 damage. The team will end up at 9 life.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Test of Endurance, an enchantment that reads, "At the beginning of your upkeep, if you have 50 or more life, you win the game." At the beginning of your upkeep, the player's team wins the game only if his or her share of the team's life total is 50 or more. The team's life total must be 99 or more for that to happen.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Lurking Jackals, which reads, "When an opponent has 10 life or less, if Lurking Jackals is an enchantment, it becomes a 3/2 Hound creature." If the opposing team has 22 life and 1 damage is dealt to a particular opponent, Lurking Jackals won't become a creature. The opposing team's life total must be 20 or less for that to happen.

606.9b.

If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number, the result is the sum of all the numbers.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player plays Biorhythm, which reads, "Each player's life total becomes the number of creatures he or she controls." If one member of a team controls three creatures and the other member controls four creatures, that team's life total becomes 7.

606.9b.

If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number, the result is the sum of all the numbers.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player plays Biorhythm, which reads, "Each player's life total becomes the number of creatures he or she controls." If one member of a team that has 25 life controls three creatures and the other member controls four creatures, that team's life total becomes 7. The first player is considered to have lost 10 life (13 — 3), and the second player is considered to have lost 9 life (13 — 4), even though the team didn't lose a total of 19 life.

606.9c.

If an effect would set a single player's life total to a number, that player's individual life total becomes that number. The team's life total is adjusted by the amount that player's life total was adjusted.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 25 life plays a spell that reads, "Your life total becomes 20." That player's life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell, so it becomes 20 and the team's life total becomes 32 (25 + (20 — 13)).

606.9c.

If an effect would set a single player's life total to a number, that player's individual life total becomes that number. The team's life total is adjusted by the amount of life that player gained or lost.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 25 life plays a spell that reads, "Your life total becomes 20." That player's life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell, so it becomes 20 and the team's life total becomes 32 (25 + (20 — 13)).

606.10.

The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players. Each team's starting life total is equal to 20 times the number of players on the team. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant, Four-Headed Giant, and so on.)

606.10.

The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players. Each team's starting life total is equal to 15 times the number of players on the team. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant, Four-Headed Giant, and so on.)

"As though"

Text that states a player may do something "as though" some condition were true or a creature can do something "as though" some condition were true applies only to the stated action. For purposes of that action, treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. For all other purposes, treat the game normally.

Example: Giant Spider reads, "Giant Spider can block as though it had flying." Treat the Spider as a creature with flying, but only for the purpose of declaring blockers. This allows Giant Spider to block a creature with flying (and creatures that "can't be blocked except by creatures with flying"), assuming no other blocking restrictions apply. For example, Giant Spider can't normally block a creature with both flying and shadow. If two cards state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing "as though" different conditions were true, both conditions could apply. If one "as though" effect satisfies the requirements for another "as though" effect, then both effects will apply.

"As though"

Text that states a player may do something "as though" some condition were true or a creature can do something "as though" some condition were true applies only to the stated action. For purposes of that action, treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. For all other purposes, treat the game normally. If two cards state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing "as though" different conditions were true, both conditions could apply. If one "as though" effect satisfies the requirements for another "as though" effect, then both effects will apply.

Absorb

Absorb is a static ability that prevents damage. "Absorb N" means "If a source would deal damage to this creature, prevent N of that damage." Each absorb ability can prevent only N damage from any one source at any one time. See rule 502.61, "Absorb."

Active Player, Nonactive Player Order

Whenever players are instructed to make choices at the same time, the active player makes all his or her choices first, then the nonactive players do so in turn order. This is called the "Active Player, Nonactive Player order" rule, or "APNAP order" rule. See rule 103.4. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play; see rule 606.6d.

Active Player, Nonactive Player Order

Whenever multiple players are instructed to make choices at the same time, the active player makes all his or her choices first, then the nonactive players do so in turn order. This is called the "Active Player, Nonactive Player order" rule, or "APNAP order" rule. See rule 103.4. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play; see rule 606.6d.

Affinity

Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Affinity for [text]" means "This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control." The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs. It doesn't reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell. It can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0. See rule 502.31, "Affinity."

Affinity

Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Affinity for [text]" means "This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control." The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs. It doesn't reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell. See rule 502.31, "Affinity."

Artifact Creature

An artifact creature is a combination of artifact and creature, and it's subject to the rules for both. (See rule 212.2, "Artifacts.") Some artifact creatures don't have a creature type. Those that do will say "Artifact Creature — [creature type]"; for example, "Artifact Creature — Golem." "Artifact" isn't a creature type.

Artifact Creature

An artifact creature is a combination of artifact and creature, and it's subject to the rules for both. See rule 212.2, "Artifacts."

Artifact Land

An artifact land is a combination of artifact and land, and it's subject to the rules for both. (See rule 212.2, "Artifacts.") Artifact lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells. Some artifact lands don't have a land type. Those that do will say "Artifact Land — [land type]."

Artifact Land

An artifact land is a combination of artifact and land, and it's subject to the rules for both. (See rule 212.2, "Artifacts.") Artifact lands can only be played as lands. They can't be played as spells.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. However, if an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Equipment.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Attach

To attach an Aura or Equipment to a permanent means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that permanent. If the Aura or Equipment no longer exists or the object it will move onto is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would attach it, nothing happens. Similarly, an Aura or Equipment can't be attached to a permanent it couldn't enchant or equip. The Aura or Equipment stays where it is, with one exception: If an Aura is coming into play from the stack and there is no legal permanent for it to enchant, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play. If an effect tries to attach an Aura or Equipment to the permanent it's already attached to, the effect does nothing. Attaching an Aura in play to a different permanent causes the Aura to receive a new timestamp. Nothing else about the Aura changes. The Aura never left play, so no comes-into-play or leaves-play triggered abilities will trigger. If an ability of the moved Aura affecting "enchanted [permanent]" was on the stack when the Aura moved, it will affect the new enchanted permanent when it resolves, not the old one. The same is true for moved Equipment.

Attach

To attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to an object means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that object. If the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification no longer exists or the object it will move onto is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would attach it, nothing happens. Similarly, an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification can't be attached to an object it couldn't enchant, equip, or fortify, respectively. The Aura, Equipment, or Fortification stays where it is, with two exceptions: If an Aura would phase in but can no longer enchant the object it was attached to, it phases in and is then put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based effect; and if an Aura is coming into play from the stack and there is no legal object for it to enchant, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play. If an effect tries to attach an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification to the object it's already attached to, the effect does nothing. Attaching an Aura in play to a different object causes the Aura to receive a new timestamp. Nothing else about the Aura changes. The Aura never left play, so no comes-into-play or leaves-play triggered abilities will trigger. If an ability of the moved Aura affecting "enchanted [object]" was on the stack when the Aura moved, it will affect the new enchanted object when it resolves, not the old one. The same is true for moved Equipment and Fortifications.

Aura

Some enchantments have the subtype "Aura." An Aura spell requires a target whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. An Aura permanent comes into play attached to the permanent or player the spell targeted. See rule 212.4, "Enchantments," and rule 502.45, "Enchant." An Aura can enchant only a permanent or player whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. An Aura attached to an illegal permanent or not attached to a permanent is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

Aura

Some enchantments have the subtype "Aura." An Aura spell requires a target whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. An Aura permanent comes into play attached to the object or player the spell targeted. See rule 212.4, "Enchantments," and rule 502.45, "Enchant." An Aura can enchant only an object or player whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. An Aura attached to an illegal object or player, or not attached to an object or player, is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

Aura Swap

Aura swap is an activated ability of some Aura cards. "Aura swap [cost]" means "[Cost]: You may exchange this permanent with an Aura card in your hand." If either half of the exchange can't be completed, the ability has no effect. See rule 502.62, "Aura Swap."

Basic Land Type

There are five basic land types: Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. Every basic land type has a mana ability associated with it. (See rule 212.6, "Lands.")

Basic Land Type

There are five basic land types: Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. Every basic land type has a mana ability associated with it. See rule 212.6, "Lands."

Characteristic-Defining Ability

Some objects have intrinsic static abilities that define the object's colors, subtypes, power, or toughness. These abilities are characteristic-defining abilities, and they function in all zones. See rule 405.2.

Characteristic-Setting Ability

Some objects have intrinsic static abilities which state that that object "has" one or more characteristics; "is" one or more particular types, supertypes, subtypes, or colors; or that one or more of its characteristics "is" or "are" a particular value. These abilities are characteristic-setting abilities. See rule 405.2.

Color

The only colors in the Magic game are white, blue, black, red, and green. An object can be one or more of those colors or it can be colorless. "Colorless" isn't a color; neither are "artifact," "land," "brown," "gold," and so on. See rule 203.2. An object's color is determined by the color(s) of the mana symbols in its mana cost. Effects may change an object's color. If an effect gives an object a new color, the new color replaces all previous colors the object had.

Color

The only colors in the Magic game are white, blue, black, red, and green. An object can be one or more of those colors or it can be colorless. "Colorless" isn't a color; neither are "artifact," "land," "brown," "gold," and so on. See rule 203.2. An object's color is determined by the color(s) of the mana symbols in its mana cost. A hybrid mana symbol is each of its component colors. Effects may change an object's color. If an effect gives an object a new color, the new color replaces all previous colors the object had.

Colorless

An object with no color is colorless. Lands are colorless because they have no mana cost. Artifacts are colorless because they have no colored mana in their mana costs. Face-down creatures are colorless due to the effects that turn them face down. A colorless object can be given a color by an effect. See rule 203.2.

Colorless

An object with no color is colorless. Lands are colorless because they have no mana cost. Most artifacts are colorless because they have no colored mana in their mana costs. Face-down creatures are colorless due to the effects that turn them face down. A colorless object can be given a color by an effect. See rule 203.2.

Convoke

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. It can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0. See rule 502.46, "Convoke."

Convoke

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.46, "Convoke."

Cost

Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost. Most costs are paid in mana, but costs may also include paying life, tapping or sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 203, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 403, "Activated Abilities."

Cost

Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost. Most costs are paid in mana, but costs may also include paying life, tapping or sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 424, "Costs," rule 203, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 403, "Activated Abilities." Some spells and abilities have no cost. In such instances, the cost can't be paid.

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Eye, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Hellion, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Spuzzem, Spy, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Abomination, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Eye, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gamer, Gargoyle, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Hellion, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Spuzzem, Spy, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Damage

Damage can be dealt to creatures and/or players. Damage dealt to a player is subtracted from his or her life total. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until end of turn, even if it stops being a creature. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Damage doesn't alter a creature's toughness. A noncreature permanent isn't affected by damage (but if it becomes a creature again before the damage is removed, the creature may be destroyed). During the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents. Costs and effects that read "lose life" or "pay life" don't deal damage, and that loss of life can't be prevented or otherwise altered by effects that prevent or replace damage.

Damage

Damage can be dealt to creatures and/or players. Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until end of turn, even if it stops being a creature. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Damage doesn't alter a creature's toughness. A noncreature permanent isn't affected by damage (but if it becomes a creature again before the damage is removed, the creature may be destroyed). During the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents. Costs and effects that read "lose life" or "pay life" don't deal damage, and that loss of life can't be prevented or otherwise altered by effects that prevent or replace damage.

Deathtouch

Deathtouch is a triggered ability. "Deathtouch" means "Whenever this permanent deals damage to a creature, destroy that creature." If a permanent has multiple instances of deathtouch, each triggers separately. See rule 502.63, "Deathtouch."

Delve

Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack. "Delve" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may remove any number of cards in your graveyard from the game. Each card removed this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1}." Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.64, "Delve."

Dual Land (Informal)

The Ravnica (tm) block and early Magic core sets contain "dual lands"; each of these has two basic land types. For example, Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those types. However, they are not basic lands. A dual land doesn't count as two lands while in play-it's just one land with multiple land types.

Dual Land (Informal)

The Ravnica block and early Magic core sets contain "dual lands"; each of these has two basic land types. For example, Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those types. However, they are not basic lands. A dual land doesn't count as two lands while in play-it's just one land with multiple land types.

Enchant

Enchant is a static ability, written "Enchant [permanent or player]." The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant. See rule 212.4, "Enchantment," and rule 502.45, "Enchant."

Enchant

Enchant is a static ability, written "Enchant [object or player]." The enchant ability restricts what an Aura spell can target and what an Aura can enchant. See rule 212.4, "Enchantment," and rule 502.45, "Enchant."

Enchant Opponent, Enchant Player

Auras with the "enchant opponent" or "enchant player" ability can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can't target permanents and can't be attached to permanents. Rules 212.4d-k apply to an Aura with enchant player or enchant opponent in relation to players as they normally would for permanents. See also Aura, Enchant.

Enchant Opponent, Enchant Player

Auras with the "enchant opponent" or "enchant player" ability can target and be attached to players. Such Auras can't target objects and can't be attached to objects. See also Aura, Enchant.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Evasion Ability

Evasion abilities restrict what creatures can block an attacking creature. These are static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. See rule 501, "Evasion Abilities."

Evasion Ability

Evasion abilities restrict what creatures can block an attacking creature. These are static abilities that modify the declare blockers step of the combat phase. See rule 500.3a.

Exchange

A spell or ability may instruct two players to exchange something (for example, life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. When such a spell or ability resolves, if it can't exchange the chosen things, it has no effect on them.

Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves, the spell does nothing to the other creature. Or if a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but both of those creatures are controlled by the same player, the spell does nothing to the two creatures. When control of two permanents is exchanged, each player simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. When life totals are exchanged, each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player's previous life total. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example, cards removed from the game and cards in a player's hand). These spells and abilities work the same as other "exchange" spells and abilities, except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player. If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones, and one of the zones is empty, the cards in the zones are still exchanged.

Exchange

A spell or ability may instruct two players to exchange something (for example, life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. When such a spell or ability resolves, if it can't exchange the chosen things, it has no effect on them.

Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves, the spell does nothing to the other creature. Or if a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but both of those creatures are controlled by the same player, the spell does nothing to the two creatures. When control of two permanents is exchanged, each player simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. When life totals are exchanged, each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player's previous life total. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example, cards removed from the game and cards in a player's hand). These spells and abilities work the same as other "exchange" spells and abilities, except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player. If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone, and either of them is attached to an object, that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object. If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones, and one of the zones is empty, the cards in the zones are still exchanged.

Fateseal

To "fateseal N" means to look at the top N cards of an opponent's library, put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order, and put the rest on top of that library in any order. See rule 501.9, "Fateseal."

Flying

Flying is an evasion ability. A creature with flying can't be blocked by creatures without flying. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. See rule 502.4, "Flying."

Flying

Flying is an evasion ability. A creature with flying can't be blocked except by creatures with flying and/or reach.. A creature with flying can block a creature with or without flying. See rule 502.4, "Flying."

Fortification

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." These artifacts can be attached to (can "fortify") lands. They can't fortify objects that aren't lands. A Fortification is played and comes into play just like any other artifact. Fortification doesn't come into play fortifying a land. The fortify keyword ability moves the Fortification onto a land you control. (See rule 502.65, "Fortify.") The land a Fortification is attached to is called "fortified." The Fortification is attached to, or "fortifies," that land. A Fortification that's also a creature or a Fortification that loses the subtype "Fortification" can't fortify a land. A Fortification can't fortify itself. A Fortification that fortifies an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent, but remains in play. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

Fortify

Fortify is an activated ability. "Fortify [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Fortification to target land you control. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery." See rule 502.65, "Fortify," and rule 212.2, "Artifacts."

Frenzy

Frenzy is a triggered ability. "Frenzy N" means "Whenever this creature attacks and isn't blocked, it gets +N/+0 until end of turn." See rule 502.66, "Frenzy."

Gravestorm

Gravestorm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Gravestorm" means "When you play this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each permanent that was put into a graveyard from play this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies." See rule 502.67, "Gravestorm."

Hybrid Mana Symbols

Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. (A previous version of these rules referred to hybrid mana symbols as half-half mana symbols.)

Hybrid Mana Symbols

Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. A hybrid mana symbol is each of its component colors.

Instant

Instant is a type. A player may play instants whenever he or she has priority. An instant spell is put into its owner's graveyard as the last step of its resolution. See rule 212.5, "Instants," and rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities."

Instant

Instant is a type. A player may play instants whenever he or she has priority. An instant spell is put into its owner's graveyard as the last step of its resolution. Instant subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). See rule 212.5, "Instants," and rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities."

Instant Type

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. The list of instant types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Arcane.

Keyword Action

Most actions described in a card's rules text use the standard English definitions of the verbs within, but some specialized verb are used whose meanings may not be clear. These "keywords" are game terms; sometimes reminder text summarizes their meanings. See rule 501, "Keyword Actions."

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Last Known Information

The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. Effects from resolving spells and abilities use last known information if the object they require information from isn't in the zone it's expected to be in (unless the effect divides damage). See rule 413.2f.

Last Known Information

The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. Effects use last known information if a specific object they require information from isn't in the zone it's expected to be in (unless the effect divides damage). See rule 413.2f.

Life, Life Total

Life total is a sort of score. Each player starts the game with 20 life. Any increase in a player's life total is considered to be gaining life. Any decrease in a player's life total is considered to be losing life. A player whose life total drops to 0 or less loses. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5.

Life, Life Total

Life total is a sort of score. Each player starts the game with 20 life. Any increase in a player's life total is considered to be gaining life. Any decrease in a player's life total is considered to be losing life. A player whose life total drops to 0 or less loses. This is a state-based effect; see rule 420.5. See also rule 215, "Life."

Lifelink

Lifelink is a triggered ability. "Lifelink" means "Whenever this permanent deals damage, you gain that much life." See rule 502.68, "Lifelink."

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, and {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. See rule 104.3f. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. See rule 104.3h.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, and {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. A hybrid mana symbol is each of its component colors. See rule 104.3f. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. See rule 104.3h.

Modal, Mode

A spell or ability is modal if it is written "choose one -" or "[a specified player] chooses one -." Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects. A modal spell or ability's controller must choose the mode as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities); see rule 409.1b. A modal replacement effect's mode is chosen as it's applied; see rule 419.6g.

Modal, Mode

A spell or ability is modal if it is written "choose one -" or "[a specified player] chooses one -." Modal spells and abilities offer a choice of effects. A modal spell or ability's controller must choose the mode as part of playing the spell or ability or as part of putting the ability on the stack (in the case of triggered abilities); see rule 409.1b. If a mode has targets, a player can't choose that mode unless all of its targets can be chosen. A modal replacement effect's mode is chosen as it's applied; see rule 419.6g.

Move

To move a counter means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto another object. If the object the counter would move from has no counters, or either that object or any possible objects the counter would move onto are no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter, nothing happens. Some older cards used "move" to describe taking an Aura on one permanent and putting it onto another. These cards now say "attach."

Move

To move a counter means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto another object. If the object the counter would move from has no counters, or either that object or any possible objects the counter would move onto are no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter, nothing happens. Some older cards used "move" to describe taking an Aura on one object and putting it onto another. These cards now say "attach."

Number

The Magic game uses only natural numbers. You may not choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, and so on. When a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. See rule 104, "Numbers and Symbols." If a numerical value (such as a creature's power, toughness, or total power and toughness; a mana cost; a player's life total; or an amount of damage) is less than 0, it's treated as 0 for all purposes except changing that total, if applicable. If anything needs to use a number that can't be determined, it uses 0 instead.

Example: If a 3/3 creature gets -5/-0, it deals 0 damage in combat. But to raise its power back to 1, you'd have to give it +3/+0 (3 minus 5 plus 3 is 1).

Number

The Magic game uses only integers. You can't choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, gain fractional life, and so on. If a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. See rule 104, "Numbers and Symbols." Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a creature's power or toughness, changes a creature's power or toughness, or sets a player's life total.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It deals no damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Pay

Playing most spells and activated abilities requires paying costs; see rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." Declaring attackers (see rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step") and declaring blockers (see rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step") can also require paying costs. Paying mana is done by removing the indicated amount of mana from the player's mana pool. Any time a player is asked to pay mana, mana abilities may be played. Mana abilities must be played before the costs are paid. Paying life subtracts the indicated amount of life from the player's life total. A player can't pay more mana than the amount of mana in his or her mana pool or more life than his or her life total. Zero life or zero mana can always be paid, even if the player has less than zero life. To pay any cost, the player carries out the instructions specified by the spell, ability, or effect. It's illegal to attempt paying a cost when unable to successfully follow the instructions. For example, a player can't pay a cost that requires tapping a creature if that creature is already tapped. Each payment applies to only one spell or ability. For example, a player can't sacrifice just one creature to play the activated abilities of two permanents that require sacrificing a creature as a cost. Also, the resolution of a spell or ability doesn't pay another spell or ability's cost, even if part of its effect is doing the same thing the other cost asks for.

Pay

Playing most spells and activated abilities requires paying costs; see rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." Declaring attackers (see rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step") and declaring blockers (see rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step") can also require paying costs. Paying mana is done by removing the indicated amount of mana from the player's mana pool. Any time a player is asked to pay mana, mana abilities may be played. Mana abilities must be played before the costs are paid. Paying life subtracts the indicated amount of life from the player's life total. A player can't pay more mana than the amount of mana in his or her mana pool or more life than his or her life total. Zero life or zero mana can always be paid, even if the player has less than zero life. Unpayable costs can't be paid. To pay any cost, the player carries out the instructions specified by the spell, ability, or effect. It's illegal to attempt paying a cost when unable to successfully follow the instructions. For example, a player can't pay a cost that requires tapping a creature if that creature is already tapped. Each payment applies to only one spell or ability. For example, a player can't sacrifice just one creature to play the activated abilities of two permanents that require sacrificing a creature as a cost. Also, the resolution of a spell or ability doesn't pay another spell or ability's cost, even if part of its effect is doing the same thing the other cost asks for.

Poisonous

Poisonous is a triggered ability. "Poisonous N" means "Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, that player gets N poison counters." See rule 502.69, "Poisonous."

Power

The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its power. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power. See rule 310, "Combat Damage Step." Some creature cards have power represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-setting ability that sets its power according to some stated condition. The * is 0 while the object isn't in play. A noncreature permanent has no power, even if it's a card with a power printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Power

The number before the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its power. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." Creatures that attack or block assign combat damage equal to their power. See rule 310, "Combat Damage Step." Some creature cards have power represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its power according to some stated condition. This ability functions in all zones. A noncreature permanent has no power, even if it's a card with a power printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Prevention Effect

Effects that prevent something from happening replace it with "do nothing." (See rule 419, "Replacement and Prevention Effects.") A prevention effect must be active before the event it's intended to prevent. Effects that prevent a specific amount of damage act as "shields" and stay active until that amount of damage has been prevented or the turn ends. The damage doesn't have to be dealt by a single source or all at once. Effects that prevent the next damage from a specific source apply the next time that source would deal damage, regardless of the amount. These effects expire when the turn ends. See rule 419.8, "Sources of Damage."

Prevention Effect

Effects that prevent something from happening replace it with "do nothing." (See rule 419, "Replacement and Prevention Effects.") A prevention effect must be active before the event it's intended to prevent. Effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability that prevent a specific amount of damage act as "shields" and stay active until that amount of damage has been prevented or the turn ends. The damage doesn't have to be dealt by a single source or all at once. Effects generated by static abilities that prevent a specific amount of damage prevent only the indicated amount of damage from any applicable source at any given time. Effects that prevent the next damage from a specific source apply the next time that source would deal damage, regardless of the amount. These effects expire when the turn ends. See rule 419.8, "Sources of Damage."

Protection

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." See rule 502.7, "Protection." A permanent with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. A permanent with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality. Such Equipment becomes unattached from that permanent, but remains in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. If a creature with protection attacks, it can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Protection

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." See rule 502.7, "Protection." A permanent or player with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. A permanent or player with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent or player with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality or fortified by Fortifications that have the stated quality. Such Equipment or Fortifications become unattached from that permanent, but remain in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent or player with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. If a creature with protection attacks, it can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Reach

Reach is a static ability. A creature with reach can block an attacking creature with flying. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step," rule 502.4, "Flying," and rule 502.70, "Reach."

Scry

Scry is a static ability that functions while a spell or ability is resolving. "Scry N" means "Look at the top N cards of your library. Put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order and the rest on top of your library in any order." See rule 502.36, "Scry."

Scry

To "scry N" means to look at the top N cards of your library, put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order, and put the rest on top of your library in any order. See rule 501.8, "Scry."

Shared Life Total

The Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant uses a shared life total. Each two-player team's life total starts at 40, and the team loses if its life total reaches 0. Damage, loss of life, and gaining life happens to each player individually. The result is applied to the team's shared life total. If an effect needs to know the value of any individual player's life total, that effect uses the team's life total divided by the number of players on the team (rounded up) instead. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Shared Life Total

The Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant uses a shared life total. Each two-player team's life total starts at 30, and the team loses if its life total reaches 0. Damage, loss of life, and gaining life happens to each player individually. The result is applied to the team's shared life total. If an effect needs to know the value of any individual player's life total, that effect uses the team's life total divided by the number of players on the team (rounded up) instead. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Shroud

Shroud is a static ability. "Shroud" means "This permanent or player can't be the target of spells or abilities." See rule 502.36, "Shroud."

Sorcery

Sorcery is a type. The active player may play sorceries during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. A sorcery spell is put into its owner's graveyard as part of its resolution. See rule 212.7, "Sorceries."

Sorcery

Sorcery is a type. The active player may play sorceries during his or her main phase when the stack is empty. A sorcery spell is put into its owner's graveyard as part of its resolution. Sorcery subtypes are called spell types (see Spell Types). See rule 212.7, "Sorceries."

Sorcery Type

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. The list of sorcery types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Arcane.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: Arcane.

Storm

Storm is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Storm" means "When you play this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any number of the copies." See rule 502.30, "Storm."

Storm

Storm is a triggered ability that functions on the stack. "Storm" means "When you play this spell, put a copy of it onto the stack for each other spell that was played before it this turn. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies." See rule 502.30, "Storm."

Subtype

A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. Instant subtypes are also called instant types. Land subtypes are also called land types. Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. Objects may have multiple subtypes. If an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types. Most card types each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. However, instants and sorceries can share subtypes. Collectively, instant and sorcery subtypes are called "spell types." See rule 205.3, "Subtypes," and rule 212, "Type, Supertype, and Subtype."

Subtype

A card can have one or more subtypes printed on its type line. Subtypes are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype. Artifacts, enchantments, and lands each have their own unique set of possible subtypes. Instants and sorceries share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called spell types. Creatures and tribals also share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. Objects may have multiple subtypes. If a card with multiple types has one or more subtypes, each subtype is correlated to its appropriate type. See rule 205.3, "Subtypes," and rule 212, "Type, Supertype, and Subtype."

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Future Sight set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Target

Whenever the phrase "target [something]," where [something] is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone, appears in a spell or ability, the controller of the spell or ability chooses something that matches whatever follows that word. The choice of a spell or ability's targets is made when the spell or ability is played. See rule 415, "Targeted Spells and Abilities." An instant or sorcery is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target, that ability is targeted, but the spell is not.) An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. Aura spells are targeted, and their target is specified by their "enchant" abilities. They target the permanent or player they will enchant. (See rule 415.3.) An Aura permanent doesn't target anything. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents are targeted. (See rule 415.3.) An Equipment may have abilities which are targeted. A spell or ability on the stack can't target itself. A spell that targets the same object, player, or zone more than once isn't a "spell with a single target."

Target

Whenever the phrase "target [something]," where [something] is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone, appears in a spell or ability, the controller of the spell or ability chooses something that matches whatever follows that word. The choice of a spell or ability's targets is made when the spell or ability is played. See rule 415, "Targeted Spells and Abilities." An instant or sorcery is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target, that ability is targeted, but the spell is not.) An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. Aura spells are targeted, and their target is specified by their "enchant" abilities. They target the object or player they will enchant. (See rule 415.3.) An Aura permanent doesn't target anything. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents are targeted. The same is true for Fortification spells and Fortification permanents. (See rule 415.3.) An Equipment or a Fortification may have abilities which are targeted. A spell or ability on the stack can't target itself. A spell that targets the same object, player, or zone more than once isn't a "spell with a single target."

Timestamp Order

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, with three exceptions: (1) If two or more objects enter a zone simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. (2) Whenever an Aura or Equipment becomes attached to a permanent, the Aura or Equipment receives a new timestamp. (3) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out. See rule 418.5e. See also Depend On. Continuous effects generated by static abilities have the same timestamp as the object that generated them. Continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receive a timestamp at the time they're created.

Timestamp Order

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, with three exceptions: (1) If two or more objects enter a zone simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. (2) Whenever an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification receives a new timestamp. (3) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out. See rule 418.5e. See also Depend On. Continuous effects generated by static abilities have the same timestamp as the object that generated them. Continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receive a timestamp at the time they're created.

Toughness

The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its toughness. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." A creature that's been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has lethal damage and will be destroyed the next time any player would receive priority. This is a state-based effect. Some creature cards have toughness represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-setting ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. The * is 0 while the object isn't in play. A noncreature permanent has no toughness, even if it's a card with a toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Toughness

The number after the slash printed on the lower right corner of a creature card is its toughness. See rule 208, "Power/Toughness." A creature that's been dealt damage greater than or equal to its toughness (and greater than 0) has lethal damage and will be destroyed the next time any player would receive priority. This is a state-based effect. Some creature cards have toughness represented by * instead of a number. The object has a characteristic-defining ability that sets its toughness according to some stated condition. This ability functions in all zones. A noncreature permanent has no toughness, even if it's a card with a toughness printed on it (such as a Licid that's become an Aura).

Transfigure

Transfigure is an activated ability. "Transfigure [cost]" means "[Cost], Sacrifice this permanent: Search your library for a creature card with the same converted mana cost as this permanent and put it into play. Then shuffle your library. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery" See rule 502.71, "Transfigure."

Tribal

Tribal is a type. Each tribal card has another card type. Playing and resolving a tribal card follows the rules for playing and resolving a card of the other type. The set of tribal subtypes is the same as the set of creature subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. See Creature Types and rule 212.8, "Tribals."

Two-Headed Giant

The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features. Each two-player team has a shared life total, which starts at 40 life, and each team has takes turns rather than each player. Each team's creatures also attack the other team rather than individual players. The additional rules for the Two-Headed Giant variant explain how the timing of team turns works. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Two-Headed Giant

The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features. Each two-player team has a shared life total, which starts at 30 life, and each team has takes turns rather than each player. Each team's creatures also attack the other team rather than individual players. The additional rules for the Two-Headed Giant variant explain how the timing of team turns works. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Typecycling

"Typecycling" is a generic term; a card's rules text usually names a specific subtype, such as "plainscycling." Typecycling is an activated ability. "Plainscycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a Plains card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." See rule 502.18, "Cycling."

Unattach

An Aura or Equipment becomes unattached if it was attached to a permanent and then is not. If an Aura or Equipment leaves play while attached to a permanent, it becomes unattached. If a permanent leaves play (unless it phases out) while an Aura or Equipment is attached to it, the Aura or Equipment becomes unattached.

Unattach

An Aura, Equipment, or Fortification becomes unattached if it was attached to an object or player and then is not. If an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification leaves play while attached to an object, it becomes unattached. If a permanent leaves play (unless it phases out) while an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification is attached to it, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification becomes unattached.

Vanguard and Avatars

The Vanguard (tm) supplements consist of oversized placards and online avatars that modify the game. A Vanguard placard or avatar is selected before the game begins, adjusting a player's starting and maximum hand size and starting life total. A Vanguard placard or avatar has no color or type, and it can't be affected by spells or abilities.

Vanguard and Avatars

The Vanguard (tm) supplements consist of oversized placards and Magic Online(r) avatars that modify the game. A Vanguard placard or avatar is selected before the game begins, adjusting a player's starting and maximum hand size and starting life total. A Vanguard placard or avatar has no color or type, and it can't be affected by spells or abilities.

X

If a cost has an "{X}" in it, the value of X must be announced as part of playing the spell or ability. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") While the spell or ability is on the stack, the {X} in its mana cost equals the amount announced as part of playing the spell or ability. If a card in any other zone has {X} in its mana cost, the amount is treated as 0. If you're playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost and an effect lets you play it without paying any cost that includes X, the only legal choice for X is 0. This does not apply to effects that only reduce a cost, even if they reduce it to zero. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." In triggered abilities, X is defined when the ability resolves. It may be defined by the text of the ability, by a keyword ability of the card, or by the trigger event. See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities." In other cases, X is defined by the text of a spell or ability. If X isn't defined, the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. All Xs on an object have the same value.

X

If a spell or ability has a cost with an "{X}" in it, the value of X must be announced as part of playing the spell or ability. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") While the spell or ability is on the stack, the {X} in its mana cost equals the amount announced as part of playing the spell or ability. If a card in any other zone has {X} in its mana cost, the amount is treated as 0. If you're playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost and an effect lets you play it without paying any cost that includes X, the only legal choice for X is 0. This does not apply to effects that only reduce a cost, even if they reduce it to zero. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." If a cost associated with a special action, such as a suspend cost or a morph cost, has an "{X}" in it, the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost. In triggered abilities, X is defined when the ability resolves. It may be defined by the text of the ability, by a keyword ability of the card, or by the trigger event. See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities." In other cases, X is defined by the text of a spell or ability. If X isn't defined, the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. All Xs on an object have the same value.