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Magic Rules Changes

Rise of the Eldrazi to Magic 2011

General

Rise of the EldraziMagic 2011
103.2.103.2.

After the decks have been shuffled, the players determine which one of them will choose who takes the first turn. In the first game of a match (including a single-game match), the players may use any mutually agreeable method (flipping a coin, rolling dice, etc.) to do so. In a match of several games, the loser of the previous game chooses who takes the first turn. If the previous game was a draw, the player who made the choice in that game makes the choice in this game.

After the decks have been shuffled, the players determine which one of them will choose who takes the first turn. In the first game of a match (including a single-game match), the players may use any mutually agreeable method (flipping a coin, rolling dice, etc.) to do so. In a match of several games, the loser of the previous game chooses who takes the first turn. If the previous game was a draw, the player who made the choice in that game makes the choice in this game. The player chosen to take the first turn is the starting player.

103.2a.

In a game using the shared team turns option, there is a starting team rather than a starting player.

103.2b.

In an Archenemy (tm) game, these methods aren't used to determine who takes the first turn. Rather, the archenemy takes the first turn.

103.3d.

In an Archenemy game, the archenemy sets his or her life total to 40.

103.4c.103.4c.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the multiplayer mulligan rule, with a slight modification. First, each player on the starting team declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand.

In a multiplayer game using the shared team turns option, first each player on the starting team declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan, then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand.

103.5a.

In a multiplayer game using the shared team turns option, first each player on the starting team, in whatever order that team likes, may put any or all such cards onto the battlefield from his or her opening hand. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then each player on each other team in turn order does the same.

104.2d.104.2d.

In an Emperor game, a team wins the game if its emperor wins the game. (See rule 807.5.)

In an Emperor game, a team wins the game if its emperor wins the game. (See rule 809.5.)

104.3f.104.3f.

If a player would both win and lose simultaneously, he or she loses.

If a player would both win and lose the game simultaneously, he or she loses the game.

104.3g.104.3g.

In a multiplayer game between teams, a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost.

In a multiplayer game between teams, a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost the game.

104.3i.104.3i.

In an Emperor game, a team loses the game if its emperor loses the game. (See rule 807.5.)

In an Emperor game, a team loses the game if its emperor loses the game. (See rule 809.5.)

104.3k.104.3k.

In a tournament, a player may lose a game as a result of a penalty given by a judge. See rule 100.6.

In a tournament, a player may lose the game as a result of a penalty given by a judge. See rule 100.6.

104.4.104.4.

There are several ways to draw the game.

There are several ways for the game to be a draw.

104.4b.104.4b.

If the game somehow enters a "loop" of mandatory actions, repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop, the game is a draw. Loops that contain an optional action don't result in a draw.

If a game that's not using the limited range of influence option (including a two-player game) somehow enters a "loop" of mandatory actions, repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop, the game is a draw. Loops that contain an optional action don't result in a draw.

104.4f.

In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option, if the game somehow enters a "loop" of mandatory actions, repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop, the game is a draw for each player who controls an object that's involved in that loop, as well as for each player within the range of influence of any of those players. Only those players leave the game; the game continues for all other players.

104.4f.104.4g.

In a multiplayer game between teams, the game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for all remaining players on that team.

In a multiplayer game between teams, the game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for all remaining players on that team.

104.4g.104.4h.

In the Emperor variant, the game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor. (See rule 807.5.)

In the Emperor variant, the game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor. (See rule 809.5.)

104.4i.

In a tournament, all players in the game may agree to an intentional draw. See rule 100.6.

106.4a.106.4a.

If a player passes priority (see rule 115) while there is mana in his or her mana pool, that player announces what mana is there. If any mana remains in a player's mana pool after he or she spends mana to pay a cost, that player announces what mana is still there.

If a player passes priority (see rule 116) while there is mana in his or her mana pool, that player announces what mana is there. If any mana remains in a player's mana pool after he or she spends mana to pay a cost, that player announces what mana is still there.

106.10.

One card (Drain Power) puts all mana from one player's mana pool into another player's mana pool. (Note that these may be the same player.) This empties the former player's mana pool and causes the mana emptied this way to be put into the latter player's mana pool. Which permanents, spells, and/or abilities produced that mana are unchanged, as are any restrictions or additional effects associated with any of that mana.

107.1b.107.1b.

Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers and zero. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison that would determine the result of an effect needs to use a negative value, it does so. If such a calculation yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player's life total to a specific value, sets a creature's power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature's power or toughness.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0 damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says "{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner's power." An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool.

Most of the time, the Magic game uses only positive numbers and zero. You can't choose a negative number, deal negative damage, gain negative life, and so on. However, it's possible for a game value, such as a creature's power, to be less than zero. If a calculation or comparison needs to use a negative value, it does so. If a calculation that would determine the result of an effect yields a negative number, zero is used instead, unless that effect sets a player's life total to a specific value, doubles a player's life total, sets a creature's power or toughness to a specific value, or otherwise modifies a creature's power or toughness.

Example: If a 3/4 creature gets -5/-0, it's a -2/4 creature. It assigns 0 damage in combat. Its total power and toughness is 2. You'd have to give it +3/+0 to raise its power to 1.

Example: Viridian Joiner is a 1/2 creature that says "{T}: Add an amount of {G} to your mana pool equal to Viridian Joiner's power." An effect gives it -2/-0, then its ability is activated. The ability adds no mana to your mana pool.

107.4d.107.4d.

The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder for a cost that can be paid with no resources. (See rule 116.5.)

The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder for a cost that can be paid with no resources. (See rule 117.5.)

108.6.108.6.

For more information about cards, see Section 2, "Parts of a Card."

For more information about cards, see section 2, "Parts of a Card."

109.1.109.1.

An object is an ability on the stack, a card, a copy of a card, a token, a spell, or a permanent.

An object is an ability on the stack, a card, a copy of a card, a token, a spell, a permanent, or an emblem.

109.2.109.2.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a card type or subtype, but doesn't include the word "card," "spell," or "source," it means a permanent of that card type or subtype on the battlefield.

If a spell or ability uses a description of an object that includes a card type or subtype, but doesn't include the word "card," "spell," "source," or "scheme," it means a permanent of that card type or subtype on the battlefield.

109.2d.

If an ability of a scheme card includes the text "this scheme," it means the scheme card in the command zone on which that ability is printed.

109.4.109.4.

Only objects on the stack or on the battlefield have a controller. Objects that are neither on the stack nor on the battlefield aren't controlled by any player. See rule 108.4. There are two exceptions to this rule:

Only objects on the stack or on the battlefield have a controller. Objects that are neither on the stack nor on the battlefield aren't controlled by any player. See rule 108.4. There are three exceptions to this rule:

109.4c.

In an Archenemy game, each scheme card is controlled by its owner. See rule 904.7.

109.5.109.5.

The words "you" and "your" on an object refer to the object's controller, its would-be controller (if a player is attempting to cast or activate it), or its owner (if it has no controller). For a static ability, this is the current controller of the object it's on. For an activated ability, this is the player who activated the ability. For a triggered ability, this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. To determine the controller of a delayed triggered ability, see rules 603.7d-f.

The words "you" and "your" on an object refer to the object's controller, its would-be controller (if a player is attempting to play, cast, or activate it), or its owner (if it has no controller). For a static ability, this is the current controller of the object it's on. For an activated ability, this is the player who activated the ability. For a triggered ability, this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. To determine the controller of a delayed triggered ability, see rules 603.7d-f.

110.5d.

If a spell or ability would create a token, but an effect states that a permanent with one or more of that token's characteristics can't enter the battlefield, the token is not created.

110.5d.110.5e.

A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token's card type or subtype. A token isn't a card (even if represented by a card that has a Magic back or that came from a Magic booster pack).

A token is subject to anything that affects permanents in general or that affects the token's card type or subtype. A token isn't a card (even if represented by a card that has a Magic back or that came from a Magic booster pack).

110.5e.110.5f.

A token that's phased out, or that's in a zone other than the battlefield, ceases to exist. This is a state-based action; see rule 704. (Note that if a token changes zones, applicable triggered abilities will trigger before the token ceases to exist.)

A token that's phased out, or that's in a zone other than the battlefield, ceases to exist. This is a state-based action; see rule 704. (Note that if a token changes zones, applicable triggered abilities will trigger before the token ceases to exist.)

110.5f.110.5g.

A token that has left the battlefield can't come back onto the battlefield. If such a token would return to the battlefield, it remains in its current zone instead. It ceases to exist the next time state-based actions are checked; see rule 704.

A token that has left the battlefield can't come back onto the battlefield. If such a token would return to the battlefield, it remains in its current zone instead. It ceases to exist the next time state-based actions are checked; see rule 704.

112.3b.112.3b.

Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation restriction (if any).]" A player may activate such an ability whenever he or she has priority. Doing so puts it on the stack, where it remains until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."

Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation instructions (if any).]" A player may activate such an ability whenever he or she has priority. Doing so puts it on the stack, where it remains until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."

112.6f.

An object's ability that states it can't be countered or can't be countered by spells and abilities functions on the stack.

112.6f.112.6g.

An object's ability that modifies how that particular object enters the battlefield functions as that object is entering the battlefield. See rule 614.12.

An object's ability that modifies how that particular object enters the battlefield functions as that object is entering the battlefield. See rule 614.12.

112.6g.112.6h.

An object's activated ability that has a cost that can't be paid while the object is on the battlefield functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid.

An object's activated ability that has a cost that can't be paid while the object is on the battlefield functions from any zone in which its cost can be paid.

112.6h.112.6i.

A trigger condition that can't trigger from the battlefield functions in all zones it can trigger from. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull enters the battlefield or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition functions from the battlefield and the second trigger condition functions from the exile zone. (See rule 702.52, "Haunt.")

A trigger condition that can't trigger from the battlefield functions in all zones it can trigger from. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull enters the battlefield or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition functions from the battlefield and the second trigger condition functions from the exile zone. (See rule 702.52, "Haunt.")

112.6i.112.6j.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to the battlefield. Activate this ability only during your upkeep." A player may activate this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to the battlefield. Activate this ability only during your upkeep." A player may activate this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

112.6j.112.6k.

An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules, but also the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format. However, such an ability can't affect the format legality of a card, including whether it's banned or restricted. The current Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules can be found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home.

An ability that modifies the rules for deck construction functions before the game begins. Such an ability modifies not just the Comprehensive Rules, but also the Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules and any other documents that set the deck construction rules for a specific Constructed format. However, such an ability can't affect the format legality of a card, including whether it's banned or restricted. The current Magic: The Gathering Tournament Rules can be found at http://www.wizards.com/Magic/TCG/Events.aspx?x=dci/doccenter/home.

112.6k.112.6m.

Abilities of plane cards and vanguard cards function in the command zone. See rule 901, "Planar Magic," and rule 902, "Vanguard."

Abilities of emblems, plane cards, vanguard cards, and scheme cards function in the command zone. See rule 113, "Emblems," rule 901, "Planar Magic," rule 902, "Vanguard," and rule 904, "Archenemy."

112.7.112.7.

The source of an ability on the stack is the object that generated that ability. For an activated ability, it's the object whose ability was activated. For a triggered ability (other than a delayed triggered ability), it's the object whose ability triggered. To determine the source of a delayed triggered ability, see rules 603.7d-f.

The source of an ability is the object that generated it. The source of an activated ability on the stack is the object whose ability was activated. The source of a triggered ability (other than a delayed triggered ability) on the stack, or one that has triggered and is waiting to be put on the stack, is the object whose ability triggered. To determine the source of a delayed triggered ability, see rules 603.7d-f.

113.

Emblems

113.1.

Some effects put emblems into the command zone. An emblem is a marker used to represent an object that has one or more abilities, but no other characteristics.

113.2.

An effect that creates an emblem is written "[Player] gets an emblem with [ability]." This means that [player] puts an emblem with [ability] into the command zone. The emblem is both owned and controlled by that player.

113.3.

An emblem has no characteristics other than the abilities defined by the effect that created it. In particular, an emblem has no name, no types, no mana cost, no color, and no expansion symbol.

113.4.

Abilities of emblems function in the command zone.

113.5.

An emblem is neither a card nor a permanent. Emblem isn't a card type.

113.114.

Targets

Targets

113.1.114.1.

Some spells and abilities require their controller to choose one or more targets for them. The targets are object(s), player(s), and/or zone(s) the spell or ability will affect. These targets are declared as part of the process of putting the spell or ability on the stack. The targets can't be changed except by another spell or ability that explicitly says it can do so.

Some spells and abilities require their controller to choose one or more targets for them. The targets are object(s), player(s), and/or zone(s) the spell or ability will affect. These targets are declared as part of the process of putting the spell or ability on the stack. The targets can't be changed except by another spell or ability that explicitly says it can do so.

113.1a.114.1a.

An instant or sorcery spell is targeted if its spell ability identifies something it will affect by using the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. The target(s) are chosen as the spell is cast; see rule 601.2c. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target, that ability is targeted, but the spell is not.)

Example: A sorcery card has the ability "When you cycle this card, target creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn." This triggered ability is targeted, but that doesn't make the card it's on targeted.

An instant or sorcery spell is targeted if its spell ability identifies something it will affect by using the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. The target(s) are chosen as the spell is cast; see rule 601.2c. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target, that ability is targeted, but the spell is not.)

Example: A sorcery card has the ability "When you cycle this card, target creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn." This triggered ability is targeted, but that doesn't make the card it's on targeted.

113.1b.114.1b.

Aura spells are always targeted. These are the only permanent spells with targets. An Aura's target is specified by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 702.5, "Enchant"). The target(s) are chosen as the spell is cast; see rule 601.2c. An Aura permanent doesn't target anything; only the spell is targeted. (An activated or triggered ability of an Aura permanent can also be targeted.)

Aura spells are always targeted. These are the only permanent spells with targets. An Aura's target is specified by its enchant keyword ability (see rule 702.5, "Enchant"). The target(s) are chosen as the spell is cast; see rule 601.2c. An Aura permanent doesn't target anything; only the spell is targeted. (An activated or triggered ability of an Aura permanent can also be targeted.)

113.1c.114.1c.

An activated ability is targeted if it identifies something it will affect by using the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. The target(s) are chosen as the ability is activated; see rule 602.2b.

An activated ability is targeted if it identifies something it will affect by using the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. The target(s) are chosen as the ability is activated; see rule 602.2b.

113.1d.114.1d.

A triggered ability is targeted if it identifies something it will affect by using the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. The target(s) are chosen as the ability is put on the stack; see rule 603.3d.

A triggered ability is targeted if it identifies something it will affect by using the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. The target(s) are chosen as the ability is put on the stack; see rule 603.3d.

113.1e.114.1e.

Some keyword abilities, such as equip and provoke, represent targeted activated or triggered abilities. In those cases, the phrase "target [something]" appears in the rule for that keyword ability rather than in the ability itself. (The keyword's reminder text will often contain the word "target.") See rule 702, "Keyword Abilities."

Some keyword abilities, such as equip and provoke, represent targeted activated or triggered abilities. In those cases, the phrase "target [something]" appears in the rule for that keyword ability rather than in the ability itself. (The keyword's reminder text will often contain the word "target.") See rule 702, "Keyword Abilities."

113.2.114.2.

Only permanents are legal targets for spells and abilities, unless a spell or ability (a) specifies that it can target an object in another zone or a player, (b) targets an object that can't exist on the battlefield, such as a spell or ability, or (c) targets a zone.

Only permanents are legal targets for spells and abilities, unless a spell or ability (a) specifies that it can target an object in another zone or a player, (b) targets an object that can't exist on the battlefield, such as a spell or ability, or (c) targets a zone.

113.3.114.3.

The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on a spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).

The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on a spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).

113.4.114.4.

A spell or ability on the stack is an illegal target for itself.

A spell or ability on the stack is an illegal target for itself.

113.5.114.5.

Spells and abilities that can have zero or more targets are targeted only if one or more targets have been chosen for them.

Spells and abilities that can have zero or more targets are targeted only if one or more targets have been chosen for them.

113.6.114.6.

Some effects allow a player to change the target(s) of a spell or ability, and other effects allow a player to choose new targets for a spell or ability.

Some effects allow a player to change the target(s) of a spell or ability, and other effects allow a player to choose new targets for a spell or ability.

113.6a.114.6a.

If an effect allows a player to "change the target(s)" of a spell or ability, each target can be changed only to another legal target. If a target can't be changed to another legal target, the original target is unchanged, even if the original target is itself illegal by then. If all the targets aren't changed to other legal targets, none of them are changed.

If an effect allows a player to "change the target(s)" of a spell or ability, each target can be changed only to another legal target. If a target can't be changed to another legal target, the original target is unchanged, even if the original target is itself illegal by then. If all the targets aren't changed to other legal targets, none of them are changed.

113.6b.114.6b.

If an effect allows a player to "change any targets" of a spell or ability, the process described in rule 113.6a is followed, except that any number of those targets may be changed (rather than all of them or none of them).

If an effect allows a player to "change any targets" of a spell or ability, the process described in rule 114.6a is followed, except that any number of those targets may be changed (rather than all of them or none of them).

113.6c.114.6c.

If an effect allows a player to "choose new targets" for a spell or ability, the player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal.

If an effect allows a player to "choose new targets" for a spell or ability, the player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal.

113.7.114.7.

Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. An effect that allows a player to change the target(s) of a modal spell or ability, or to choose new targets for a modal spell or ability, doesn't allow that player to change its mode. (See rule 700.2.)

Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. An effect that allows a player to change the target(s) of a modal spell or ability, or to choose new targets for a modal spell or ability, doesn't allow that player to change its mode. (See rule 700.2.)

113.8.114.8.

Some objects check what another spell or ability is targeting. Depending on the wording, these may check the current state of the targets, the state of the targets at the time they were selected, or both.

Some objects check what another spell or ability is targeting. Depending on the wording, these may check the current state of the targets, the state of the targets at the time they were selected, or both.

113.8a.114.8a.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] that targets [something]" checks the current state of that spell or ability's targets. If an object it targets is still in the zone it's expected to be in or a player it targets is still in the game, that target's current information is used, even if it's not currently legal for that spell or ability. If an object it targets is no longer in the zone it's expected to be in or a player it targets is no longer in the game, that target is ignored; its last known information is not used.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] that targets [something]" checks the current state of that spell or ability's targets. If an object it targets is still in the zone it's expected to be in or a player it targets is still in the game, that target's current information is used, even if it's not currently legal for that spell or ability. If an object it targets is no longer in the zone it's expected to be in or a player it targets is no longer in the game, that target is ignored; its last known information is not used.

113.8b.114.8b.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] with a single target" checks the number of times any objects, players, or zones became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack, not the number of its targets that are currently legal. If the same object, player, or zone became a target more than once, each of those instances is counted separately.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] with a single target" checks the number of times any objects, players, or zones became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack, not the number of its targets that are currently legal. If the same object, player, or zone became a target more than once, each of those instances is counted separately.

113.8c.114.8c.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] that targets only [something]" checks the number of different objects or players that became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack (as modified by effects that changed those targets), not the number of those objects or players that are currently legal targets. If that number is one (even if the spell or ability targets that object or player multiple times), the current state of that spell or ability's target is checked as described in rule 113.8a.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] that targets only [something]" checks the number of different objects or players that became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack (as modified by effects that changed those targets), not the number of those objects or players that are currently legal targets. If that number is one (even if the spell or ability targets that object or player multiple times), the current state of that spell or ability's target is checked as described in rule 114.8a.

113.9.114.9.

Spells and abilities can affect objects and players they don't target. In general, those objects and players aren't chosen until the spell or ability resolves. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

Spells and abilities can affect objects and players they don't target. In general, those objects and players aren't chosen until the spell or ability resolves. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

113.9a.114.9a.

Just because an object or player is being affected by a spell or ability doesn't make that object or player a target of that spell or ability. Unless that object or player is identified by the word "target" in the text of that spell or ability, or the rule for that keyword ability, it's not a target.

Just because an object or player is being affected by a spell or ability doesn't make that object or player a target of that spell or ability. Unless that object or player is identified by the word "target" in the text of that spell or ability, or the rule for that keyword ability, it's not a target.

113.9b.114.9b.

In particular, the word "you" in an object's text doesn't indicate a target.

In particular, the word "you" in an object's text doesn't indicate a target.

114.115.

Special Actions

Special Actions

114.1.115.1.

Special actions are actions a player may take when he or she has priority that don't use the stack. These are not to be confused with turn-based actions and state-based actions, which the game generates automatically. (See rule 703, "Turn-Based Actions," and rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

Special actions are actions a player may take when he or she has priority that don't use the stack. These are not to be confused with turn-based actions and state-based actions, which the game generates automatically. (See rule 703, "Turn-Based Actions," and rule 704, "State-Based Actions.")

114.2.115.2.

There are six special actions:

There are six special actions:

114.2a.115.2a.

Playing a land is a special action. To play a land, a player puts that land onto the battlefield from the zone it was in (usually that player's hand). A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if he or she hasn't yet played a land that turn. See rule 305, "Lands."

Playing a land is a special action. To play a land, a player puts that land onto the battlefield from the zone it was in (usually that player's hand). A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if he or she hasn't yet played a land that turn. See rule 305, "Lands."

114.2b.115.2b.

Turning a face-down creature face up is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority. See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents."

Turning a face-down creature face up is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority. See rule 707, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents."

114.2c.115.2c.

Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time, usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority, but only if the ability or effect allows it.

Some effects allow a player to take an action at a later time, usually to end a continuous effect or to stop a delayed triggered ability from triggering. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority, but only if the ability or effect allows it.

114.2d.115.2d.

Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore the effect from that ability for a duration. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority.

Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore the effect from that ability for a duration. Doing so is a special action. A player can take such an action any time he or she has priority.

114.2e.115.2e.

A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may exile that card. This is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority, but only if he or she could begin to cast that card by putting it onto the stack. See rule 702.59, "Suspend."

A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may exile that card. This is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority, but only if he or she could begin to cast that card by putting it onto the stack. See rule 702.59, "Suspend."

114.2f.115.2f.

In a Planar Magic game, rolling the planar die is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

In a Planar Magic game, rolling the planar die is a special action. A player can take this action any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

114.3.115.3.

If a player takes a special action, that player receives priority afterward.

If a player takes a special action, that player receives priority afterward.

115.116.

Timing and Priority

Timing and Priority

115.1.116.1.

Unless a spell or ability is instructing a player to take an action, which player can take actions at any given time is determined by a system of priority. The player with priority may cast spells, activate abilities, and take special actions.

Unless a spell or ability is instructing a player to take an action, which player can take actions at any given time is determined by a system of priority. The player with priority may cast spells, activate abilities, and take special actions.

115.1a.116.1a.

A player may cast an instant spell any time he or she has priority. A player may cast a noninstant spell during his or her main phase any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty.

A player may cast an instant spell any time he or she has priority. A player may cast a noninstant spell during his or her main phase any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty.

115.1b.116.1b.

A player may activate an activated ability any time he or she has priority.

A player may activate an activated ability any time he or she has priority.

115.1c.116.1c.

A player may take some special actions any time he or she has priority. A player may take other special actions during his or her main phase any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty. See rule 114, "Special Actions."

A player may take some special actions any time he or she has priority. A player may take other special actions during his or her main phase any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty. See rule 115, "Special Actions."

115.1d.116.1d.

A player may activate a mana ability whenever he or she has priority, whenever he or she is casting a spell or activating an ability that requires a mana payment, or whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment (even in the middle of casting or resolving a spell or activating or resolving an ability).

A player may activate a mana ability whenever he or she has priority, whenever he or she is casting a spell or activating an ability that requires a mana payment, or whenever a rule or effect asks for a mana payment (even in the middle of casting or resolving a spell or activating or resolving an ability).

115.2.116.2.

Other kinds of abilities and actions are automatically generated or performed by the game rules, or are performed by players without receiving priority.

Other kinds of abilities and actions are automatically generated or performed by the game rules, or are performed by players without receiving priority.

115.2a.116.2a.

Triggered abilities can trigger at any time, including while a spell is being cast, an ability is being activated, or a spell or ability is resolving. (See rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities.") However, nothing actually happens at the time an ability triggers. Each time a player would receive priority, each ability that has triggered but hasn't yet been put on the stack is put on the stack. See rule 115.5.

Triggered abilities can trigger at any time, including while a spell is being cast, an ability is being activated, or a spell or ability is resolving. (See rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities.") However, nothing actually happens at the time an ability triggers. Each time a player would receive priority, each ability that has triggered but hasn't yet been put on the stack is put on the stack. See rule 116.5.

115.2b.116.2b.

Static abilities continuously affect the game. Priority doesn't apply to them. (See rule 604, "Handling Static Abilities," and rule 611, "Continuous Effects.")

Static abilities continuously affect the game. Priority doesn't apply to them. (See rule 604, "Handling Static Abilities," and rule 611, "Continuous Effects.")

115.2c.116.2c.

Turn-based actions happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin. They're dealt with before a player would receive priority. See rule 115.3a. Turn-based actions also happen automatically when each step and phase ends; no player receives priority afterward. See rule 703, "Turn-Based Actions."

Turn-based actions happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin. They're dealt with before a player would receive priority. See rule 116.3a. Turn-based actions also happen automatically when each step and phase ends; no player receives priority afterward. See rule 703, "Turn-Based Actions."

115.2d.116.2d.

State-based actions happen automatically when certain conditions are met. See rule 704. They're dealt with before a player would receive priority. See rule 115.5.

State-based actions happen automatically when certain conditions are met. See rule 704. They're dealt with before a player would receive priority. See rule 116.5.

115.2e.116.2e.

Resolving spells and abilities may instruct players to make choices or take actions, or may allow players to activate mana abilities. Even if a player is doing so, no player has priority while a spell or ability is resolving. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

Resolving spells and abilities may instruct players to make choices or take actions, or may allow players to activate mana abilities. Even if a player is doing so, no player has priority while a spell or ability is resolving. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

115.3.116.3.

Which player has priority is determined by the following rules:

Which player has priority is determined by the following rules:

115.3a.116.3a.

The active player receives priority at the beginning of most steps and phases, after any turn-based actions (such as drawing a card during the draw step; see rule 703) have been dealt with and abilities that trigger at the beginning of that phase or step have been put on the stack. No player receives priority during the untap step. Players usually don't get priority during the cleanup step (see rule 514.3).

The active player receives priority at the beginning of most steps and phases, after any turn-based actions (such as drawing a card during the draw step; see rule 703) have been dealt with and abilities that trigger at the beginning of that phase or step have been put on the stack. No player receives priority during the untap step. Players usually don't get priority during the cleanup step (see rule 514.3).

115.3b.116.3b.

The active player receives priority after a spell or ability (other than a mana ability) resolves.

The active player receives priority after a spell or ability (other than a mana ability) resolves.

115.3c.116.3c.

If a player has priority when he or she casts a spell, activates an ability, or takes a special action, that player receives priority afterward.

If a player has priority when he or she casts a spell, activates an ability, or takes a special action, that player receives priority afterward.

115.3d.116.3d.

If a player has priority and chooses not to take any actions, that player passes. If any mana is in that player's mana pool, he or she announces what mana is there. Then the next player in turn order receives priority.

If a player has priority and chooses not to take any actions, that player passes. If any mana is in that player's mana pool, he or she announces what mana is there. Then the next player in turn order receives priority.

115.4.116.4.

If all players pass in succession (that is, if all players pass without taking any actions in between passing), the spell or ability on top of the stack resolves or, if the stack is empty, the phase or step ends.

If all players pass in succession (that is, if all players pass without taking any actions in between passing), the spell or ability on top of the stack resolves or, if the stack is empty, the phase or step ends.

115.5.116.5.

Each time a player would get priority, the game first performs all applicable state-based actions as a single event (see rule 704, "State-Based Actions"), then repeats this process until no state-based actions are performed. Then triggered abilities are put on the stack (see rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities"). These steps repeat in order until no further state-based actions are performed and no abilities trigger. Then the player who would have received priority does so.

Each time a player would get priority, the game first performs all applicable state-based actions as a single event (see rule 704, "State-Based Actions"), then repeats this process until no state-based actions are performed. Then triggered abilities are put on the stack (see rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities"). These steps repeat in order until no further state-based actions are performed and no abilities trigger. Then the player who would have received priority does so.

115.6.116.6.

In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, teams rather than individual players have priority. See rule 806, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

In a multiplayer game using the shared team turns option, teams rather than individual players have priority. See rule 805, "Shared Team Turns Option."

115.7.116.7.

If a player with priority casts a spell or activates an activated ability while another spell or ability is already on the stack, the new spell or ability has been cast or activated "in response to" the earlier spell or ability. The new spell or ability will resolve first. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

If a player with priority casts a spell or activates an activated ability while another spell or ability is already on the stack, the new spell or ability has been cast or activated "in response to" the earlier spell or ability. The new spell or ability will resolve first. See rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities."

116.117.

Costs

Costs

116.1.117.1.

A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. To pay a cost, a player carries out the instructions specified by the spell, ability, or effect that contains that cost.

A cost is an action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. To pay a cost, a player carries out the instructions specified by the spell, ability, or effect that contains that cost.

116.2.117.2.

If a cost includes a mana payment, the player paying the cost has a chance to activate mana abilities. Paying the cost to cast a spell or activate an activated ability follows the steps in rules 601.2e-g.

If a cost includes a mana payment, the player paying the cost has a chance to activate mana abilities. Paying the cost to cast a spell or activate an activated ability follows the steps in rules 601.2e-g.

116.3.117.3.

A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 202, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."

A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 202, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."

116.3a.117.3a.

Paying mana is done by removing the indicated mana from a player's mana pool. (Players can always pay 0 mana.) If excess mana remains in that player's mana pool after making that payment, the player announces what mana is still there.

Paying mana is done by removing the indicated mana from a player's mana pool. (Players can always pay 0 mana.) If excess mana remains in that player's mana pool after making that payment, the player announces what mana is still there.

116.3b.117.3b.

Paying life is done by subtracting the indicated amount of life from a player's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

Paying life is done by subtracting the indicated amount of life from a player's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

116.3c.117.3c.

Activating mana abilities is not mandatory, even if paying a cost is.

Example: A player controls Thorn of Amethyst, which says "Noncreature spells cost {1} more to cast." Another player removes the last time counter from a suspended sorcery card. That player must cast that spell if able, but doing so costs {1}. The player is forced to spend {1} if enough mana is in his or her mana pool, but the player isn't forced to activate a mana ability to produce that {1}. If he or she doesn't, the card simply remains exiled.

Activating mana abilities is not mandatory, even if paying a cost is.

Example: A player controls Thorn of Amethyst, which says "Noncreature spells cost {1} more to cast." Another player removes the last time counter from a suspended sorcery card. That player must cast that spell if able, but doing so costs {1}. The player is forced to spend {1} if enough mana is in his or her mana pool, but the player isn't forced to activate a mana ability to produce that {1}. If he or she doesn't, the card simply remains exiled.

116.4.117.4.

Some costs include an {X} or an X. See rule 107.3.

Some costs include an {X} or an X. See rule 107.3.

116.5.117.5.

Some costs are represented by {0}, or are reduced to {0}. The action necessary for a player to pay such a cost is the player's acknowledgment that he or she is paying it. Even though such a cost requires no resources, it's not automatically paid.

Some costs are represented by {0}, or are reduced to {0}. The action necessary for a player to pay such a cost is the player's acknowledgment that he or she is paying it. Even though such a cost requires no resources, it's not automatically paid.

116.5a.117.5a.

A spell whose mana cost is {0} must still be cast the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't cast itself automatically. The same is true for an activated ability whose cost is {0}.

A spell whose mana cost is {0} must still be cast the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't cast itself automatically. The same is true for an activated ability whose cost is {0}.

116.6.117.6.

Some mana costs contain no mana symbols. This represents an unpayable cost. An ability can also have an unpayable cost if its cost is based on the mana cost of an object with no mana cost. Attempting to cast a spell or activate an ability that has an unpayable cost is a legal action. However, attempting to pay an unpayable cost is an illegal action.

Some mana costs contain no mana symbols. This represents an unpayable cost. An ability can also have an unpayable cost if its cost is based on the mana cost of an object with no mana cost. Attempting to cast a spell or activate an ability that has an unpayable cost is a legal action. However, attempting to pay an unpayable cost is an illegal action.

116.6a.117.6a.

If an unpayable cost is increased by an effect or an additional cost is imposed, the cost is still unpayable. If an alternative cost is applied to an unpayable cost, including an effect that allows a player to cast a spell without paying its mana cost, the alternative cost may be paid.

If an unpayable cost is increased by an effect or an additional cost is imposed, the cost is still unpayable. If an alternative cost is applied to an unpayable cost, including an effect that allows a player to cast a spell without paying its mana cost, the alternative cost may be paid.

116.7.117.7.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it's considered to be {0}. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it's considered to be {0}. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

116.7a.117.7a.

If a cost is reduced by an amount of colored mana, but its colored mana component doesn't contain mana of that color, the cost is reduced by that amount of generic mana.

If a cost is reduced by an amount of colored mana, but its colored mana component doesn't contain mana of that color, the cost is reduced by that amount of generic mana.

116.7b.117.7b.

If a cost is reduced by an amount of colored mana that exceeds its mana component of that color, the cost's mana component of that color is reduced to nothing and the cost's generic mana component is reduced by the difference.

If a cost is reduced by an amount of colored mana that exceeds its mana component of that color, the cost's mana component of that color is reduced to nothing and the cost's generic mana component is reduced by the difference.

116.7c.117.7c.

If a cost is reduced by an amount of mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol, the player paying that cost chooses one half of that symbol at the time the cost reduction is applied (see rule 601.2e). If a colored half is chosen, the cost is reduced by one mana of that color. If a colorless half is chosen, the cost is reduced by an amount of generic mana equal to that half's number.

If a cost is reduced by an amount of mana represented by a hybrid mana symbol, the player paying that cost chooses one half of that symbol at the time the cost reduction is applied (see rule 601.2e). If a colored half is chosen, the cost is reduced by one mana of that color. If a colorless half is chosen, the cost is reduced by an amount of generic mana equal to that half's number.

116.8.117.8.

Some spells and abilities have additional costs. An additional cost is a cost listed in a spell's rules text, or applied to a spell or ability from another effect, that its controller must pay at the same time that player pays the spell's mana cost or the ability's activation cost. A cost is an additional cost only if it's phrased using the word "additional." Note that some additional costs are listed in keywords; see rule 702.

Some spells and abilities have additional costs. An additional cost is a cost listed in a spell's rules text, or applied to a spell or ability from another effect, that its controller must pay at the same time that player pays the spell's mana cost or the ability's activation cost. A cost is an additional cost only if it's phrased using the word "additional." Note that some additional costs are listed in keywords; see rule 702.

116.8a.117.8a.

Any number of additional costs may be applied to a spell as it's being cast or to an ability as it's being activated. The controller of the spell or ability announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs as described in rule 601.2b.

Any number of additional costs may be applied to a spell as it's being cast or to an ability as it's being activated. The controller of the spell or ability announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs as described in rule 601.2b.

116.8b.117.8b.

Some additional costs are optional.

Some additional costs are optional.

116.8c.117.8c.

Additional costs don't change a spell's mana cost, only what its controller has to pay to cast it. Spells and abilities that ask for that spell's mana cost still see the original value.

Additional costs don't change a spell's mana cost, only what its controller has to pay to cast it. Spells and abilities that ask for that spell's mana cost still see the original value.

116.8d.117.8d.

Some effects increase the cost to cast a spell or activate an ability without using the word "additional." Those are not additional costs, and are not considered until determining the total cost of a spell or ability as described in rule 601.2e.

Some effects increase the cost to cast a spell or activate an ability without using the word "additional." Those are not additional costs, and are not considered until determining the total cost of a spell or ability as described in rule 601.2e.

116.9.117.9.

Some spells have alternative costs. An alternative cost is a cost listed in a spell's text, or applied to it from another effect, that its controller may pay rather than paying the spell's mana cost. Alternative costs are usually phrased, "You may [action] rather than pay [this object's] mana cost," or "You may cast [this object] without paying its mana cost." Note that some alternative costs are listed in keywords; see rule 702.

Some spells have alternative costs. An alternative cost is a cost listed in a spell's text, or applied to it from another effect, that its controller may pay rather than paying the spell's mana cost. Alternative costs are usually phrased, "You may [action] rather than pay [this object's] mana cost," or "You may cast [this object] without paying its mana cost." Note that some alternative costs are listed in keywords; see rule 702.

116.9a.117.9a.

Only one alternative cost can be applied to any one spell as it's being cast. The controller of the spell announces his or her intentions to pay that cost as described in rule 601.2b.

Only one alternative cost can be applied to any one spell as it's being cast. The controller of the spell announces his or her intentions to pay that cost as described in rule 601.2b.

116.9b.117.9b.

Alternative costs are always optional.

Alternative costs are always optional.

116.9c.117.9c.

An alternative cost doesn't change a spell's mana cost, only what its controller has to pay to cast it. Spells and abilities that ask for that spell's mana cost still see the original value.

An alternative cost doesn't change a spell's mana cost, only what its controller has to pay to cast it. Spells and abilities that ask for that spell's mana cost still see the original value.

116.9d.117.9d.

If an alternative cost is being paid to cast a spell, any additional costs, cost increases, and cost reductions that affect that spell are applied to that alternative cost. (See rule 601.2e.)

If an alternative cost is being paid to cast a spell, any additional costs, cost increases, and cost reductions that affect that spell are applied to that alternative cost. (See rule 601.2e.)

116.10.117.10.

Each payment of a cost applies to only one spell, ability, or effect. For example, a player can't sacrifice just one creature to activate the activated abilities of two permanents that each require sacrificing a creature as a cost. Also, the resolution of a spell or ability doesn't pay another spell or ability's cost, even if part of its effect is doing the same thing the other cost asks for.

Each payment of a cost applies to only one spell, ability, or effect. For example, a player can't sacrifice just one creature to activate the activated abilities of two permanents that each require sacrificing a creature as a cost. Also, the resolution of a spell or ability doesn't pay another spell or ability's cost, even if part of its effect is doing the same thing the other cost asks for.

116.11.117.11.

The actions performed when paying a cost may be modified by effects. Even if they are, meaning the actions that are performed don't match the actions that are called for, the cost has still been paid.

Example: A player controls Psychic Vortex, an enchantment with a cumulative upkeep cost of "Draw a card," and Obstinate Familiar, a creature that says "If you would draw a card, you may skip that draw instead." The player may decide to pay Psychic Vortex's cumulative upkeep cost and then draw no cards instead of drawing the appropriate amount. The cumulative upkeep cost has still been paid.

The actions performed when paying a cost may be modified by effects. Even if they are, meaning the actions that are performed don't match the actions that are called for, the cost has still been paid.

Example: A player controls Psychic Vortex, an enchantment with a cumulative upkeep cost of "Draw a card," and Obstinate Familiar, a creature that says "If you would draw a card, you may skip that draw instead." The player may decide to pay Psychic Vortex's cumulative upkeep cost and then draw no cards instead of drawing the appropriate amount. The cumulative upkeep cost has still been paid.

116.12.117.12.

Some spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities read, "[Do something]. If [a player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." or "[A player] may [do something]. If [that player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." The action [do something] is a cost, paid when the spell or ability resolves. The "If [a player] [does or doesn't]" clause checks whether the player chose to pay an optional cost or started to pay a mandatory cost, regardless of what events actually occurred.

Example: You control Hesitation, an enchantment that says "When a player casts a spell, sacrifice Hesitation. If you do, counter that spell." A spell is cast, causing Hesitation's ability to trigger. Then an ability is activated that exiles Hesitation. When Hesitation's ability resolves, you're unable to pay the "sacrifice Hesitation" cost. The spell is not countered.

Example: Your opponent has cast Gather Specimens, a spell that says "If a creature would enter the battlefield under an opponent's control this turn, it enters the battlefield under your control instead." You control a face-down Dermoplasm, a creature with morph that says "When Dermoplasm is turned face up, you may put a creature card with morph from your hand onto the battlefield face up. If you do, return Dermoplasm to its owner's hand." You turn Dermoplasm face up, and you choose to put a creature card with morph from your hand onto the battlefield. Due to Gather Specimens, it enters the battlefield under your opponent's control instead of yours. However, since you chose to pay the cost, Dermoplasm is still returned to its owner's hand.

Some spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities read, "[Do something]. If [a player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." or "[A player] may [do something]. If [that player] [does or doesn't], [effect]." The action [do something] is a cost, paid when the spell or ability resolves. The "If [a player] [does or doesn't]" clause checks whether the player chose to pay an optional cost or started to pay a mandatory cost, regardless of what events actually occurred.

Example: You control Hesitation, an enchantment that says "When a player casts a spell, sacrifice Hesitation. If you do, counter that spell." A spell is cast, causing Hesitation's ability to trigger. Then an ability is activated that exiles Hesitation. When Hesitation's ability resolves, you're unable to pay the "sacrifice Hesitation" cost. The spell is not countered.

Example: Your opponent has cast Gather Specimens, a spell that says "If a creature would enter the battlefield under an opponent's control this turn, it enters the battlefield under your control instead." You control a face-down Dermoplasm, a creature with morph that says "When Dermoplasm is turned face up, you may put a creature card with morph from your hand onto the battlefield face up. If you do, return Dermoplasm to its owner's hand." You turn Dermoplasm face up, and you choose to put a creature card with morph from your hand onto the battlefield. Due to Gather Specimens, it enters the battlefield under your opponent's control instead of yours. However, since you chose to pay the cost, Dermoplasm is still returned to its owner's hand.

116.12a.117.12a.

Some spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities read, "[Do something] unless you [do something else]." This means the same thing as "You may [do something else]. If you don't, [do something]."

Some spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities read, "[Do something] unless you [do something else]." This means the same thing as "You may [do something else]. If you don't, [do something]."

117.118.

Life

Life

117.1.118.1.

Each player begins the game with a life total of 20.

Each player begins the game with a life total of 20.

117.1a.118.1a.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead; see rule 806, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

In a Two-Headed Giant game, each team begins the game with a shared life total of 30 instead; see rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

117.1b.118.1b.

In a Vanguard game, each player begins the game with a starting life total of 20, as modified by his or her vanguard card's life modifier. See rule 902, "Vanguard."

In a Vanguard game, each player begins the game with a starting life total of 20, as modified by his or her vanguard card's life modifier. See rule 902, "Vanguard."

117.1c.118.1c.

In an EDH game, each player begins the game with a starting life total of 40 instead; see rule 903, "EDH."

In an EDH game, each player begins the game with a starting life total of 40 instead; see rule 903, "EDH."

118.1d.

In an Archenemy game, the archenemy begins the game with a starting life total of 40 instead; see rule 904, "Archenemy."

117.2.118.2.

Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life.

Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life.

117.3.118.3.

If an effect causes a player to gain life or lose life, that player's life total is adjusted accordingly.

If an effect causes a player to gain life or lose life, that player's life total is adjusted accordingly.

117.4.118.4.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0, the player may do so only if his or her life total is greater than or equal to the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her life total; in other words, the player loses that much life. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0, the player may do so only if his or her life total is greater than or equal to the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her life total; in other words, the player loses that much life. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

117.4a.118.4a.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game, the player may do so only if his or her team's life total is greater than or equal to the total amount of life both team members are paying for that cost or effect. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her team's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game, the player may do so only if his or her team's life total is greater than or equal to the total amount of life both team members are paying for that cost or effect. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her team's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

117.5.118.5.

If an effect sets a player's life total to a specific number, the player gains or loses the necessary amount of life to end up with the new total.

If an effect sets a player's life total to a specific number, the player gains or loses the necessary amount of life to end up with the new total.

117.6.118.6.

If a player has 0 or less life, that player loses the game as a state-based action. See rule 704.

If a player has 0 or less life, that player loses the game as a state-based action. See rule 704.

117.7.118.7.

If an effect says that a player can't gain life, that player can't exchange life totals with a player who has a higher life total; in that case, the exchange won't happen. In addition, a cost that involves having that player gain life can't be paid, and a replacement effect that would replace a life gain event affecting that player won't do anything.

If an effect says that a player can't gain life, that player can't exchange life totals with a player who has a higher life total; in that case, the exchange won't happen. In addition, a cost that involves having that player gain life can't be paid, and a replacement effect that would replace a life gain event affecting that player won't do anything.

118.8.

Some triggered abilities are written, "Whenever [a player] gains life, . . . ." Such abilities are treated as though they are written, "Whenever a source causes [a player] to gain life, . . . ."

Example: A player controls Ajani's Pridemate, which reads "Whenever you gain life, you may put a +1/+1 counter on Ajani's Pridemate," and two creatures with lifelink. The creatures with lifelink deal combat damage simultaneously. Ajani's Pridemate's ability triggers twice.

118.119.

Damage

Damage

118.1.119.1.

Objects can deal damage to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. This is generally detrimental to the object or player that receives that damage. An object that deals damage is the source of that damage.

Objects can deal damage to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. This is generally detrimental to the object or player that receives that damage. An object that deals damage is the source of that damage.

118.1a.119.1a.

Damage can't be dealt to an object that's neither a creature nor a planeswalker.

Damage can't be dealt to an object that's neither a creature nor a planeswalker.

118.2.119.2.

Any object can deal damage.

Any object can deal damage.

118.2a.119.2a.

Damage may be dealt as a result of combat. Each attacking and blocking creature deals combat damage equal to its power during the combat damage step.

Damage may be dealt as a result of combat. Each attacking and blocking creature deals combat damage equal to its power during the combat damage step.

118.2b.119.2b.

Damage may be dealt as an effect of a spell or ability. The spell or ability will specify which object deals that damage.

Damage may be dealt as an effect of a spell or ability. The spell or ability will specify which object deals that damage.

118.3.119.3.

Damage may have one or more of the following results, depending on whether the recipient of the damage is a player or permanent, the characteristics of the damage's source, and the characteristics of the damage's recipient (if it's a permanent).

Damage may have one or more of the following results, depending on whether the recipient of the damage is a player or permanent, the characteristics of the damage's source, and the characteristics of the damage's recipient (if it's a permanent).

118.3a.119.3a.

Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life.

Damage dealt to a player causes that player to lose that much life.

118.3b.119.3b.

Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that many loyalty counters to be removed from that planeswalker.

Damage dealt to a planeswalker causes that many loyalty counters to be removed from that planeswalker.

118.3c.119.3c.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature.

118.3d.119.3d.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source without wither causes that much damage to be marked on that creature.

Damage dealt to a creature by a source without wither causes that much damage to be marked on that creature.

118.3e.119.3e.

Damage dealt to an object or player by a source with lifelink causes that source's controller to gain that much life, in addition to the damage's other results.

Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that source's controller to gain that much life, in addition to the damage's other results.

118.4.119.4.

Damage is processed in a three-part sequence.

Damage is processed in a three-part sequence.

118.4a.119.4a.

First, damage is dealt, as modified by replacement and prevention effects that interact with damage. (See rule 614, "Replacement Effects," and rule 615, "Prevention Effects.") Abilities that trigger when damage is dealt trigger now and wait to be put on the stack.

First, damage is dealt, as modified by replacement and prevention effects that interact with damage. (See rule 614, "Replacement Effects," and rule 615, "Prevention Effects.") Abilities that trigger when damage is dealt trigger now and wait to be put on the stack.

118.4b.119.4b.

Next, damage that's been dealt is transformed into its results, as modified by replacement effects that interact with those results (such as life loss or counters).

Next, damage that's been dealt is transformed into its results, as modified by replacement effects that interact with those results (such as life loss or counters).

118.4c.119.4c.

Finally, the damage event occurs.

Example: A player who controls Boon Reflection, an enchantment that says "If you would gain life, you gain twice that much life instead," attacks with a 3/3 creature with wither and lifelink. It's blocked by a 2/2 creature, and the defending player casts a spell that prevents the next 2 damage that would be dealt to the blocking creature. The damage event starts out as [3 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. The prevention effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [1 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 1 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Boon Reflection's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 2 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Then the damage event occurs.

Example: The defending player controls a creature and Worship, an enchantment that says "If you control a creature, damage that would reduce your life total to less than 1 reduces it to 1 instead." That player is at 2 life, and is being attacked by two unblocked 5/5 creatures. The player casts Awe Strike, which says "The next time target creature would deal damage this turn, prevent that damage. You gain life equal to the damage prevented this way," targeting one of the attackers. The damage event starts out as [10 damage is dealt to the defending player]. Awe Strike's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [5 damage is dealt to the defending player, the defending player gains 5 life]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [the defending player loses 5 life, the defending player gains 5 life]. Worship's effect sees that the damage event would not reduce the player's life total to less than 1, so it's not applied. Then the damage event occurs.

Finally, the damage event occurs.

Example: A player who controls Boon Reflection, an enchantment that says "If you would gain life, you gain twice that much life instead," attacks with a 3/3 creature with wither and lifelink. It's blocked by a 2/2 creature, and the defending player casts a spell that prevents the next 2 damage that would be dealt to the blocking creature. The damage event starts out as [3 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. The prevention effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [1 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 1 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Boon Reflection's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 2 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Then the damage event occurs.

Example: The defending player controls a creature and Worship, an enchantment that says "If you control a creature, damage that would reduce your life total to less than 1 reduces it to 1 instead." That player is at 2 life, and is being attacked by two unblocked 5/5 creatures. The player casts Awe Strike, which says "The next time target creature would deal damage this turn, prevent that damage. You gain life equal to the damage prevented this way," targeting one of the attackers. The damage event starts out as [10 damage is dealt to the defending player]. Awe Strike's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [5 damage is dealt to the defending player, the defending player gains 5 life]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [the defending player loses 5 life, the defending player gains 5 life]. Worship's effect sees that the damage event would not reduce the player's life total to less than 1, so it's not applied. Then the damage event occurs.

118.5.119.5.

Damage dealt to a creature or planeswalker doesn't destroy it. Likewise, the source of that damage doesn't destroy it. Rather, state-based actions may destroy a creature or planeswalker, or otherwise put it into its owner's graveyard, due to the results of the damage dealt to that permanent. See rule 704.

Example: A player casts Lightning Bolt, an instant that says "Lightning Bolt deals 3 damage to target creature or player," targeting a 2/2 creature. After Lightning Bolt deals 3 damage to that creature, the creature is destroyed as a state-based action. Neither Lightning Bolt nor the damage dealt by Lightning Bolt destroyed that creature.

Damage dealt to a creature or planeswalker doesn't destroy it. Likewise, the source of that damage doesn't destroy it. Rather, state-based actions may destroy a creature or planeswalker, or otherwise put it into its owner's graveyard, due to the results of the damage dealt to that permanent. See rule 704.

Example: A player casts Lightning Bolt, an instant that says "Lightning Bolt deals 3 damage to target creature or player," targeting a 2/2 creature. After Lightning Bolt deals 3 damage to that creature, the creature is destroyed as a state-based action. Neither Lightning Bolt nor the damage dealt by Lightning Bolt destroyed that creature.

118.6.119.6.

Damage marked on a creature remains until the cleanup step, even if that permanent stops being a creature. If the total damage marked on a creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a permanent is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.11, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).

Damage marked on a creature remains until the cleanup step, even if that permanent stops being a creature. If the total damage marked on a creature is greater than or equal to its toughness, that creature has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed as a state-based action (see rule 704). All damage marked on a permanent is removed when it regenerates (see rule 701.11, "Regenerate") and during the cleanup step (see rule 514.2).

118.7.119.7.

The source of damage is the object that dealt it. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a prevention or replacement effect that's waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or, in certain casual variant games, a face-up card in the command zone. A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. See rule 609.7, "Sources of Damage."

The source of damage is the object that dealt it. If an effect requires a player to choose a source of damage, he or she may choose a permanent; a spell on the stack (including a permanent spell); any object referred to by an object on the stack, by a prevention or replacement effect that's waiting to apply, or by a delayed triggered ability that's waiting to trigger (even if that object is no longer in the zone it used to be in); or, in certain casual variant games, a face-up card in the command zone. A source doesn't need to be capable of dealing damage to be a legal choice. See rule 609.7, "Sources of Damage."

118.8.119.8.

If a source would deal 0 damage, it does not deal damage at all. That means abilities that trigger on damage being dealt won't trigger. It also means that replacement effects that would increase the damage dealt by that source, or would have that source deal that damage to a different object or player, have no event to replace, so they have no effect.

If a source would deal 0 damage, it does not deal damage at all. That means abilities that trigger on damage being dealt won't trigger. It also means that replacement effects that would increase the damage dealt by that source, or would have that source deal that damage to a different object or player, have no event to replace, so they have no effect.

119.120.

Drawing a Card

Drawing a Card

119.1.120.1.

A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. This is done as a turn-based action during each player's draw step. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.

A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. This is done as a turn-based action during each player's draw step. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.

119.2.120.2.

Cards may only be drawn one at a time. If a player is instructed to draw multiple cards, that player performs that many individual card draws.

Cards may only be drawn one at a time. If a player is instructed to draw multiple cards, that player performs that many individual card draws.

119.2a.120.2a.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards, the active player performs all of his or her draws first, then each other player in turn order does the same.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards, the active player performs all of his or her draws first, then each other player in turn order does the same.

119.2b.120.2b.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a game that's using the shared team turns option (such as a Two-Headed Giant game), first each player on the active team, in whatever order that team likes, performs his or her draws, then each player on each nonactive team in turn order does the same.

119.3.120.3.

If there are no cards in a player's library and an effect offers that player the choice to draw a card, that player can choose to do so. However, if an effect says that a player can't draw cards and another effect offers that player the choice to draw a card, that player can't choose to do so.

If there are no cards in a player's library and an effect offers that player the choice to draw a card, that player can choose to do so. However, if an effect says that a player can't draw cards and another effect offers that player the choice to draw a card, that player can't choose to do so.

120.3a.

The same principles apply if the player who's making the choice is not the player who would draw the card. If the latter player has no cards in his or her library, the choice can be taken. If an effect says that the latter player can't draw a card, the choice can't be taken.

119.4.120.4.

A player who attempts to draw a card from an empty library loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

A player who attempts to draw a card from an empty library loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

119.5.120.5.

If an effect moves cards from a player's library to that player's hand without using the word "draw," the player has not drawn those cards. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards and effects that replace card draws, as well as if the player's library is empty.

If an effect moves cards from a player's library to that player's hand without using the word "draw," the player has not drawn those cards. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards and effects that replace card draws, as well as if the player's library is empty.

119.6.120.6.

Some effects replace card draws.

Some effects replace card draws.

119.6a.120.6a.

An effect that replaces a card draw is applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player's library.

An effect that replaces a card draw is applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player's library.

119.6b.120.6b.

If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws, the replacement effect is completed before resuming the sequence.

If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws, the replacement effect is completed before resuming the sequence.

119.6c.120.6c.

Some effects perform additional actions on a card after it's drawn. If the draw is replaced, the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect or any subsequent replacement effects.

Some effects perform additional actions on a card after it's drawn. If the draw is replaced, the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect or any subsequent replacement effects.

119.7.120.7.

Some replacement effects result in multiple card draws. In such a case, any parts of the original event that haven't been replaced by the effect occur first, then the card draws happen one at a time.

Some replacement effects result in multiple card draws. In such a case, any parts of the original event that haven't been replaced by the effect occur first, then the card draws happen one at a time.

120.121.

Counters

Counters

120.1.121.1.

A counter is a marker placed on an object or player that modifies its characteristics and/or interacts with a rule, ability, or effect. Counters are not objects and have no characteristics. Notably, a counter is not a token, and a token is not a counter. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable.

A counter is a marker placed on an object or player that modifies its characteristics and/or interacts with a rule, ability, or effect. Counters are not objects and have no characteristics. Notably, a counter is not a token, and a token is not a counter. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable.

120.1a.121.1a.

A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. See rule 613.3.

A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. See rule 613.3.

120.1b.121.1b.

The number of loyalty counters on a planeswalker on the battlefield indicates how much loyalty it has. A planeswalker with 0 loyalty is put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based action. See rule 704.

The number of loyalty counters on a planeswalker on the battlefield indicates how much loyalty it has. A planeswalker with 0 loyalty is put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based action. See rule 704.

120.1c.121.1c.

If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game as a state-based action. See rule 704.

If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game as a state-based action. See rule 704.

120.2.121.2.

If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it, N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it as a state-based action, where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 and -1/-1 counters on it. See rule 704.

If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it, N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it as a state-based action, where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 and -1/-1 counters on it. See rule 704.

120.3.121.3.

If a permanent with an ability that says it can't have more than N counters of a certain kind on it has more than N counters of that kind on it, all but N of those counters are removed from it as a state-based action. See rule 704.

If a permanent with an ability that says it can't have more than N counters of a certain kind on it has more than N counters of that kind on it, all but N of those counters are removed from it as a state-based action. See rule 704.

120.4.121.4.

If an effect says to "move" a counter, it means to take that counter from the object it's currently on and put it onto a second object. If the first and second objects are the same object, nothing happens. If the first object has no counters, nothing happens; the second object doesn't get a counter put on it. If the second object (or any possible second objects) is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter, nothing happens; a counter isn't removed from the first object.

If an effect says to "move" a counter, it means to take that counter from the object it's currently on and put it onto a second object. If the first and second objects are the same object, nothing happens. If the first object has no counters, nothing happens; the second object doesn't get a counter put on it. If the second object (or any possible second objects) is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter, nothing happens; a counter isn't removed from the first object.

120.5.121.5.

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being "placed" on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's on the battlefield, or that permanent entering the battlefield with a counter on it.

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being "placed" on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's on the battlefield, or that permanent entering the battlefield with a counter on it.

201.4b.201.4b.

If an ability of an object refers to that object by name, and another effect causes a different object to gain that ability, all instances of the first object's name in the gained ability should be treated as the new object's name.

Example: Quicksilver Elemental says, in part, "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If it gains an ability that says "{B}: Regenerate Drudge Skeletons," activating that ability will regenerate Quicksilver Elemental, not the Drudge Skeletons it gained the ability from.

Example: Glacial Ray is an instant with "splice onto Arcane" that says "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." If it's spliced onto a Kodama's Reach, that Kodama's Reach deals 2 damage to the target creature or player.

If an ability of an object refers to that object by name, and an object with a different name gains that ability, all instances of the first name in the gained ability should be treated as the second name.

Example: Quicksilver Elemental says, in part, "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If it gains an ability that says "{B}: Regenerate Drudge Skeletons," activating that ability will regenerate Quicksilver Elemental, not the Drudge Skeletons it gained the ability from.

Example: Glacial Ray is an instant with "splice onto Arcane" that says "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." If it's spliced onto a Kodama's Reach, that Kodama's Reach deals 2 damage to the target creature or player.

Example: Dimir Doppelganger says "{1}{U}{B}: Exile target creature card from a graveyard. Dimir Doppelganger becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability." Dimir Doppelganger's ability is activated targeting a Runeclaw Bear card. The Doppelganger becomes a copy of Runeclaw Bear and gains an ability that should be treated as saying "{1}{U}{B}: Exile target creature card from a graveyard. Runeclaw Bear becomes a copy of that card and gains this ability."

202.1b.202.1b.

Some objects have no mana cost. This normally includes all land cards, any other cards that have no mana symbols where their mana cost would appear, tokens (unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise), and nontraditional Magic cards. Having no mana cost represents an unpayable cost (see rule 116.6). Note that lands are played without paying any costs (see rule 305, "Lands").

Some objects have no mana cost. This normally includes all land cards, any other cards that have no mana symbols where their mana cost would appear, tokens (unless the effect that creates them specifies otherwise), and nontraditional Magic cards. Having no mana cost represents an unpayable cost (see rule 117.6). Note that lands are played without paying any costs (see rule 305, "Lands").

204.2a.204.2a.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, sorcery, tribal, and vanguard. See section 3, "Card Types."

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, scheme, sorcery, tribal, and vanguard. See section 3, "Card Types."

204.3k.204.3k.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Ally, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Eldrazi, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Ally, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Elder, Eldrazi, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

204.3n.204.3n.

Vanguard cards have no subtypes.

Neither vanguard cards nor scheme cards have subtypes.

204.4a.204.4a.

A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before its card types. The supertypes are basic, legendary, snow, and world.

A card can also have one or more supertypes. These are printed directly before its card types. The supertypes are basic, legendary, ongoing, snow, and world.

204.4g.

Any scheme card with the supertype "ongoing" is exempt from the state-based action for schemes (see rule 704.5v).

300.1.300.1.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, sorcery, tribal, and vanguard.

The card types are artifact, creature, enchantment, instant, land, plane, planeswalker, scheme, sorcery, tribal, and vanguard.

301.6.301.6.

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Rules 301.5a-d apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures, with one clarification relating to rule 301.5c: a Fortification that's also a creature (not a land) can't equip a land. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 702.64, "Fortify.")

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. Rules 301.5a-d apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures, with one clarification relating to rule 301.5c: a Fortification that's also a creature (not a land) can't fortify a land. (See rule 702.64, "Fortify.")

305.1.305.1.

A player who has priority may play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a land is a special action; it doesn't use the stack (see rule 114). Rather, the player simply puts the land onto the battlefield. Since the land doesn't go on the stack, it is never a spell, and players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

A player who has priority may play a land card from his or her hand during a main phase of his or her turn when the stack is empty. Playing a land is a special action; it doesn't use the stack (see rule 115). Rather, the player simply puts the land onto the battlefield. Since the land doesn't go on the stack, it is never a spell, and players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

305.6.305.6.

The basic land types are Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. If an object uses the words "basic land type," it's referring to one of these subtypes. A basic land type implies an intrinsic ability to produce colored mana. (See rule 605, "Mana Abilities.") An object with a basic land type is treated as if its text box included "{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool," even if the text box doesn't actually contain text or the object has no text box. Plains produce white mana; Islands, blue; Swamps, black; Mountains, red; and Forests, green.

The basic land types are Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. If an object uses the words "basic land type," it's referring to one of these subtypes. A land with a basic land type has the intrinsic ability "{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool," even if the text box doesn't actually contain that text or the object has no text box. For Plains, [mana symbol] is {W}; for Islands, {U}; for Swamps, {B}; for Mountains, {R}; and for Forests, {G}. See rule 107.4a. Also see rule 605, "Mana Abilities."

309.1.309.1.

Plane is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Planar Magic casual variant uses plane cards. See Section 901, "Planar Magic."

Plane is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Planar Magic casual variant uses plane cards. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

310.1.310.1.

Vanguard is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Vanguard casual variant uses vanguard cards. See Section 902, "Vanguard."

Vanguard is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Vanguard casual variant uses vanguard cards. See rule 902, "Vanguard."

311.

Schemes

311.1.

Scheme is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Archenemy casual variant uses scheme cards. See rule 904, "Archenemy."

311.2.

Scheme cards remain in the command zone throughout the game, both while they're part of a scheme deck and while they're face up. They're not permanents. They can't be cast. If a scheme card would leave the command zone, it remains in the command zone.

311.3.

Scheme cards have no subtypes.

311.4.

A scheme card may have any number of static, triggered, and/or activated abilities. As long as a scheme card is face up in the command zone, its static abilities affect the game, its triggered abilities may trigger, and its activated abilities may be activated.

311.5.

The owner of a scheme card is the player who started the game with it in the command zone. The controller of a face-up scheme card is its owner.

311.6.

If a non-ongoing scheme card is face up in the command zone, and it isn't the source of a triggered ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, that scheme card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

311.7.

If an ability of a scheme card includes the text "this scheme," it means the scheme card in the command zone that's the source of that ability. This is an exception to rule 109.2.

400.1.400.1.

A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. There are normally six zones: library, hand, battlefield, graveyard, stack, and exile. Some older cards also use the ante zone. Some casual variants use the command zone. (See Section 9, "Casual Variants.") Each player has his or her own library, hand, and graveyard. The other zones are shared by all players.

A zone is a place where objects can be during a game. There are normally seven zones: library, hand, battlefield, graveyard, stack, exile, and command. Some older cards also use the ante zone. Each player has his or her own library, hand, and graveyard. The other zones are shared by all players.

400.4b.400.4b.

If a plane or vanguard card would leave the command zone, it remains in the command zone.

If a plane, vanguard, or scheme card would leave the command zone, it remains in the command zone.

400.7c.400.7c.

Abilities of a permanent that require information about choices made as that permanent was cast use information about the spell that became that permanent.

If an ability of a permanent requires information about choices made as that permanent was cast as a spell, it uses information about the spell that became that permanent as it resolved.

405.6d.405.6d.

Special actions don't use the stack; they happen immediately. See rule 114, "Special Actions."

Special actions don't use the stack; they happen immediately. See rule 115, "Special Actions."

405.6e.405.6e.

Turn-based actions don't use the stack; they happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin. They're dealt with before a player would receive priority (see rule 115.3a). Turn-based actions also happen automatically when each step and phase ends; no player receives priority afterward. See rule 703.

Turn-based actions don't use the stack; they happen automatically when certain steps or phases begin. They're dealt with before a player would receive priority (see rule 116.3a). Turn-based actions also happen automatically when each step and phase ends; no player receives priority afterward. See rule 703.

405.6f.405.6f.

State-based actions don't use the stack; they happen automatically when certain conditions are met. See rule 704. They are dealt with before a player would receive priority. See rule 115.5.

State-based actions don't use the stack; they happen automatically when certain conditions are met. See rule 704. They are dealt with before a player would receive priority. See rule 116.5.

408.1.

The command zone is a game area reserved for certain specialized objects that have an overarching effect on the game, yet are not permanents and cannot be destroyed.

408.2.

Emblems may be created in the command zone. See rule 113, "Emblems."

408.1.408.3.

In certain casual variants, nontraditional Magic cards and/or specially designated cards start the game in the command zone. Each variant has its own rules regarding such cards. See Section 9, "Casual Variants."

In the Planar Magic, Vanguard, EDH, and Archenemy casual variants, nontraditional Magic cards and/or specially designated cards start the game in the command zone. Each variant has its own rules regarding such cards. See section 9, "Casual Variants."

505.3.

First, but only if the players are playing an Archenemy game (see rule 904), the active player is the archenemy, and it's the active player's precombat main phase, the active player sets the top card of his or her scheme deck in motion (see rule 701.21). This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

505.3.505.4.

First, any abilities that trigger at the beginning of the main phase go on the stack. (See rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities.")

Second, any abilities that trigger at the beginning of the main phase go on the stack. (See rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities.")

505.4.505.5.

Second, the active player gets priority. Players may cast spells and activate abilities. The active player may play a land.

Third, the active player gets priority. Players may cast spells and activate abilities. The active player may play a land.

505.4a.505.5a.

The main phase is the only phase in which a player can normally cast artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker, and sorcery spells. Only the active player may cast these spells.

The main phase is the only phase in which a player can normally cast artifact, creature, enchantment, planeswalker, and sorcery spells. Only the active player may cast these spells.

505.4b.505.5b.

During either main phase, the active player may play one land card from his or her hand if the stack is empty, if the player has priority, and if he or she hasn't yet taken this special action this turn. (See rule 305, "Lands.") This action doesn't use the stack. Neither the land nor the action of playing the land is a spell or ability, so it can't be countered, and players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

During either main phase, the active player may play one land card from his or her hand if the stack is empty, if the player has priority, and if he or she hasn't yet taken this special action this turn. (See rule 305, "Lands.") This action doesn't use the stack. Neither the land nor the action of playing the land is a spell or ability, so it can't be countered, and players can't respond to it with instants or activated abilities.

506.1.506.1.

The combat phase has five steps, which proceed in order: beginning of combat, declare attackers, declare blockers, combat damage, and end of combat. The declare blockers and combat damage steps are skipped if no creatures are declared as attackers or put onto the battlefield attacking (see rule 508.5). There are two combat damage steps if any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike (see rule 702.4).

The combat phase has five steps, which proceed in order: beginning of combat, declare attackers, declare blockers, combat damage, and end of combat. The declare blockers and combat damage steps are skipped if no creatures are declared as attackers or put onto the battlefield attacking (see rule 508.4). There are two combat damage steps if any attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 702.7) or double strike (see rule 702.4).

506.2a.506.2a.

During the combat phase of a multiplayer game, there may be one or more defending players, depending on the variant being played and the options chosen for it. Unless all the attacking player's opponents automatically become defending players during the combat phase, the attacking player chooses one of his or her opponents as a turn-based action during the beginning of combat step. (Note that the choice may be dictated by the variant being played or the options chosen for it.) That player becomes the defending player. See rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option," rule 803, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 807, "Emperor Variant."

During the combat phase of a multiplayer game, there may be one or more defending players, depending on the variant being played and the options chosen for it. Unless all the attacking player's opponents automatically become defending players during the combat phase, the attacking player chooses one of his or her opponents as a turn-based action during the beginning of combat step. (Note that the choice may be dictated by the variant being played or the options chosen for it.) That player becomes the defending player. See rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option," rule 803, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 809, "Emperor Variant."

506.2b.506.2b.

In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, the nonactive team is the defending team. See rule 806, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, the nonactive team is the defending team. See rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

506.4.506.4.

A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves the battlefield, if its controller changes, if an effect specifically removes it from combat, if it's a planeswalker that's being attacked and stops being a planeswalker, or if it's an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 701.11) or stops being a creature. A creature that's removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that's removed from combat stops being attacked.

A permanent is removed from combat if it leaves the battlefield, if its controller changes, if it phases out, if an effect specifically removes it from combat, if it's a planeswalker that's being attacked and stops being a planeswalker, or if it's an attacking or blocking creature that regenerates (see rule 701.11) or stops being a creature. A creature that's removed from combat stops being an attacking, blocking, blocked, and/or unblocked creature. A planeswalker that's removed from combat stops being attacked.

508.4.

Effects from a creature that refer to a defending player refer only to the defending player it's attacking (if it's attacking a player) or the controller of the planeswalker it's attacking (if it's attacking a planeswalker).

508.5.508.4.

If a creature is put onto the battlefield attacking, its controller chooses which defending player or which planeswalker a defending player controls it's attacking as it enters the battlefield (unless the effect that put it onto the battlefield specifies what it's attacking). Such creatures are "attacking" but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, they never "attacked."

If a creature is put onto the battlefield attacking, its controller chooses which defending player or which planeswalker a defending player controls it's attacking as it enters the battlefield (unless the effect that put it onto the battlefield specifies what it's attacking). Such creatures are "attacking" but, for the purposes of trigger events and effects, they never "attacked."

508.5.

If an ability of an attacking creature refers to a defending player, or a spell or ability refers to both an attacking creature and a defending player, then unless otherwise specified, the defending player it's referring to is the player that creature was attacking at the time it became an attacking creature that combat, or the controller of the planeswalker that creature was attacking at the time it became an attacking creature that combat.

508.5a.

In a multiplayer game, any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If a spell or ability could apply to multiple attacking creatures, the appropriate defending player is individually determined for each of those attacking creatures. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the spell or ability chooses one.

511.3.511.3.

As soon as the end of combat step ends, all creatures and planeswalkers (including those that are phased out) are removed from combat. After the end of combat step ends, the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins (see rule 505).

As soon as the end of combat step ends, all creatures and planeswalkers are removed from combat. After the end of combat step ends, the combat phase is over and the postcombat main phase begins (see rule 505).

513.1a.513.1a.

For many years, abilities that trigger at the beginning of the end step were printed with the trigger condition "at end of turn." Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say "at the beginning of the end step" or "at the beginning of the next end step."

Previously, abilities that trigger at the beginning of the end step were printed with the trigger condition "at end of turn." Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say "at the beginning of the end step" or "at the beginning of the next end step."

601.2b.601.2b.

If the spell is modal the player announces the mode choice (see rule 700.2). If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 702.44), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell has alternative or additional costs that will be paid as it's being cast such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs (see rules 116.8 and 116.9), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 601.2e). A player can't apply two alternative methods of casting or two alternative costs to a single spell. If the spell has a variable cost that will be paid as it's being cast (such as an {X} in its mana cost; see rule 107.3), the player announces the value of that variable. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes hybrid mana symbols, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. Previously made choices (such as choosing to cast a spell with flashback from a graveyard or choosing to cast a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

If the spell is modal the player announces the mode choice (see rule 700.2). If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 702.44), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell has alternative or additional costs that will be paid as it's being cast such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs (see rules 117.8 and 117.9), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 601.2e). A player can't apply two alternative methods of casting or two alternative costs to a single spell. If the spell has a variable cost that will be paid as it's being cast (such as an {X} in its mana cost; see rule 107.3), the player announces the value of that variable. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes hybrid mana symbols, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. Previously made choices (such as choosing to cast a spell with flashback from a graveyard or choosing to cast a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

602.1.602.1.

Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation restriction (if any).]" The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). An ability's activation cost must be paid by the player who is activating it.

Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads "{2}, {T}: You gain 1 life" is two mana of any type plus tapping the permanent that has the ability.

Activated abilities have a cost and an effect. They are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation instructions (if any).]"

602.1a.

The activation cost is everything before the colon (:). An ability's activation cost must be paid by the player who is activating it.

Example: The activation cost of an ability that reads "{2}, {T}: You gain 1 life" is two mana of any type plus tapping the permanent that has the ability.

602.1b.

Some text after the colon of an activated ability states instructions that must be followed while activating that ability. Such text may state which players can activate that ability, may restrict when a player can activate the ability, or may define some aspect of the activation cost. This text is not part of the ability's effect. It functions at all times. If an activated ability has any activation instructions, they appear last, after the ability's effect.

602.1a.602.1c.

An activated ability is the only kind of ability that can be activated. If an object or rule refers to activating an ability without specifying what kind, it must be referring to an activated ability.

An activated ability is the only kind of ability that can be activated. If an object or rule refers to activating an ability without specifying what kind, it must be referring to an activated ability.

602.1b.602.1d.

Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.

Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.

603.3.603.3.

Once an ability has triggered, its controller puts it on the stack as an object that's not a card the next time a player would receive priority. See rule 115, "Timing and Priority." The ability becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. It remains on the stack until it's countered, it resolves, or an effect moves it elsewhere.

Once an ability has triggered, its controller puts it on the stack as an object that's not a card the next time a player would receive priority. See rule 116, "Timing and Priority." The ability becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. It remains on the stack until it's countered, it resolves, a rule causes it to be removed from the stack, or an effect moves it elsewhere.

608.2d.608.2d.

If an effect of a spell or ability offers any choices other than choices already made as part of casting the spell, activating the ability, or otherwise putting the spell or ability on the stack, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible, with the exception that having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 119.3). If an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among any number of untargeted players and/or objects, the player chooses the amount and division such that at least one player or object is chosen if able, and each chosen player or object receives at least one of whatever is being divided. (Note that if an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among some number of target objects and/or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put onto the stack rather than at this time; see rule 601.2d.)

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

If an effect of a spell or ability offers any choices other than choices already made as part of casting the spell, activating the ability, or otherwise putting the spell or ability on the stack, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible, with the exception that having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 120.3). If an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among any number of untargeted players and/or objects, the player chooses the amount and division such that at least one player or object is chosen if able, and each chosen player or object receives at least one of whatever is being divided. (Note that if an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among some number of target objects and/or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put onto the stack rather than at this time; see rule 601.2d.)

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

613.3d.613.3d.

Layer 7d: Power and/or toughness changes from counters are applied. See rule 120.

Layer 7d: Power and/or toughness changes from counters are applied. See rule 121, "Counters."

613.6e.613.6e.

A face-up plane card receives a timestamp at the time it's turned face up.

A face-up plane card or scheme card receives a timestamp at the time it's turned face up.

701.10a.701.10a.

To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it's in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if he or she has priority, it's the main phase of his or her turn, the stack is empty, and he or she hasn't yet played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 114), so it doesn't use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn't the same as playing a land. See rule 305, "Lands."

To play a land means to put it onto the battlefield from the zone it's in (usually the hand). A player may play a land if he or she has priority, it's the main phase of his or her turn, the stack is empty, and he or she hasn't yet played a land this turn. Playing a land is a special action (see rule 115), so it doesn't use the stack; it simply happens. Putting a land onto the battlefield as the result of a spell or ability isn't the same as playing a land. See rule 305, "Lands."

701.21.

Set in Motion

701.21a.

Only a scheme card may be set in motion, and only during an Archenemy game. Only the archenemy may set a scheme card in motion. See rule 311, "Schemes," and rule 904, "Archenemy."

701.21b.

To set a scheme in motion is to move it off the top of your scheme deck and turn it face up.

701.22.

Abandon

701.22a.

Only a face-up ongoing scheme card may be abandoned, and only during an Archenemy game. See rule 311, "Schemes," and rule 904, "Archenemy."

701.22b.

To abandon a scheme is to turn it face down and put it on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck.

702.2b.702.2b.

A player assigning combat damage from a creature with deathtouch can divide that damage as he or she chooses among any number of creatures blocking or blocked by it. This is an exception to the procedures described in rules 510.1c-d.

Any nonzero amount of combat damage assigned to a creature by a source with deathtouch is considered to be lethal damage, regardless of that creature's toughness. See rules 510.1c-d.

702.2c.702.2c.

A creature that's been dealt damage by a source with deathtouch since the last time state-based actions were checked is destroyed as a state-based action. See rule 704.

A creature with toughness greater than 0 that's been dealt damage by a source with deathtouch since the last time state-based actions were checked is destroyed as a state-based action. See rule 704.

702.2e.702.2d.

The deathtouch rules function no matter what zone an object with deathtouch deals damage from.

The deathtouch rules function no matter what zone an object with deathtouch deals damage from.

702.2d.702.2e.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had deathtouch.

If an object changes zones before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had deathtouch.

702.13b.702.13b.

Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that source's controller, or its owner if it has no controller, to gain that much life (in addition to any other results that damage causes). See rule 118.3.

Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that source's controller, or its owner if it has no controller, to gain that much life (in addition to any other results that damage causes). See rule 119.3.

702.21a.702.21a.

Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. "Cumulative upkeep [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, put an age counter on this permanent. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. If you don't, sacrifice it." If [cost] has choices associated with it, each choice is made separately for each age counter, then either the entire set of costs is paid, or none of them is paid. Partial payments aren't allowed.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep {W} or {U}" and two age counters on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, the creature's controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay {W}{W}{W}, {W}{W}{U}, {W}{U}{U}, or {U}{U}{U} to keep the creature on the battlefield.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep—Sacrifice a creature" and one age counter on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, its controller can't choose the same creature to sacrifice twice. Either two different creatures must be sacrificed, or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed.

Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. "Cumulative upkeep [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent is on the battlefield, put an age counter on this permanent. Then you may pay [cost] for each age counter on it. If you don't, sacrifice it." If [cost] has choices associated with it, each choice is made separately for each age counter, then either the entire set of costs is paid, or none of them is paid. Partial payments aren't allowed.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep {W} or {U}" and two age counters on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, the creature's controller puts an age counter on it and then may pay {W}{W}{W}, {W}{W}{U}, {W}{U}{U}, or {U}{U}{U} to keep the creature on the battlefield.

Example: A creature has "Cumulative upkeep—Sacrifice a creature" and one age counter on it. When its ability next triggers and resolves, its controller can't choose the same creature to sacrifice twice. Either two different creatures must be sacrificed, or the creature with cumulative upkeep must be sacrificed.

702.34d.702.34d.

If you have priority, you may turn a face-down permanent you control face up. This is a special action; it doesn't use the stack (see rule 114). To do this, show all players what the permanent's morph cost would be if it were face up, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. (If the permanent wouldn't have a morph cost if it were face up, it can't be turned face up this way.) The morph effect on it ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. Any abilities relating to the permanent entering the battlefield don't trigger when it's turned face up and don't have any effect, because the permanent has already entered the battlefield.

If you have priority, you may turn a face-down permanent you control face up. This is a special action; it doesn't use the stack (see rule 115). To do this, show all players what the permanent's morph cost would be if it were face up, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. (If the permanent wouldn't have a morph cost if it were face up, it can't be turned face up this way.) The morph effect on it ends, and it regains its normal characteristics. Any abilities relating to the permanent entering the battlefield don't trigger when it's turned face up and don't have any effect, because the permanent has already entered the battlefield.

702.46a.702.46a.

Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player's hand. "Ninjutsu [cost]" means "[Cost], Reveal this card from your hand, Return an unblocked creature you control to its owner's hand: Put this card onto the battlefield from your hand tapped and attacking."

Ninjutsu is an activated ability that functions only while the card with ninjutsu is in a player's hand. "Ninjutsu [cost]" means "[Cost], Reveal this card from your hand, Return an unblocked attacking creature you control to its owner's hand: Put this card onto the battlefield from your hand tapped and attacking."

702.47a.702.47a.

Epic represents both a spell ability and a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you can't cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.9.

Epic represents two spell abilities, one of which creates a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you can't cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.9.

702.77a.702.77a.

Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 118.3.

Wither is a static ability. Damage dealt to a creature by a source with wither isn't marked on that creature. Rather, it causes that many -1/-1 counters to be put on that creature. See rule 119.3.

703.4d.

In an Archenemy game (see rule 904), immediately after the archenemy's precombat main phase begins, that player sets the top card of his or her scheme deck in motion. See rule 701.21.

703.4d.703.4e.

Immediately after the beginning of combat step begins, if the game being played is a multiplayer game in which the active player's opponent's don't all automatically become defending players, the active player chooses one of his or her opponents. That player becomes the defending player. See rule 507.1.

Immediately after the beginning of combat step begins, if the game being played is a multiplayer game in which the active player's opponent's don't all automatically become defending players, the active player chooses one of his or her opponents. That player becomes the defending player. See rule 507.1.

703.4e.703.4f.

Immediately after the declare attackers step begins, the active player declares attackers. See rule 508.1.

Immediately after the declare attackers step begins, the active player declares attackers. See rule 508.1.

703.4f.703.4g.

Immediately after the declare blockers step begins, the defending player declares blockers. See rule 509.1.

Immediately after the declare blockers step begins, the defending player declares blockers. See rule 509.1.

703.4g.703.4h.

Immediately after blockers have been declared during the declare blockers step, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active player announces the damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. See rule 509.2.

Immediately after blockers have been declared during the declare blockers step, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active player announces the damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. See rule 509.2.

703.4h.703.4i.

Immediately after the active player has announced damage assignment orders (if necessary) during the declare blockers step, for each creature that's blocking multiple creatures, the defending player announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures. See rule 509.3.

Immediately after the active player has announced damage assignment orders (if necessary) during the declare blockers step, for each creature that's blocking multiple creatures, the defending player announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures. See rule 509.3.

703.4i.703.4j.

Immediately after the combat damage step begins, each player in APNAP order announces how each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls assigns its combat damage. See rule 510.1.

Immediately after the combat damage step begins, each player in APNAP order announces how each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls assigns its combat damage. See rule 510.1.

703.4j.703.4k.

Immediately after combat damage has been assigned during the combat damage step, all combat damage is dealt simultaneously. See rule 510.2.

Immediately after combat damage has been assigned during the combat damage step, all combat damage is dealt simultaneously. See rule 510.2.

703.4k.703.4m.

Immediately after the cleanup step begins, if the active player's hand contains more cards than his or her maximum hand size (normally seven), he or she discards enough cards to reduce his or her hand size to that number. See rule 514.1.

Immediately after the cleanup step begins, if the active player's hand contains more cards than his or her maximum hand size (normally seven), he or she discards enough cards to reduce his or her hand size to that number. See rule 514.1.

703.4m.703.4n.

Immediately after the active player has discarded cards (if necessary) during the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents and all "until end of turn" and "this turn" effects end. These actions happen simultaneously. See rule 514.2.

Immediately after the active player has discarded cards (if necessary) during the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents and all "until end of turn" and "this turn" effects end. These actions happen simultaneously. See rule 514.2.

703.4n.703.4p.

When each step or phase ends, any unused mana left in a player's mana pool empties. See rule 500.4.

When each step or phase ends, any unused mana left in a player's mana pool empties. See rule 500.4.

704.3.704.3.

Whenever a player would get priority (see rule 115, "Timing and Priority"), the game checks for any of the listed conditions for state-based actions, then performs all applicable state-based actions simultaneously as a single event. If any state-based actions are performed as a result of a check, the check is repeated; otherwise all triggered abilities that are waiting to be put on the stack are put on the stack, then the check is repeated. Once no more state-based actions have been performed as the result of a check and no triggered abilities are waiting to be put on the stack, the appropriate player gets priority. This process also occurs during the cleanup step (see rule 514), except that if no state-based actions are performed as the result of the step's first check and no triggered abilities are waiting to be put on the stack, then no player gets priority and the step ends.

Whenever a player would get priority (see rule 116, "Timing and Priority"), the game checks for any of the listed conditions for state-based actions, then performs all applicable state-based actions simultaneously as a single event. If any state-based actions are performed as a result of a check, the check is repeated; otherwise all triggered abilities that are waiting to be put on the stack are put on the stack, then the check is repeated. Once no more state-based actions have been performed as the result of a check and no triggered abilities are waiting to be put on the stack, the appropriate player gets priority. This process also occurs during the cleanup step (see rule 514), except that if no state-based actions are performed as the result of the step's first check and no triggered abilities are waiting to be put on the stack, then no player gets priority and the step ends.

704.5h.704.5h.

If a creature has been dealt damage by a source with deathtouch since the last time state-based actions were checked, that creature is destroyed. Regeneration can replace this event.

If a creature has toughness greater than 0, and it's been dealt damage by a source with deathtouch since the last time state-based actions were checked, that creature is destroyed. Regeneration can replace this event.

704.5t.704.5t.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, if a team has 0 or less life, that team loses the game.

In a Two-Headed Giant game, if a team has 0 or less life, that team loses the game. See rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

704.5u.704.5u.

In an EDH game, a player that's been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same general over the course of the game loses the game. (See rule 903.)

In an EDH game, a player that's been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same general over the course of the game loses the game. See rule 903, "EDH."

704.5v.

In an Archenemy game, if a non-ongoing scheme card is face up in the command zone, and it isn't the source of a triggered ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, that scheme card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck. See rule 904, "Archenemy."

712.1.712.1.

One card (Time Stop) ends the turn when it resolves. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities").

One card (Time Stop) ends the turn. When an effect ends the turn, follow these steps in order, as they differ from the normal process for resolving spells and abilities (see rule 608, "Resolving Spells and Abilities").

713.2.713.2.

As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library, moves them to his or her subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone, except as specified in rules 713.2a-c. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in section 103, "Starting the Game."

As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library, moves them to his or her subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone, except as specified in rules 713.2a-c. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in rule 103, "Starting the Game."

713.2d.

As a subgame of an Archenemy game starts, the archenemy moves his or her scheme deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up scheme cards remain in the main-game command zone.)

714.4.714.4.

If a loop contains only mandatory actions, the game ends in a draw. (See rule 104.4b.)

If a loop contains only mandatory actions, the game is a draw. (See rules 104.4b and 104.4f.)

715.1.715.1.

If a player realizes that he or she can't legally take an action after starting to do so, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was casting a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities activated while making the illegal play, unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn't reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library or from a library to any zone other than the stack.

If a player realizes that he or she can't legally take an action after starting to do so, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was casting a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities activated while making the illegal play, unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn't reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library, moved cards from a library to any zone other than the stack, or caused a library to be shuffled.

800.5.800.5.

In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal. The Two-Headed Giant variant employs more extensive changes to the mulligan rule; see rule 806.6a.

In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards rather than six cards. Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.

800.6.

In a multiplayer game other than a Two-Headed Giant game, the starting player doesn't skip the draw step of his or her first turn. In a Two-Headed Giant game, the team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn. See rule 103.7.

800.6.800.7.

In a multiplayer game not using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801), if an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents lose the game instead.

In a multiplayer game not using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801), if an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents lose the game instead.

801.1.801.1.

Limited range of influence is an option that can be applied to most multiplayer games. It's always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 807), and it's often used for games involving five or more players.

Limited range of influence is an option that can be applied to most multiplayer games. It's always used in the Emperor variant (see rule 809), and it's often used for games involving five or more players.

801.18.

If the game somehow enters a "loop" of mandatory actions, repeating a sequence of events with no way to stop, the game is a draw for each player who controls an object that's involved in that loop, as well as for each player within the range of influence of any of those players. They leave the game. All remaining players continue to play the game.

801.18.801.19.

In multiplayer Planar Magic games other than Grand Melee games, plane cards are exempt from the limited range of influence option. Their abilities, and the effects of those abilities, affect all applicable objects and players in the game. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

In multiplayer Planar Magic games other than Grand Melee games, plane cards are exempt from the limited range of influence option. Their abilities, and the effects of those abilities, affect all applicable objects and players in the game. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

802.2a.802.2a.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If the source of an ability that refers to a defending player is an attacking creature, it will usually refer to the player it's attacking or the controller of the planeswalker it's attacking. Similarly, if a spell or ability refers to both an attacking creature and a defending player, unless otherwise specified, the defending player it's referring to is the player that creature is attacking or the controller of the planeswalker it's attacking. If the spell or ability could apply to multiple attacking creatures, the appropriate defending player is individually determined for each of those attacking creatures. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the spell or ability chooses one.

Example: Rob attacks Alex with Runeclaw Bear and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If an ability of an attacking creature refers to a defending player, or a spell or ability refers to both an attacking creature and a defending player, then unless otherwise specified, the defending player it's referring to is the player that creature was attacking at the time it became an attacking creature that combat, or the controller of the planeswalker that creature was attacking at the time it became an attacking creature that combat. If a spell or ability could apply to multiple attacking creatures, the appropriate defending player is individually determined for each of those attacking creatures. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the spell or ability chooses one.

Example: Rob attacks Alex with Runeclaw Bear and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.

805.

Shared Team Turns Option

805.1.

Some multiplayer games between teams use the shared team turns option. It's always used in the Two-Headed Giant variant (see rule 810) and the Archenemy casual variant (see rule 811). It can be used only if the members of each team are sitting in adjacent seats.

806.3a.805.2.

If the two players on a team can't agree on a choice, such as which creatures attack or what order triggered abilities are put on the stack, the primary player makes that choice.

Within each team, the player seated in the rightmost seat from that team's perspective is the primary player. If the players on a team can't agree on a choice, such as which creatures attack or what order triggered abilities are put on the stack, the primary player makes that choice.

805.3.

The methods described in rule 103.2 are used to determine which team will take the first turn. The team determined this way is the starting team.

806.6a.805.3a.

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. First, each player on the starting team declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult during this process, but a player can't see the result of his or her teammate's mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand. Once each player has made a declaration, all players who decided to take mulligans do so at the same time. To take a mulligan, a player shuffles his or her hand back into his or her library, then draws a new hand. In a multiplayer game, the first time a player takes a mulligan, his or her new hand is seven cards; each subsequent mulligan that player takes results in a hand of one fewer cards than the last. If a player kept his or her hand of cards, those cards become the player's opening hand, and that player may not take any further mulligans. This process is then repeated until no player takes a mulligan. (Note that if a player's hand size reaches zero cards, that player must keep that hand.)

The process for handling mulligans is altered accordingly. First, each player on the starting team, in whatever order that team likes, declares whether or not he or she will take a mulligan. Then the players on each other team in turn order do the same. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then all mulligans are taken at the same time. A player may take a mulligan even after his or her teammate has decided to keep his or her opening hand. See rule 103.4.

805.3b.

The process for handling cards that allow a player to begin the game with them on the battlefield is altered accordingly. First, each player on the starting team, in whatever order that team likes, may put any or all such cards onto the battlefield from his or her opening hand. Teammates may consult while making their decisions. Then each player on each other team in turn order does the same.

806.4b.805.4.

Each team takes turns rather than each player.

Each team takes turns rather than each player.

805.4a.

The team whose turn it is is the active team. Each other team is a nonactive team.

805.4b.

Each player on a team draws a card during that team's draw step.

805.4c.

Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team's turns.

806.7a.805.5.

Teams have priority, not individual players.

Teams have priority, not individual players.

806.7c.805.5a.

A player may cast a spell, activate an ability, or take a special action when his or her team has priority. Each player on a team draws a card during that team's draw step. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team's turns.

A player may cast a spell, activate an ability, or take a special action when his or her team has priority.

806.7e.805.5b.

If a team has priority and neither player on that team wishes to do anything, that team passes. If both teams pass in succession (that is, if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing), the top object on the stack resolves, then the active team receives priority. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession, the phase or step ends and the next one begins.

If a team has priority and no player on that team wishes to do anything, that team passes. If all teams pass in succession (that is, if all teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing), the top object on the stack resolves, then the active team receives priority. If the stack is empty when all teams pass in succession, the phase or step ends and the next one begins.

806.7b.805.6.

The Active Player, Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 101.4) is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. The team whose turn it is is the active team. The other team is the nonactive team. If both teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first the active team makes any choices required, then the nonactive team makes any choices required. If each player would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first each player on the active team makes any choices required in whatever order they like, then the players on the nonactive team do the same. Once all choices have been made, the actions happen simultaneously.

The Active Player, Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 101.4) is modified if the shared team turns option is used. If multiple teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first the active team makes any choices required, then each nonactive team in turn order makes any choices required. If multiple players would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first each player on the active team makes any choices required in whatever order they like, then the players on each nonactive team in turn order do the same. Once all choices have been made, the actions happen simultaneously.

806.7g.805.6a.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a game that's using the shared team turns option, first each player on the active team, in whatever order that team likes, performs his or her draws, then each player on each nonactive team in turn order does the same.

806.7d.805.7.

If multiple triggered abilities have triggered since the last time a team received priority, the members of the active team put all triggered abilities either of them controls on the stack in any order they choose, then the members of the nonactive team do the same.

If multiple triggered abilities have triggered since the last time a team received priority, the members of the active team put all triggered abilities any of them controls on the stack in any order they choose, then the members of each nonactive team in turn order do the same.

806.7f.805.8.

If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player's turn, that player's team takes the extra turn, phase, or step. If an effect causes a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, that player's team does so. If a single effect causes both players on the same team to add or skip the same step, phase, or turn, that team adds or skips only that step, phase, or turn. If an effect causes a player to control another player's turn, the controller of that effect controls the affected player's team's turn.

If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player's turn, that player's team takes the extra turn, phase, or step. If an effect causes a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, that player's team does so. If a single effect causes more than one player on the same team to add or skip the same step, phase, or turn, that team adds or skips only that step, phase, or turn. If an effect causes a player to control another player's turn, the controller of that effect controls the affected player's team's turn.

806.7h.805.9.

Any ability that refers to the "active player" refers to one specific active player, not to both of the active players. The ability's controller chooses which one the ability refers to at the time its effect is applied.

Any ability that refers to the "active player" refers to one specific active player, not to all of the active players. The ability's controller chooses which one the ability refers to at the time its effect is applied.

805.806.

Free-for-All Variant

Free-for-All Variant

805.1.806.1.

In Free-for-All multiplayer games, a group of players compete as individuals against each other.

In Free-for-All multiplayer games, a group of players compete as individuals against each other.

805.2.806.2.

Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. The Free-for-All variant uses the following default options.

Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. The Free-for-All variant uses the following default options.

805.2a.806.2a.

The limited range of influence option usually isn't used in Free-for-All games. If it is, each player has the same range of influence, which is determined before play begins. See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option."

The limited range of influence option usually isn't used in Free-for-All games. If it is, each player has the same range of influence, which is determined before play begins. See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option."

805.2b.806.2b.

Exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used. See rule 803, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

Exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used. See rule 803, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

805.2c.806.2c.

The deploy creatures option isn't used in the Free-for-All variant.

The deploy creatures option isn't used in the Free-for-All variant.

805.3.806.3.

The players are randomly seated around the table.

The players are randomly seated around the table.

806.4.

The Two-Headed Giant variant has two unique features.

806.6.

The Two-Headed Giant variant slightly modifies some of the rules used when starting the game.

806.7.

Timing of Team Turns

808.807.

Grand Melee Variant

Grand Melee Variant

808.1.807.1.

The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant, in which a group of players compete against each other as individuals. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players.

The Grand Melee variant is a modification of the Free-for-All variant, in which a group of players compete against each other as individuals. Grand Melee is normally used only in games begun with ten or more players.

808.2.807.2.

Any multiplayer options used are decided before play begins. The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options.

Any multiplayer options used are decided before play begins. The Grand Melee variant uses the following default options.

808.2a.807.2a.

Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 801).

Each player has a range of influence of 1 (see rule 801).

808.2b.807.2b.

The attack left option is used (see rule 803).

The attack left option is used (see rule 803).

808.2c.807.2c.

The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren't used in the Grand Melee variant.

The attack multiple players and deploy creatures options aren't used in the Grand Melee variant.

808.3.807.3.

The players are seated at random.

The players are seated at random.

808.4.807.4.

The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. Each turn marker represents an active player's turn.

The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. Each turn marker represents an active player's turn.

808.4a.807.4a.

There is one turn marker for each full four players in the game.

Example: A Grand Melee game with sixteen players has four turn markers. A game with fifteen players has three turn markers.

There is one turn marker for each full four players in the game.

Example: A Grand Melee game with sixteen players has four turn markers. A game with fifteen players has three turn markers.

808.4b.807.4b.

The starting player in the game gets the first turn marker. The player four seats to that player's left (the fifth player) takes the second turn marker, and so on until all the turn markers have been handed out. Each turn marker is assigned a number in this way. Then all players with turn markers start their turns at the same time.

The starting player in the game gets the first turn marker. The player four seats to that player's left (the fifth player) takes the second turn marker, and so on until all the turn markers have been handed out. Each turn marker is assigned a number in this way. Then all players with turn markers start their turns at the same time.

808.4c.807.4c.

When a player ends his or her turn, that player passes the turn marker to the player on his or her left. A player can't receive a turn marker if any player in the three seats to his or her left has a turn marker. If this is the case, wait until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker.

After a player ends his or her turn, that player passes the turn marker to the player on his or her left. If a player with a turn marker leaves the game during his or her turn, the player to his or her left takes the turn marker after that turn ends. If a player with a turn marker leaves the game before his or her turn begins, the player to his or her left takes the turn marker immediately.

807.4d.

A player who receives a turn marker can't begin his or her turn if any player in the three seats to his or her left has a turn marker. If this is the case, that player waits until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker.

808.4e.807.4e.

If a player leaves the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game, a turn marker is removed. Turn markers are removed only between turns. Remove the turn marker immediately to the departed player's right. If more than one player has left the game and there are multiple turn markers that could be removed, remove the marker with the lower number.

If a player leaves the game and that player leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game, the turn marker immediately to the departed player's right is designated for removal. If more than one player leaves the game simultaneously, those players leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game, and there are multiple turn markers that could be removed, the marker with the lowest number is designated for removal. A turn marker may be designated for removal multiple times.

807.4f.

For the purposes of determining if one or more players leaving the game would reduce the number of turn markers in the game (see rule 807.4e), disregard turn markers already designated for removal.

807.4g.

If a player who's taking a turn has a turn marker that's been designated for removal, that turn marker is removed rather than being passed after that turn ends. If a player who's not taking a turn has a turn marker that's been designated for removal, that turn marker is removed immediately. If a removed turn marker had been designated for removal multiple times, the turn marker to its right becomes designated for removal that many times minus one.

807.4h.

If one or more consecutively seated players leave the game, the players that were on either side of those seats don't enter one another's range of influence until the next turn begins.

808.4d.807.4i.

If an effect causes a player with a turn marker to take an extra turn after the current one, that player keeps the turn marker and starts his or her next turn after the current turn ends, unless another turn marker is too close on either side at that time. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player's left, the extra turn waits to begin until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player's right, the player passes the turn marker to his or her left when the turn ends rather than keeping it, and the player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn.

If an effect causes a player with a turn marker to take an extra turn after the current one, that player keeps the turn marker and starts his or her next turn after the current turn ends, unless another turn marker is too close on either side at that time. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player's left, the extra turn waits to begin until the player four seats to his or her left takes the other turn marker. If a turn marker is within three seats on the player's right, the player passes the turn marker to his or her left when the turn ends rather than keeping it, and the player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn.

808.4f.807.4j.

If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn, but that player wouldn't have a turn marker at the start of that turn, that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead.

Example: During Alex's turn, he casts Time Walk, which causes him to get an extra turn after this one. During the same turn, the player to Alex's left leaves the game, which causes the number of turn markers to be reduced. After Alex's current turn ends, his turn marker is removed. He won't take the extra turn from Time Walk until just before his normal turn the next time he receives a turn marker.

If an effect would cause a player to take an extra turn after the current turn, but that player wouldn't have a turn marker at the start of that turn, that player will take the extra turn immediately before his or her next turn instead.

Example: During Alex's turn, he casts Time Walk, which causes him to get an extra turn after this one. During the same turn, the player to Alex's left leaves the game, which causes the number of turn markers to be reduced. After Alex's current turn ends, his turn marker is removed. He won't take the extra turn from Time Walk until just before his normal turn the next time he receives a turn marker.

808.5.807.5.

Rather than having a single stack, Grand Melee games contain multiple stacks. Each turn marker represents its own stack.

Rather than having a single stack, Grand Melee games contain multiple stacks. Each turn marker represents its own stack.

808.5a.807.5a.

A player gets priority for a particular turn marker's stack only if the turn marker is within his or her range of influence or an object on that stack is controlled by a player within his or her range of influence.

A player gets priority for a particular turn marker's stack only if the turn marker is within his or her range of influence or an object on that stack is controlled by a player within his or her range of influence.

808.5b.807.5b.

If a player has priority for multiple stacks and casts a spell, activates an ability, or a triggered ability he or she controls triggers, the player must specify which one of those stacks the spell or ability is put on. If an object on one of those stacks caused the triggered ability to trigger, the player must put it on that stack. If a resolving spell or ability on one of those stacks causes a player to cast a spell or create a copy of a spell, the new spell must be put on the same stack. If a spell or ability targets an object on one of those stacks, it must be put on the same stack as its target; it can't target objects on multiple stacks.

If a player has priority for multiple stacks and casts a spell, activates an ability, or a triggered ability he or she controls triggers, the player must specify which one of those stacks the spell or ability is put on. If an object on one of those stacks caused the triggered ability to trigger, the player must put it on that stack. If a resolving spell or ability on one of those stacks causes a player to cast a spell or create a copy of a spell, the new spell must be put on the same stack. If a spell or ability targets an object on one of those stacks, it must be put on the same stack as its target; it can't target objects on multiple stacks.

808.

Team vs. Team Variant

808.1.

Team vs. Team games are played with two or more teams. Each team may have any number of players on it.

808.2.

Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team decides the order in which its players sit.

808.3.

Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. The Team vs. Team variant uses the following default options.

808.3a.

The attack multiple players option is used (see rule 802).

808.3b.

The deploy creatures options and limited range of influence options usually aren't used in the Team vs. Team variant.

808.4.

To determine which player goes first, randomly choose a team. If that team has an odd number of players, the player in its center seat goes first. If that team has an even number of players, the player to the left of its midpoint goes first. Turn order goes to the players' left.

808.5.

In the Team vs. Team variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates may review each other's hands and discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

807.809.

Emperor Variant

Emperor Variant

807.1.809.1.

The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each.

The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each.

807.2.809.2.

Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team decides the order in which it's seated. Each team has one emperor, who sits in the middle of the team. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor.

Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team decides the order in which it's seated. Each team has one emperor, who sits in the middle of the team. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor.

807.3.809.3.

The Emperor variant uses the following default options.

The Emperor variant uses the following default options.

807.3a.809.3a.

The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals. See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option."

The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals. See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option."

807.3b.809.3b.

Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 804).

Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 804).

807.3c.809.3c.

A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.

Example: At the start of an emperor game, neither emperor can attack any opponents, even though both of the opposing generals are within their spell range.

A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.

Example: At the start of an emperor game, neither emperor can attack any opponents, even though both of the opposing generals are within their spell range.

807.4.809.4.

Randomly determine which emperor goes first. Turn order goes to players' left.

Randomly determine which emperor goes first. Turn order goes to the players' left.

807.5.809.5.

The Emperor variant includes the following specifications for winning and losing the game. All other rules for winning and losing the game also apply. (See rule 104.)

The Emperor variant includes the following specifications for winning and losing the game. All other rules for winning and losing the game also apply. (See rule 104.)

807.5a.809.5a.

A team wins the game if its emperor wins.

A team wins the game if its emperor wins.

807.5b.809.5b.

A team loses the game if its emperor loses.

A team loses the game if its emperor loses.

807.5c.809.5c.

The game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor.

The game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor.

807.6.809.6.

The Emperor variant can also be played with any number of equally sized teams. If the teams have more than three players, the range of influence of each player should be adjusted.

The Emperor variant can also be played with any number of equally sized teams. If the teams have more than three players, the range of influence of each player should be adjusted.

807.6a.809.6a.

Each general's range of influence should be the minimum number that allows one general from an opposing team to begin the game within his or her range of influence. Each emperor's range of influence should be the minimum number that allows two generals from opposing teams to begin the game within his or her range of influence. Players should be seated such that no emperor begins the game within the range of influence of another emperor.

Example: In an Emperor game between two teams of four players each, the player configuration (either clockwise or counterclockwise around the table) should be: Team A general 1, Team A emperor, Team A general 2, Team A general 3, Team B general 1, Team B emperor, Team B general 2, Team B general 3. Each emperor has range of influence 3. Each general 2 has range of influence 2. Each general 1 and general 3 has range of influence 1.

Each general's range of influence should be the minimum number that allows one general from an opposing team to begin the game within his or her range of influence. Each emperor's range of influence should be the minimum number that allows two generals from opposing teams to begin the game within his or her range of influence. Players should be seated such that no emperor begins the game within the range of influence of another emperor.

Example: In an Emperor game between two teams of four players each, the player configuration (either clockwise or counterclockwise around the table) should be: Team A general 1, Team A emperor, Team A general 2, Team A general 3, Team B general 1, Team B emperor, Team B general 2, Team B general 3. Each emperor has range of influence 3. Each general 2 has range of influence 2. Each general 1 and general 3 has range of influence 1.

807.7.809.7.

In the Emperor variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates may review each other's hands and discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

In the Emperor variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates may review each other's hands and discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

806.810.

Two-Headed Giant Variant

Two-Headed Giant Variant

806.1.810.1.

Two-Headed Giant games are played with two teams of two players each.

Two-Headed Giant games are played with two teams of two players each.

806.2.810.2.

No multiplayer options are used in Two-Headed Giant games.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the shared team turns option. (See rule 805.)

806.3.810.3.

Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team decides the order in which its players sit. The player seated on the right within each team is the primary player, and the player seated on the left is the secondary player.

Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team decides the order in which its players sit.

806.4a.810.4.

Each team has a shared life total, which starts at 30 life.

Each team has a shared life total, which starts at 30 life.

806.5.810.5.

With the exception of life total, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared in the Two-Headed Giant variant. Teammates may review each other's hands and discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

With the exception of life total, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared in the Two-Headed Giant variant. Teammates may review each other's hands and discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

806.6b.810.6.

The team who plays first skips the draw step of its first turn.

The team who plays first skips the draw step of its first turn.

806.8.810.7.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants.

806.8a.810.7a.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player.

806.8b.810.7b.

Any one-shot effect that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect chooses which one the spell or ability refers to at the time the effect is applied. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." Any characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the ability refers to at the time the nonactive players become defending players. All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

Any one-shot effect that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect chooses which one the spell or ability refers to at the time the effect is applied. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." Any characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the ability refers to at the time the nonactive players become defending players. All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

806.8c.810.7c.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 508.1.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat comes into play, choose a color." and "Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 508.1.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat comes into play, choose a color." and "Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

806.8d.810.7d.

As the declare blockers step begins, the defending team declares blockers. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. The defending team has one combined block, and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 509.1.

Example: If an attacking creature has forestwalk and either player on the defending team controls a Forest, the creature can't be blocked.

As the declare blockers step begins, the defending team declares blockers. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. The defending team has one combined block, and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 509.1.

Example: If an attacking creature has forestwalk and either player on the defending team controls a Forest, the creature can't be blocked.

806.8e.810.7e.

Once blockers have been declared, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active team announces the damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. Then, for each creature that's blocking multiple creatures, the defending team announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures.

Once blockers have been declared, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active team announces the damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. Then, for each creature that's blocking multiple creatures, the defending team announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures.

806.8f.810.7f.

As the combat damage step begins, the active team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. If an attacking creature would assign combat damage to the defending team, the active team chooses only one of the defending players for that creature to assign its combat damage to. Then the defending team announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. See rule 510.1.

As the combat damage step begins, the active team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. If an attacking creature would assign combat damage to the defending team, the active team chooses only one of the defending players for that creature to assign its combat damage to. Then the defending team announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. See rule 510.1.

806.9.810.8.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 104), with the following additions and specifications.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 104), with the following additions and specifications.

806.9a.810.8a.

Players win and lose the game only as a team, not as individuals. If either player on a team loses the game, the team loses the game. If either player on a team wins the game, the entire team wins the game. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game, that player's team can't win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game, that player's team can't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Transcendence, which reads, in part, "You don't lose the game for having 0 or less life." If that player's team's life total is 0 or less, that team doesn't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player's library. That player loses the game, so that player's entire team loses the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Platinum Angel, which reads, "You can't lose the game and your opponents can't win the game." Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is on the battlefield, and neither player on the opposing team can win the game.

Players win and lose the game only as a team, not as individuals. If either player on a team loses the game, the team loses the game. If either player on a team wins the game, the entire team wins the game. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game, that player's team can't win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game, that player's team can't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Transcendence, which reads, in part, "You don't lose the game for having 0 or less life." If that player's team's life total is 0 or less, that team doesn't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player's library. That player loses the game, so that player's entire team loses the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Platinum Angel, which reads, "You can't lose the game and your opponents can't win the game." Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is on the battlefield, and neither player on the opposing team can win the game.

806.9b.810.8b.

If a player concedes, his or her team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.

If a player concedes, his or her team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.

806.9c.810.8c.

If a team's life total is 0 or less, the team loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

If a team's life total is 0 or less, the team loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

806.10.810.9.

Damage, loss of life, and gaining life happen to each player individually. The result is applied to the team's shared life total.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player casts Flame Rift, which reads, "Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player." Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage.

Damage, loss of life, and gaining life happen to each player individually. The result is applied to the team's shared life total.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player casts Flame Rift, which reads, "Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player." Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage.

806.10a.810.9a.

If a cost or effect needs to know the value of an individual player's life total, that cost or effect uses the team's life total instead.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 17 life is targeted by Beacon of Immortality, which reads, in part, "Double target player's life total." That player gains 17 life, so the team winds up at 34 life.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Test of Endurance, an enchantment that reads, "At the beginning of your upkeep, if you have 50 or more life, you win the game." At the beginning of that player's upkeep, the player's team wins the game if his or her team's life total is 50 or more.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 11 life controls Lurking Evil, an enchantment that reads, "Pay half your life, rounded up: Lurking Evil becomes a 4/4 Horror creature with flying." To activate the ability, that player must pay 6 life. The team winds up at 5 life.

If a cost or effect needs to know the value of an individual player's life total, that cost or effect uses the team's life total instead.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 17 life is targeted by Beacon of Immortality, which reads, in part, "Double target player's life total." That player gains 17 life, so the team winds up at 34 life.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Test of Endurance, an enchantment that reads, "At the beginning of your upkeep, if you have 50 or more life, you win the game." At the beginning of that player's upkeep, the player's team wins the game if his or her team's life total is 50 or more.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 11 life controls Lurking Evil, an enchantment that reads, "Pay half your life, rounded up: Lurking Evil becomes a 4/4 Horror creature with flying." To activate the ability, that player must pay 6 life. The team winds up at 5 life.

806.10b.810.9b.

If a cost or effect allows both members of a team to pay life simultaneously, the total amount of life they pay may not exceed their team's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

If a cost or effect allows both members of a team to pay life simultaneously, the total amount of life they pay may not exceed their team's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

806.10c.810.9c.

If an effect sets a single player's life total to a specific number, the player gains or loses the necessary amount of life to end up with the new total. The team's life total is adjusted by the amount of life that player gained or lost.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 25 life is targeted by an ability that reads, "Target player's life total becomes 10." That player's life total is considered to be 25, so that player loses 15 life. The team winds up at 10 life.

If an effect sets a single player's life total to a specific number, the player gains or loses the necessary amount of life to end up with the new total. The team's life total is adjusted by the amount of life that player gained or lost.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 25 life is targeted by an ability that reads, "Target player's life total becomes 10." That player's life total is considered to be 25, so that player loses 15 life. The team winds up at 10 life.

806.10d.810.9d.

If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number, that team chooses one of its members. On that team, only that player is affected.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, one team has 7 life and the other team has 13 life. A player casts Repay in Kind, which reads, "Each player's life total becomes the lowest life total among all players." Each team chooses one if its members to be affected. The result is that the chosen player on the team that has 13 life loses 6 life, so that team's life total winds up at 7.

If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number, that team chooses one of its members. On that team, only that player is affected.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, one team has 7 life and the other team has 13 life. A player casts Repay in Kind, which reads, "Each player's life total becomes the lowest life total among all players." Each team chooses one if its members to be affected. The result is that the chosen player on the team that has 13 life loses 6 life, so that team's life total winds up at 7.

806.10e.810.9e.

A player can't exchange life totals with his or her teammate. If an effect would cause that to occur, the exchange won't happen.

A player can't exchange life totals with his or her teammate. If an effect would cause that to occur, the exchange won't happen.

806.10f.810.9f.

If an effect instructs a player to redistribute any number of players' life totals, that player may not affect more than one member of each team this way.

If an effect instructs a player to redistribute any number of players' life totals, that player may not affect more than one member of each team this way.

806.10g.810.9g.

If an effect says that a player can't gain life, no player on that player's team can gain life.

If an effect says that a player can't gain life, no player on that player's team can gain life.

806.11.810.10.

The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players. Each team's starting life total is equal to 15 times the number of players on the team. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant, Four-Headed Giant, and so on.)

The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players. Each team's starting life total is equal to 15 times the number of players on the team. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant, Four-Headed Giant, and so on.)

809.811.

Teams Variant

Alternating Teams Variant

809.1.811.1.

The Teams variant involves two or more teams of equal size.

Alternating Teams games are played with two or more teams of equal size.

809.2.811.2.

Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. The Teams variant uses the following default options.

Any multiplayer options used are determined before play begins. The Alternating Teams variant uses the following default options.

809.2a.811.2a.

The recommended range of influence is 2. See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option."

The recommended range of influence is 2. See rule 801, "Limited Range of Influence Option."

809.2b.811.2b.

Exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used. See rule 803, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

Exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used. See rule 803, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

809.2c.811.2c.

The deploy creatures option isn't normally used in the Teams variant.

The deploy creatures option isn't normally used in the Alternating Teams variant.

809.3.811.3.

At the start of the game, players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.

Example: In a Teams game with three teams, A, B, and C, the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3, C3, and so on.

At the start of the game, players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.

Example: In a Teams game with three teams, A, B, and C, the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3, C3, and so on.

809.4.811.4.

A player can't attack opponents who aren't seated next to him or her.

A player can't attack opponents who aren't seated next to him or her.

809.5.811.5.

In the Teams variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates can't review each other's hands unless they are sitting next to each other. Teammates may discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

In the Alternating Teams variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates can't review each other's hands unless they are sitting next to each other. Teammates may discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

901.2.901.2.

A Planar Magic game may be a two-player game or a multiplayer game. The default multiplayer setup is the Free-for-All variant with the attack multiple players option and without the limited range of influence option. See rule 805, "Free-for-All Variant."

A Planar Magic game may be a two-player game or a multiplayer game. The default multiplayer setup is the Free-for-All variant with the attack multiple players option and without the limited range of influence option. See rule 806, "Free-for-All Variant."

901.8.901.8.

Any time the active player has priority and the stack is empty, but only during a main phase of his or her turn, that player may roll the planar die. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. This is a special action and doesn't use the stack. (See rule 114.2f.)

Any time the active player has priority and the stack is empty, but only during a main phase of his or her turn, that player may roll the planar die. Taking this action costs a player an amount of mana equal to the number of times he or she has previously taken this action on that turn. This is a special action and doesn't use the stack. (See rule 115.2f.)

903.2.903.2.

An EDH game may be a two-player game or a multiplayer game. The default multiplayer setup is the Free-for-All variant with the attack multiple players option and without the limited range of influence option. See rule 805, "Free-for-All Variant."

An EDH game may be a two-player game or a multiplayer game. The default multiplayer setup is the Free-for-All variant with the attack multiple players option and without the limited range of influence option. See rule 806, "Free-for-All Variant."

904.

Archenemy

904.1.

In the Archenemy variant, a team of players faces off against a single opponent bolstered with powerful scheme cards. The Archenemy variant uses all the normal rules for a Magic game, with the following additions.

904.2.

The default setup for an Archenemy game is the Team vs. Team multiplayer variant (see rule 808) involving exactly two teams. The attack multiple players option (see rule 802) and the shared team turns option (see rule 805) are used; no other multiplayer options are used.

904.2a.

One of the teams consists of exactly one player, who is designated the archenemy.

904.2b.

The other team consists of any number of players.

904.3.

In addition to the normal game materials, the archenemy needs a scheme deck of at least twenty scheme cards. A scheme deck may contain no more than two of any card with a particular English name. (See rule 311, "Schemes.")

904.4.

At the start of the game, the archenemy shuffles his or her scheme deck so that the cards are in a random order. The scheme deck is placed face down next to the archenemy's library. All scheme cards remain in the command zone throughout the game, both while they're part of a scheme deck and while they're face up.

904.5.

The archenemy's starting life total is 40. Each other player's starting life total is 20.

904.6.

Rather than a randomly determined player, the archenemy takes the first turn of the game.

904.7.

The owner of a scheme card is the player who started the game with it in the command zone. The controller of a face-up scheme card is its owner.

904.8.

Any abilities of a face-up scheme card in the command zone function from that zone. The card's static abilities affect the game, its triggered abilities may trigger, and its activated abilities may be activated.

904.9.

Immediately after the archenemy's precombat main phase begins during each of his or her turns, that player moves the top card of his or her scheme deck off that scheme deck and turns it face up. This is called "setting that scheme in motion." (See rule 701.21.) This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. Abilities of that scheme card that trigger "When you set this scheme in motion" trigger.

904.10.

If a non-ongoing scheme card is face up in the command zone, and it isn't the source of a triggered ability that has triggered but not yet left the stack, that scheme card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

904.11.

Once an ongoing scheme card is set in motion, it remains face up in the command zone until an ability causes it to be abandoned (see rule 701.22).

904.12.

Supervillain Rumble Option

904.12a.

As an alternative option, players may play a Free-for-All game in which each player has his or her own scheme deck. The attack multiple players option (see rule 802) is used; no other multiplayer options are used.

904.12b.

Each player in this game is an archenemy.

904.12c.

As in a normal Free-for-All game, the starting player is randomly determined. All other rules that apply to the archenemy in an Archenemy game apply to each player in a Supervillain Rumble game.

Abandon

To turn a face-up ongoing scheme card face down and put it on the bottom of its owner's scheme deck. See rule 701.22, "Abandon."

Activated AbilityActivated Ability

A kind of ability. Activated abilities are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation restriction (if any).]" See rule 112, "Abilities," and rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."

A kind of ability. Activated abilities are written as "[Cost]: [Effect.] [Activation instructions (if any).]" See rule 112, "Abilities," and rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."

Activation CostActivation Cost

Everything that appears before the colon in an activated ability's text. It must be paid to activate the ability. See rule 116, "Costs," and rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."

Everything that appears before the colon in an activated ability's text. It must be paid to activate the ability. See rule 117, "Costs," and rule 602, "Activating Activated Abilities."

Active Player, Nonactive Player OrderActive Player, Nonactive Player Order

A system that determines the order by which players make choices if multiple players are instructed to make choices at the same time. See rule 101.4. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play; see rule 806.7b.

A system that determines the order by which players make choices if multiple players are instructed to make choices at the same time. See rule 101.4. This rule is modified for games using the shared team turns option; see rule 805.6..

Active TeamActive Team

The team whose turn it is in a Two-Headed Giant game. See rule 806.7b.

The team whose turn it is in a game using the shared team turns option. See rule 805.4a.

Additional CostAdditional Cost

A cost a spell may have that its controller may pay (or, in some cases, must pay) in addition to its mana cost to cast that spell. See rule 116, "Costs," and rule 601, "Casting Spells."

A cost a spell may have that its controller may pay (or, in some cases, must pay) in addition to its mana cost to cast that spell. See rule 117, "Costs," and rule 601, "Casting Spells."

Teams VariantAlternating Teams Variant

A multiplayer variant played among two or more teams of equal size. See rule 809, "Teams Variant."

A multiplayer variant played among two or more teams of equal size. See rule 811, "Alternating Teams Variant."

Alternative CostAlternative Cost

A cost a spell may have that its controller can pay rather than paying its mana cost. See rule 116, "Costs," and rule 601, "Casting Spells."

A cost a spell may have that its controller can pay rather than paying its mana cost. See rule 117, "Costs," and rule 601, "Casting Spells."

Archenemy

1. A casual variant in which a team of players faces off against a single opponent bolstered with powerful scheme cards. See rule 904, "Archenemy." 2. A player in an Archenemy game who is playing with a scheme deck.

Blocked CreatureBlocked Creature

An attacking creature that another creature blocks or that an effect causes to become blocked. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat, an effect says that it becomes unblocked, or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step."

An attacking creature that another creature blocks or that an effect causes to become blocked. It remains a blocked creature until it's removed from combat, an effect says that it becomes unblocked, or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step."

Change a TargetChange a Target

To choose a new, legal target for a spell or ability. See rule 113.6.

To choose a new, legal target for a spell or ability. See rule 114.6.

CommandCommand

A zone used for nontraditional Magic cards in certain casual variants. See rule 408, "Command."

A zone for certain specialized objects that have an overarching effect on the game, yet are not permanents and cannot be destroyed.. See rule 408, "Command."

CostCost

An action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. See rule 116, "Costs."

An action or payment necessary to take another action or to stop another action from taking place. See rule 117, "Costs."

CounterCounter

1. To cancel a spell or ability so it doesn't resolve and none of its effects occur. See rule 701.5, "Counter." 2. A marker placed on an object or player that modifies its characteristics or interacts with a rule or ability. See rule 120, "Counters."

1. To cancel a spell or ability so it doesn't resolve and none of its effects occur. See rule 701.5, "Counter." 2. A marker placed on an object or player that modifies its characteristics or interacts with a rule or ability. See rule 121, "Counters."

DamageDamage

Objects can deal "damage" to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. This is generally detrimental to the object or player that receives that damage. See rule 118, "Damage."

Objects can deal "damage" to creatures, planeswalkers, and players. This is generally detrimental to the object or player that receives that damage. See rule 119, "Damage."

DeckDeck

The collection of cards a player starts the game with; it becomes that player's library. See section 100, "General," and section 103, "Starting the Game."

The collection of cards a player starts the game with; it becomes that player's library. See rule 100, "General," and rule 103, "Starting the Game."

Defending PlayerDefending Player

The player who can be attacked, and whose planeswalkers can be attacked, during the combat phase. See rule 506.2. In certain multiplayer games, there may be more than one defending player; see rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option," and rule 806.8.

The player who can be attacked, and whose planeswalkers can be attacked, during the combat phase. See rule 506.2. In certain multiplayer games, there may be more than one defending player; see rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option," and rule 810.7.

Defending TeamDefending Team

The team who can be attacked, and whose planeswalkers can be attacked, during the combat phase of a Two-Headed Giant game. See rule 806.8.

The team who can be attacked, and whose planeswalkers can be attacked, during the combat phase of a Two-Headed Giant game. See rule 810.7.

DrawDraw

1. To put the top card of a player's library into his or her hand as a turn-based action or as the result of an effect that uses the word "draw." See rule 119, "Drawing a Card." 2. The result of a game in which neither player wins or loses. See rule 104.4.

1. To put the top card of a player's library into his or her hand as a turn-based action or as the result of an effect that uses the word "draw." See rule 120, "Drawing a Card." 2. The result of a game in which neither player wins or loses. See rule 104.4.

Emblem

An emblem is a marker used to represent an object that has one or more abilities, but no other characteristics. See rule 113, "Emblems."

EmperorEmperor

The middle player on each team in an Emperor game. See rule 807, "Emperor Variant."

The middle player on each team in an Emperor game. See rule 809, "Emperor Variant."

Emperor VariantEmperor Variant

A multiplayer variant played among three-player teams. See rule 807, "Emperor Variant."

A multiplayer variant played among three-player teams. See rule 809, "Emperor Variant."

Extra TurnExtra Turn

A turn created by an effect of a spell or ability. See rule 500.7. For rules about extra turns in a Two-Headed Giant game, see 806.7f. For rules about extra turns in a Grand Melee game, see rule 808.4.

A turn created by an effect of a spell or ability. See rule 500.7. For rules about extra turns in a multiplayer game using the shared team turns option, see 805.8. For rules about extra turns in a Grand Melee game, see rule 807.4.

Free-for-AllFree-for-All

A multiplayer variant in which a group of players complete as individuals against each other. See rule 805, "Free-for-All Variant."

A multiplayer variant in which a group of players compete as individuals against each other. See rule 806, "Free-for-All Variant."

GeneralGeneral

1. Any player in the Emperor multiplayer variant who isn't an emperor. See rule 807, "Emperor Variant." 2. A designation given to a card in the EDH casual variant. See rule 903, "EDH."

1. Any player in the Emperor multiplayer variant who isn't an emperor. See rule 809, "Emperor Variant." 2. A designation given to a card in the EDH casual variant. See rule 903, "EDH."

Grand MeleeGrand Melee

A multiplayer variant in which a large group of players (usually ten or more) complete as individuals against each other. See rule 808, "Grand Melee Variant."

A multiplayer variant in which a large group of players (usually ten or more) compete as individuals against each other. See rule 807, "Grand Melee Variant."

In Response ToIn Response To

An instant spell that's been cast, or an activated ability that's been activated, while another spell or ability is on the stack has been cast or activated "in response to" the earlier spell or ability. See rule 115.7.

An instant spell that's been cast, or an activated ability that's been activated, while another spell or ability is on the stack has been cast or activated "in response to" the earlier spell or ability. See rule 116.7.

Lethal DamageLethal Damage

An amount of damage greater than or equal to a creature's toughness. See rules 118.6, 510.1, and 704.5g.

An amount of damage greater than or equal to a creature's toughness. See rules 119.6, 510.1, and 704.5g.

Life, Life TotalLife, Life Total

Each player has an amount of "life," represented by that player's "life total." Life may be gained or lost. See rule 117, "Life."

Each player has an amount of "life," represented by that player's "life total." Life may be gained or lost. See rule 118, "Life."

Lose the GameLose the Game

There are several ways to lose the game. See rule 104, "Winning and Losing," rule 806.9 (for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games), rule 807.5 (for additional rules for Emperor games), and rule 903.12 (for an additional rule for EDH games).

There are several ways to lose the game. See rule 104, "Winning and Losing," rule 810.8 (for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games), rule 809.5 (for additional rules for Emperor games), and rule 903.12 (for an additional rule for EDH games).

MoveMove

To remove a counter from one object and put it on a different object. See rule 120.4. Some older cards used "move" with respect to Auras; those cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference and now use the word "attach."

To remove a counter from one object and put it on a different object. See rule 121.4. Some older cards used "move" with respect to Auras; those cards have received errata in the Oracle card reference and now use the word "attach."

Ongoing

A supertype that appears only on scheme cards. See rule 204.4, "Supertypes."

PassPass

To decline to take any action (such as casting a spell or activating an ability) when you have priority. See rule 115, "Timing and Priority."

To decline to take any action (such as casting a spell or activating an ability) when you have priority. See rule 116, "Timing and Priority."

Pass in SuccessionPass in Succession

All players "pass in succession" if each player in the game (starting with any one of them) opts not to take an action upon receiving priority. See rule 115, "Timing and Priority."

All players "pass in succession" if each player in the game (starting with any one of them) opts not to take an action upon receiving priority. See rule 116, "Timing and Priority."

PayPay

To perform the actions required by a cost. This often means, but is not restricted to, spending resources such as mana or life. See section 116, "Costs."

To perform the actions required by a cost. This often means, but is not restricted to, spending resources such as mana or life. See rule 117, "Costs."

PlacedPlaced

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being "placed" on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's on the battlefield, or that permanent entering the battlefield with a counter on it. See rule 120, "Counters."

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being "placed" on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's on the battlefield, or that permanent entering the battlefield with a counter on it. See rule 121, "Counters."

PlayPlay

1. To play a land is to put a land onto the battlefield as a special action. See rule 114, "Special Actions," and rule 305, "Lands." 2. To play a card is to play that card as a land or cast that card as a spell, whichever is appropriate. See rule 601, "Casting Spells." 3. (Obsolete) Casting a spell used to be known as playing a spell. Cards with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference. See Cast. 4. (Obsolete) Activating an activated ability used to be known as playing an activated ability. Cards with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference. See Activate. 5. (Obsolete) The battlefield used to be known as the in-play zone. Cards that were printed with text that contains the phrases "in play," "from play," "into play," or the like are referring to the battlefield and have received errata in the Oracle card reference. See Battlefield.

1. To play a land is to put a land onto the battlefield as a special action. See rule 115, "Special Actions," and rule 305, "Lands." 2. To play a card is to play that card as a land or cast that card as a spell, whichever is appropriate. See rule 601, "Casting Spells." 3. (Obsolete) Casting a spell used to be known as playing a spell. Cards with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference. See Cast. 4. (Obsolete) Activating an activated ability used to be known as playing an activated ability. Cards with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference. See Activate. 5. (Obsolete) The battlefield used to be known as the in-play zone. Cards that were printed with text that contains the phrases "in play," "from play," "into play," or the like are referring to the battlefield and have received errata in the Oracle card reference. See Battlefield.

Poison CounterPoison Counter

A counter that may be given to a player. See rule 120, "Counters," and rule 704.5c.

A counter that may be given to a player. See rule 121, "Counters," and rule 704.5c.

PriorityPriority

Which player can take actions at any given time is determined by a system of "priority." See rule 115, "Timing and Priority."

Which player can take actions at any given time is determined by a system of "priority." See rule 116, "Timing and Priority."

RespondRespond

To cast an instant spell or activate an ability while another spell or ability is already on the stack. See rule 115.7.

To cast an instant spell or activate an ability while another spell or ability is already on the stack. See rule 116.7.

Scheme

A card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards in the Archenemy casual variant. A scheme card is not a permanent. See rule 311, "Schemes."

Set in Motion

To move a scheme card off the top of your scheme deck and turn it face up. See rule 701.21, "Set in Motion."

Shared Life TotalShared Life Total

In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, each team has a "shared life total" rather than each player having an individual life total. See rule 806, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, each team has a "shared life total" rather than each player having an individual life total. See rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Shared Team Turns Option

An option that may be used in certain multiplayer variants, such as Two-Headed Giant and Archenemy. See rule 805, "Shared Team Turns Option."

Special ActionSpecial Action

An action a player may take that doesn't use the stack. See rule 114, "Special Actions."

An action a player may take that doesn't use the stack. See rule 115, "Special Actions."

Starting Player

The player chosen to take the first turn of a game. See rule 103.2.

Starting Team

The team chosen to take the first turn of a game using the shared team turns option. See rule 103.2.

Supervillain Rumble

A Free-for-All game in which each player is an archenemy. See rule 806, "Free-for-All," and rule 904, "Archenemy."

TargetTarget

A preselected object, player, and/or zone a spell or ability will affect. See rule 113, "Targets."

A preselected object, player, and/or zone a spell or ability will affect. See rule 114, "Targets."

TeamTeam

A group of players who share a common victory condition in a multiplayer game. See rule 806, "Two-Headed Giant Variant," rule 807, "Emperor Variant," and rule 809, "Teams Variant."

A group of players who share a common victory condition in a multiplayer game. See rule 808, "Team vs. Team Variant," rule 809, "Emperor Variant," rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant," and rule 811, "Alternating Teams Variant."

Team vs. Team Variant

A multiplayer variant played among two or more teams, each of which sits together. See rule 808, "Team vs. Team Variant."

Turn MarkersTurn Markers

Markers used to keep track of which players are taking turns in a Grand Melee game. See rule 808.4.

Markers used to keep track of which players are taking turns in a Grand Melee game. See rule 807.4.

Two-Headed Giant VariantTwo-Headed Giant Variant

A multiplayer variant played among two-player teams that each have a shared life total and take a simultaneous turn. See rule 806, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

A multiplayer variant played among two-player teams that each have a shared life total and take a simultaneous turn. See rule 810, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

UnlessUnless

A word used to indicate a certain style of cost. See rule 116.12a.

A word used to indicate a certain style of cost. See rule 117.12a.

Win the GameWin the Game

There are several ways to win the game. See rule 104, "Winning and Losing," and rules 806.9 (for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games) and rule 807.5 (for additional rules for Emperor games).

There are several ways to win the game. See rule 104, "Winning and Losing," and rules 810.8 (for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games) and rule 809.5 (for additional rules for Emperor games).