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General

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103.4d.103.4d.

The Commander casual variant uses an alternate mulligan rule. Each time a player takes a mulligan, rather than shuffling his or her entire hand of cards into his or her library, that player exiles any number of cards from his or her hand. Then the player draws a number of cards equal to one less than the number of cards he or she exiled this way. Once a player keeps an opening hand, that player shuffles all cards he or she exiled this way into his or her library.

The Commander casual variant uses an alternate mulligan rule. Each time a player takes a mulligan, rather than shuffling his or her entire hand of cards into his or her library, that player exiles any number of cards from his or her hand face down. Then the player draws a number of cards equal to one less than the number of cards he or she exiled this way. Once a player keeps an opening hand, that player shuffles all cards he or she exiled this way into his or her library.

112.3c.112.3c.

Triggered abilities have a trigger condition and an effect. They are written as "[Trigger condition], [effect]," and begin with the word "when," "whenever," or "at." Whenever the trigger event occurs, the ability is put on the stack the next time a player would receive priority and stays there until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities."

Triggered abilities have a trigger condition and an effect. They are written as "[Trigger condition], [effect]," and include (and usually begin with) the word "when," "whenever," or "at." Whenever the trigger event occurs, the ability is put on the stack the next time a player would receive priority and stays there until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. See rule 603, "Handling Triggered Abilities."

205.3j.205.3j.

Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types. The planeswalker types are Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Elspeth, Garruk, Gideon, Jace, Karn, Koth, Liliana, Nissa, Sarkhan, Sorin, Tamiyo, Tezzeret, Tibalt, Venser, and Vraska. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based action. See rule 704.

Planeswalkers have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planeswalker types. The planeswalker types are Ajani, Bolas, Chandra, Domri, Elspeth, Garruk, Gideon, Jace, Karn, Koth, Liliana, Nissa, Sarkhan, Sorin, Tamiyo, Tezzeret, Tibalt, Venser, and Vraska. If two or more planeswalkers that share a planeswalker type are on the battlefield, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "planeswalker uniqueness rule" is a state-based action. See rule 704.

207.2c.207.2c.

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The ability words are channel, chroma, domain, fateful hour, grandeur, hellbent, imprint, join forces, kinship, landfall, metalcraft, morbid, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The ability words are battalion, bloodrush, channel, chroma, domain, fateful hour, grandeur, hellbent, imprint, join forces, kinship, landfall, metalcraft, morbid, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

306.5a.306.5a.

The loyalty of a planeswalker not on the battlefield is equal to the number printed in its lower right corner.

The loyalty of a planeswalker card not on the battlefield is equal to the number printed in its lower right corner.

401.5.401.5.

If a spell or ability causes a card to be drawn while another spell is being cast, the drawn card is kept face down until that spell becomes cast (see rule 601.2h). While face down, it's considered to have no characteristics. The same is true with relation to another ability being activated.

If a spell or ability causes a card to be drawn while another spell is being cast, the drawn card is kept face down until that spell becomes cast (see rule 601.2h). While face down, it's considered to have no characteristics. The same is true with relation to another ability being activated. If an effect allows or instructs a player to reveal the card as it's being drawn, it's revealed after the spell becomes cast or the ability becomes activated.

406.3.406.3.

Exiled cards are, by default, kept face up and may be examined by any player at any time. Cards "exiled face down" can't be examined by any player except when instructions allow it. A card exiled face down has no characteristics, but the spell or ability that exiled it may allow it to be cast from exile. Unless that card is being cast face down (see rule 707.4), the card is turned face up just before the player announces that he or she is casting the spell (see rule 601.2).

Exiled cards are, by default, kept face up and may be examined by any player at any time. Cards "exiled face down" can't be examined by any player except when instructions allow it. However, once a player is allowed to look at a card exiled face down, that player may continue to look at that card as long as it remains exiled, even if the instruction allowing the player to do so no longer applies. A card exiled face down has no characteristics, but the spell or ability that exiled it may allow it to be played from exile. Unless that card is being cast face down (see rule 707.4), the card is turned face up just before the player announces that he or she is playing the card (see rule 601.2).

503.3.

If a spell states that it may be cast only "after [a player's] upkeep step," and the turn has multiple upkeep steps, that spell may be cast any time after the first upkeep step ends.

506.4d.506.4d.

A permanent that's both a blocking creature and a planeswalker that's being attacked is removed from combat only if it stops being both a creature and a planeswalker. If it stops being one of those card types but continues to be the other, it continues to be either a blocking creature or a planeswalker that's being attacked, whichever is appropriate.

A permanent that's both a blocking creature and a planeswalker that's being attacked is removed from combat if it stops being both a creature and a planeswalker. If it stops being one of those card types but continues to be the other, it continues to be either a blocking creature or a planeswalker that's being attacked, whichever is appropriate.

607.1.607.1.

An object may have two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. If so, these two abilities are linked: the second refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first, and not by any other ability.

An object may have two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects or players to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions, objects, or players. If so, these two abilities are linked: the second refers only to actions that were taken or objects or players that were affected by the first, and not by any other ability.

611.2c.611.2c.

If a continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability modifies the characteristics or changes the controller of any objects, the set of objects it affects is determined when that continuous effect begins. After that point, the set won't change. (Note that this works differently than a continuous effect from a static ability.) A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability that doesn't modify the characteristics or change the controller of any objects modifies the rules of the game, so it can affect objects that weren't affected when that continuous effect began.

Example: An effect that reads "All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn" gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves—even if they change color later—and doesn't affect those that enter the battlefield or turn white afterward.

Example: An effect that reads "Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn" doesn't modify any object's characteristics, so it's modifying the rules of the game. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren't on the battlefield when the continuous effect began. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn.

If a continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability modifies the characteristics or changes the controller of any objects, the set of objects it affects is determined when that continuous effect begins. After that point, the set won't change. (Note that this works differently than a continuous effect from a static ability.) A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability that doesn't modify the characteristics or change the controller of any objects modifies the rules of the game, so it can affect objects that weren't affected when that continuous effect began. If a single continuous effect has parts that modify the characteristics or changes the controller of any objects and other parts that don't, the set of objects each part applies to is determined independently.

Example: An effect that reads "All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn" gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves—even if they change color later—and doesn't affect those that enter the battlefield or turn white afterward.

Example: An effect that reads "Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn" doesn't modify any object's characteristics, so it's modifying the rules of the game. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren't on the battlefield when the continuous effect began. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn.

614.12a.

If a replacement effect that modifies how a permanent enters the battlefield requires a choice, that choice is made before the permanent enters the battlefield.

615.2.615.2.

Many preventions effects apply to damage from a source. See rule 609.7.

Many prevention effects apply to damage from a source. See rule 609.7.

700.6.700.6.

The term dies means "is put into a graveyard from the battlefield." It is used only when referring to creatures.

The term dies means "is put into a graveyard from the battlefield."

702.18b.702.18b.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. Once all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. The attacking creature's controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

Example: A 2/2 creature that can block an additional creature blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no abilities a 3/3 with trample. The active player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature, and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample.

Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. The attacking creature's controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker, even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker's protection ability. The attacking creature's controller can divide the rest of the damage as he or she chooses between the blocking creature and the defending player.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. Once all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among those blocking creatures and the player or planeswalker the creature is attacking. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already marked on the creature and damage from other creatures that's being assigned during the same combat damage step, but not any abilities or effects that might change the amount of damage that's actually dealt. The attacking creature's controller need not assign lethal damage to all those blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the player or planeswalker it's attacking.

Example: A 2/2 creature that can block an additional creature blocks two attackers: a 1/1 with no abilities and a 3/3 with trample. The active player could assign 1 damage from the first attacker and 1 damage from the second to the blocking creature, and 2 damage to the defending player from the creature with trample.

Example: A 6/6 green creature with trample is blocked by a 2/2 creature with protection from green. The attacking creature's controller must assign at least 2 damage to the blocker, even though that damage will be prevented by the blocker's protection ability. The attacking creature's controller can divide the rest of the damage as he or she chooses between the blocking creature and the defending player.

702.94a.702.94a.

Overload is a keyword that represents two static abilities: one that functions from any zone in which the spell with overload can be cast and another that functions while the card is on the stack. Overload [cost] means "You may choose to pay [cost] rather than pay this spell's mana cost" and "If you chose to pay this spell's overload cost, change its text by replacing all instances of the word 'target' with the word 'each.'" Using the overload ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Overload is a keyword that represents two static abilities that function while the spell with overload is on the stack. Overload [cost] means "You may choose to pay [cost] rather than pay this spell's mana cost" and "If you chose to pay this spell's overload cost, change its text by replacing all instances of the word 'target' with the word 'each.'" Using the overload ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.97.

Cipher

702.97a.

Cipher appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two abilities. The first is a spell ability that functions while the spell with cipher is on the stack. The second is a static ability that functions while the card with cipher is in the exile zone. "Cipher" means "If this spell is represented by a card, you may exile this card encoded on a creature you control" and "As long as this card is encoded on that creature, that creature has 'Whenever this creature deals combat damage to a player, you may copy the encoded card and you may cast the copy without paying its mana cost.'"

702.97b.

The term "encoded" describes the relationship between the card with cipher while in the exile zone and the creature chosen when the spell represented by that card resolves.

702.97c.

The card with cipher remains encoded on the chosen creature as long as the card with cipher remains exiled and the creature remains on the battlefield. The card remains encoded on that object even if it changes controller or stops being a creature, as long as it remains on the battlefield.

702.98.

Evolve

702.98a.

Evolve is a triggered ability. "Evolve" means "Whenever a creature enters the battlefield under your control, if that creature's power is greater than this creature's power and/or that creature's toughness is greater than this creature's toughness, put a +1/+1 counter on this creature."

702.98b.

A creature can't have a greater power or toughness than a noncreature permanent.

702.98c.

If a creature has multiple instances of evolve, each triggers separately.

702.99.

Extort

702.99a.

Extort is a triggered ability. "Extort" means "Whenever you cast a spell, you may pay {W/B}. If you do, each opponent loses 1 life and you gain life equal to the total life lost this way."

702.99b.

If a permanent has multiple instances if extort, each triggers separately.

709.1c.709.1c.

A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply.

A flip card's color, mana cost, and expansion symbol don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply.

901.10.901.10.

When a player leaves the game, all objects owned by that player leave the game. (See rule 800.4a.) If that includes a face-up plane card or phenomenon card, the planar controller turns the top card of his or her planar deck face up. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game.

When a player leaves the game, all objects owned by that player except abilities from phenomena leave the game. (See rule 800.4a.) If that includes a face-up plane card or phenomenon card, the planar controller turns the top card of his or her planar deck face up. This is not a state-based action. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game.

901.10b.

Abilities from phenomena owned by player who left the game remain on the stack controlled by the new planar controller.

901.11a.901.11a.

A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 901.8), because the owner of a face-up plane card or phenomenon card leaves the game (see rule 901.10), or because a phenomenon's triggered ability leaves the stack (see rule 704.5x) Abilities may also instruct a player to planeswalk.

A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 901.8), because the owner of a face-up plane card or phenomenon card leaves the game (see rule 901.10), or because a phenomenon's triggered ability leaves the stack (see rule 704.5x). Abilities may also instruct a player to planeswalk.

Cipher

A keyword ability that allows you to encode a card on a creature and cast that card whenever that creature deals combat damage to a player. See rule 702.97, "Cipher."

Encoded

A term that describes the relationship between a permanent and a card exiled by a cipher ability. See rule 702.97, "Cipher."

Evolve

A keyword ability that lets you put a +1/+1 counter on a creature when a larger creature enters the battlefield under your control. See rule 702.98, "Evolve."

Extort

A keyword ability that lets you gain life and have opponents lose life whenever you cast a spell. See rule 702.99, "Extort."