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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Shadowmoor to Eventide

General changes

Old rule (Shadowmoor) New rule (Eventide)

103.2.

When a rule or effect says something can happen and another effect says it can't, the "can't" effect wins. For example, if one effect reads "You may play an additional land this turn" and another reads "You can't play land cards this turn," the effect that keeps you from playing lands wins out. Note that adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don't fall under this rule. See rule 407, "Adding and Removing Abilities."

103.2.

When a rule or effect says something can happen and another effect says it can't, the "can't" effect wins. For example, if one effect reads "You may play an additional land this turn" and another reads "You can't play land cards this turn," the effect that keeps you from playing lands wins out. Note that adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don't fall under this rule; see rule 402.9.

104.7.

A type icon appears in the upper left corner of each card from the Future Sight (tm) set printed with an alternate "timeshifted" frame. If the card has a single card type, this icon indicates what it is: claw marks for creature, a flame for sorcery, a lightning bolt for instant, a sunrise for enchantment, a chalice for artifact, and a pair of mountain peaks for land. If the card has multiple card types, that's indicated by a black and white cross. This icon has no effect on game play.

104.7.

A type icon appears in the upper left corner of each card from the Future Sight(r) set printed with an alternate "timeshifted" frame. If the card has a single card type, this icon indicates what it is: claw marks for creature, a flame for sorcery, a lightning bolt for instant, a sunrise for enchantment, a chalice for artifact, and a pair of mountain peaks for land. If the card has multiple card types, that's indicated by a black and white cross. This icon has no effect on game play.

200.10c.

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being "placed" on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's in play, or that permanent coming into play with a counter.

202.2b.

If an ability of an object grants to another object an ability that refers to the first object by name, the name refers only to the object whose ability grants that ability, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads "Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token into play. It has 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.'" The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token, not at any other Saproling Burst in play.

202.2b.

If an ability of an object grants to an object an ability that refers to the first object by name, the name refers only to the object whose ability grants that ability, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads "Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token into play. It has 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.'" The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token, not at any other Saproling Burst in play.

206.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver expansion symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white expansion symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple expansion symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral (tm) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

206.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver expansion symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white expansion symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple expansion symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

215.4.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay life, the player may do so only if his or her life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her life total.

215.4.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0, the player may do so only if his or her life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

215.4a.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay life in a Two-Headed Giant game, the player may do so only if his or her team's life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her team's life total.

215.4a.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game, the player may do so only if his or her team's life total is equal to or greater than the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her team's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are four exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects from spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (4) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are five exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects from spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Abilities of Auras that trigger when the enchanted permanent leaves play can find that permanent in the zone it moved to and can also find the Aura in its owner's graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. (4) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, enchantment, or planeswalker spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes. (5) Permanents that phase out or in "remember" their earlier states. See rule 217.8c.

217.7d.

A card may have one ability printed on it that removes one or more cards from the game, and another ability that refers either to "the removed cards" or to cards "removed from the game with [name]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed as a result of the first. If another object gains a pair of linked abilities, the abilities will be similarly linked on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}: Remove the top ten cards of your library from the game: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Remove from the game target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death into play under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, plays it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, plays the remove-from-game ability, and then plays the return-to-play ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to play. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

217.7d.

An object may have one ability printed on it that somehow causes one or more cards to be removed from the game, and another ability that refers either to "the removed cards" or to cards "removed from the game with [this object]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed due to the first. See rule 407, "Linked Abilities."

407.1.

Effects can add or remove abilities of objects. An effect that adds an ability will state that the object "gains" or "has" that ability. An effect that removes an ability will state that the object "loses" that ability. If two or more effects add and remove the same ability, in general the most recent one prevails. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

402.9.

Effects can add or remove abilities of objects. An effect that adds an ability will state that the object "gains" or "has" that ability. An effect that removes an ability will state that the object "loses" that ability. Effects that remove an ability remove all instances of it. If two or more effects add and remove the same ability, in general the most recent one prevails. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects.")

407.2.

An effect that sets an object's characteristic, or simply states a quality of that object, is different from an ability granted by an effect. When an object "gains" or "has" an ability, that ability can be removed by another effect. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object ("[permanent] is [characteristic value]"), it's not granting an ability. (See rule 405.2.)

Example: An effect reads, "Enchanted creature has 'This creature is an artifact creature.'" This effect grants an ability to the creature that can be removed by other effects. Another effect reads, "Enchanted creature is an artifact creature." This effect simply defines a characteristic of the creature. It doesn't grant an ability, so effects that would cause the creature to lose its abilities wouldn't cause the enchanted creature to stop being an artifact.

402.10.

An effect that sets an object's characteristic, or simply states a quality of that object, is different from an ability granted by an effect. When an object "gains" or "has" an ability, that ability can be removed by another effect. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object ("[permanent] is [characteristic value]"), it's not granting an ability. (See rule 405.2.)

Example: An effect reads, "Enchanted creature has 'This creature is an artifact creature.'" This effect grants an ability to the creature that can be removed by other effects. Another effect reads, "Enchanted creature is an artifact creature." This effect simply defines a characteristic of the creature. It doesn't grant an ability, so effects that would cause the creature to lose its abilities wouldn't cause the enchanted creature to stop being an artifact.

404.5.

Some objects have a static ability that's linked to a triggered ability. These objects combine both abilities into one paragraph, with the static ability first, followed by the triggered ability. A very few objects have triggered abilities which are written with the trigger condition in the middle of the ability, rather than at the beginning.

Example: An ability that reads "Reveal the first card you draw each turn. Whenever you reveal a basic land card this way, draw a card" is a static ability linked to a triggered ability.

Example: An ability that reads "The controller of enchanted creature sacrifices it at the end of his or her turn" is a triggered ability.

404.5.

Some objects have a static ability that's linked to a triggered ability. (See rule 407, "Linked Abilities.") These objects combine both abilities into one paragraph, with the static ability first, followed by the triggered ability. A very few objects have triggered abilities which are written with the trigger condition in the middle of the ability, rather than at the beginning.

Example: An ability that reads "Reveal the first card you draw each turn. Whenever you reveal a basic land card this way, draw a card" is a static ability linked to a triggered ability.

407.

Adding and Removing Abilities

407.

Linked Abilities

407.1.

An object may have two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects. If so, these two abilities are linked: the second refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first, and not by any other ability.

407.2.

There are different kinds of linked abilities.

407.2a.

If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that removes one or more cards from the game, and another ability printed on it that refers either to "the removed cards" or to cards "removed from the game with [this object]," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a result of the first ability.

407.2b.

If an object has an ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be removed from the game, and another ability printed on it that refers either to "the removed cards" or to cards "removed from the game with [this object]," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a direct result of a replacement event caused by the first ability. See rule 419.6, "Replacement Effects."

407.2c.

If an object has an activated or triggered ability printed on it that puts one or more objects into play, and another ability printed on it that refers to objects "put into play with [this object]," those abilities are linked. The second can refer only to objects put into play as a result of the first.

407.2d.

If an object has an ability printed on it that causes a player to "choose a [value]" or "name a card," and another ability printed on it that refers to "the chosen [value]," "the last chosen [value]," or "the named card," these abilities are linked. The second ability refers only to a choice made as a result of the first ability.

407.2e.

If an object has both a static ability and a triggered ability printed on it in the same paragraph, those abilities are linked. The triggered ability refers only to actions taken as a result of the static ability. See rule 404.5.

407.2f.

If an object has a kicker ability printed on it, and another ability printed on it that refers to whether the kicker cost was paid, those abilities are linked. The second refers only to whether the kicker cost listed in the first was paid when the object was played as a spell. If a kicker ability lists multiple costs, it will have multiple abilities linked to it. Each of those abilities will specify which kicker cost it refers to. See rule 502.21, "Kicker."

407.2g.

The two abilities represented by the champion keyword are linked abilities. See rule 502.72, "Champion."

407.3.

Effects that remove an ability remove all instances of it.

Example: If a creature with flying is enchanted with Flight, it has two instances of the flying ability. A single effect that reads "Target creature loses flying" will remove both.

407.3.

If an object acquires a pair of linked abilities as part of the same effect, the abilities will be similarly linked to one another on that object even though they weren't printed on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}: Remove the top ten cards of your library from the game: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Remove from the game target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death into play under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, plays it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, plays the remove-from-game ability, and then plays the return-to-play ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to play. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

410.10f.

Some Auras have triggered abilities that trigger on the enchanted permanent leaving play. These triggered abilities can track the Aura to its owner's graveyard in addition to tracking the enchanted permanent to whatever zone it moved to.

410.10f.

Some Auras have triggered abilities that trigger on the enchanted permanent leaving play. These triggered abilities can find that permanent in the zone it moved to and can also find the Aura in its owner's graveyard after state-based effects have been checked. See rule 217.1c.

411.3a.

If a triggered mana ability adds mana "of the same type" or "of the same color" to a player's mana pool and the mana ability that triggered it produced more than one type or color of mana, the player to whose mana pool the mana is being added chooses which type or color of mana the triggered ability adds.

413.2c.

If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible. (For example, if a player can't meet all the immediate requirements of an optional action, then he or she can't take that action, regardless of the consequences for not doing it.) Note that as an exception, having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action. See rule 423.3.

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

413.2c.

If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible, with the exception that having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 423.3).

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

413.2i.

A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell's controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner's graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell's resolution. An ability is removed from the stack and ceases to exist as the final step of its resolution.

413.2i.

A spell is put into play from the stack under the control of the spell's controller (for permanents) or is put into its owner's graveyard from the stack (for instants and sorceries) as the final step of the spell's resolution. An ability is removed from the stack and ceases to exist as the final step of its resolution. If a permanent spell resolves but its controller can't put it into play, that player puts it into its owner's graveyard.

Example: Worms of the Earth says "If a land would come into play, instead it doesn't." Clone says "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." If a player plays Clone and chooses to copy Dryad Arbor (a land creature) while Worms of the Earth is in play, Clone can't come into play from the stack. It's put into its owner's graveyard.

418.5e.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, with three exceptions: (a) If two or more objects enter a zone (or zones) simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. (b) Whenever an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification receives a new timestamp. (c) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out.

418.5e.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, with three exceptions: (a) Whenever an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification becomes attached to an object or player, the Aura, Equipment, or Fortification receives a new timestamp. (b) If two or more objects would receive a timestamp simultaneously, such as by entering a zone simultaneously or becoming attached simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at that time. (c) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out.

419.6b.

Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. The word "instead" doesn't appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage from it, tap it, and (if it's in combat) remove it from combat." Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates.

419.6b.

Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. The word "instead" doesn't appear on the card but is implicit in the definition of regeneration. "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage from it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat." Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates.

419.6c.

Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature, planeswalker, or player with the same damage dealt to another creature, planeswalker, or player; such effects are called "redirection" effects. If either creature or planewalker is no longer in play when the damage would be redirected, or is no longer a creature or planeswalker when the damage would be redirected, the effect does nothing.

419.6c.

Some effects replace damage dealt to one creature, planeswalker, or player with the same damage dealt to another creature, planeswalker, or player; such effects are called "redirection" effects. If either creature or planeswalker is no longer in play when the damage would be redirected, or is no longer a creature or planeswalker when the damage would be redirected, the effect does nothing.

419.6j.

An object may have one ability printed on it that generates a replacement effect which causes one or more cards to be removed from the game, and another ability that refers either to "the removed cards" or to cards "removed from the game with [this object]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone that were moved there as a direct result of the replacement event caused by the first. If another object gains a pair of linked abilities, the abilities will be similarly linked on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past. See rule 407, "Linked Abilities."

419.7e.

Some prevention effects also include a replacement effect that refers to what was prevented. The prevention happens at the time the original event would have happened; the replacement happens immediately afterward.

419.7e.

Some prevention effects also include an additional effect, which may refer to the amount of damage that was prevented. The prevention takes place at the time the original event would have happened; the rest of the effect takes place immediately afterward.

501.5a.

If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage from it, tap it, and (if it's in combat) remove it from combat."

501.5a.

If the effect of a resolving spell or ability regenerates a permanent, it creates a replacement effect that protects the permanent the next time it would be destroyed this turn. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage from it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat."

501.5b.

If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "Instead remove all damage from [permanent], tap it, and (if it's in combat) remove it from combat."

501.5b.

If the effect of a static ability regenerates a permanent, it replaces destruction with an alternate effect each time that permanent would be destroyed. In this case, "Regenerate [permanent]" means "Instead remove all damage from [permanent] and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat."

502.13b.

If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not linked to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

Example: A creature has two instances of "Cumulative upkeep-Pay 1 life." The creature currently has no counters but both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. When the first ability resolves, the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. When the second ability resolves, the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.

502.13b.

If a permanent has multiple instances of cumulative upkeep, each triggers separately. However, the age counters are not connected to any particular ability; each cumulative upkeep ability will count the total number of age counters on the permanent at the time that ability resolves.

Example: A creature has two instances of "Cumulative upkeep-Pay 1 life." The creature currently has no counters but both cumulative upkeep abilities trigger. When the first ability resolves, the controller adds a counter and then chooses to pay 1 life. When the second ability resolves, the controller adds another counter and then chooses to pay an additional 2 life.

502.21b.

Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if the kicker cost is paid. Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that correspond to each kicker cost.

502.21b.

Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if the kicker cost is paid. These abilities refer to whether the player who played the object as a spell chose to pay the kicker costs; they don't check what that player actually spent to do so. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. They can't refer to any other kicker costs that may have been paid when the object was played. See rule 407, "Linked Abilities."

502.21d.

A card with kicker may contain the phrases "if the [A] kicker cost was paid" and "if the kicker cost was paid," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. This text just refers to one kicker cost or the other, regardless of what the spell's controller actually spent when paying the cost. In other words, read "if the [A] kicker cost was paid" as "if the first kicker cost listed was paid," and read "if the [B] kicker cost was paid" as "if the second kicker cost listed was paid."

502.21c.

Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if the [A] kicker cost was paid" and "if the kicker cost was paid," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. This text just refers to one kicker cost or the other, regardless of what the spell's controller actually spent when paying the cost. In other words, read "if the [A] kicker cost was paid" as "if the first listed kicker cost was paid," and read "if the [B] kicker cost was paid" as "if the second listed kicker cost was paid." Each of those abilities is linked to the kicker ability.

502.21c.

If the text that depends on a kicker cost being paid targets one or more permanents and/or players, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if he or she declared the intention to pay the appropriate kicker cost. Otherwise, the targets aren't chosen at all.

502.21d.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if a kicker cost was paid, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if he or she declared the intention to pay that kicker cost. Otherwise, the spell is played as if it did not have those targets. See rule 409.1d.

502.53b.

A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until the upkeep step ends or until it leaves the player's hand, whichever comes first.

502.53b.

A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player's hand or until a step or phase that isn't an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.

502.72b.

The two abilities represented by champion are linked abilities as defined by rule 217.7d.

502.72b.

The two abilities represented by champion are linked.. See rule 407, "Linked Abilities."

502.81.

Retrace

502.81a.

Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the card is in a player's graveyard. "Retrace" means "You may play this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to play it." Playing a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

503.8.

If a pair of linked abilities are copied, those abilities will be similarly linked to one another on the object that copied them. One ability refers only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the other. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the copy may currently have or may have had in the past. See rule 407, "Linked Abilities."

503.8.

If an ability causes a player to make a choice as a copy comes into play, the copy will "remember" that choice and continue to use it for its abilities if appropriate. If the choice is not appropriate, it is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability has no effect.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit, and the Doppelganger's controller chooses blue. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. The Elves has the ability, "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." If the mana ability of the Doppelganger is played, it will produce blue mana.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Caller of the Hunt. Caller of the Hunt reads, in part, "As Caller of the Hunt comes into play, choose a creature type." The Doppelganger's controller chooses Goblin. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. If the mana ability of the Doppelganger is played, it will fail to produce any mana. It won't produce Goblin mana.

503.8a.

If an ability causes a player to "choose a [value]" or "name a card," and a second, linked ability refers to that choice, the second ability is the only ability that can refer to that choice. An object doesn't "remember" that choice and use it for other abilities it may copy later. (This is a change from previous rules.) If an object copies an ability that refers to a choice, but either (a) doesn't copy that ability's linked ability or (b) does copy the linked ability but no choice is made, then the choice is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability won't do anything.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit, and the Doppelganger's controller chooses blue. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. The Elves has the ability, "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." Even though a color was chosen for the Doppelganger, it was chosen for a different linked ability. If that mana ability of the Doppelganger is played, it will not produce mana.

503.10.

To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack; a copy of a spell or ability isn't "played." A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made when it was played, including modes, targets, the value of X, and additional or alternative costs. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, even though it has no spell card associated with it. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

503.10.

To copy a spell or activated ability means to put a copy of it onto the stack; a copy of a spell or ability isn't "played." A copy of a spell or ability copies both the characteristics of the spell or ability and all decisions made for it, including modes, targets, the value of X, and additional or alternative costs. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell or ability. A copy of a spell is owned by the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it. A copy of a spell or ability is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, even though it has no spell card associated with it. A copy of an ability is itself an ability.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

506.5.

At the end of a subgame, each player puts all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame into his or her library in the main game, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame's removed-from-the-game zone. (This is a change from previous rules.) All other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that's no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner's main-game library when the subgame ends.

506.5.

At the end of a subgame, each player puts all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame into his or her library in the main game, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame's removed-from-the-game zone. All other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that's no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner's main-game library when the subgame ends.

Ability Word

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The list of ability words, updated through the Shadowmoor (tm) set, is as follows: channel, grandeur, hellbent, kinship, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

Ability Word

An ability word appears in italics at the beginning of some abilities on cards. Ability words are similar to keywords in that they tie together cards that have similar functionality, but they have no special rules meaning and no individual entries in the Comprehensive Rules. The list of ability words, updated through the Eventide (tm) set, is as follows: channel, chroma, grandeur, hellbent, kinship, radiance, sweep, and threshold.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Shadowmoor set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Contraption, Equipment, Fortification.

Changeling

Changeling is a keyword ability that represents a characteristic-defining ability. "Changeling" means "This object is every creature type." This ability works in everywhere, even outside the game. See rule 502.73, "Changeling."

Changeling

Changeling is a keyword ability that represents a characteristic-defining ability. "Changeling" means "This object is every creature type." This ability works everywhere, even outside the game. See rule 502.73, "Changeling."

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Shadowmoor set, is as follows: Advisor, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creatures and tribals share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. These subtypes are also called creature types. The list of creature types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Advisor, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Shadowmoor set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Event

Anything that happens in a game is an event. Multiple events may take place during the resolution of a spell or ability. The text of triggered abilities and replacement effects defines the event they're looking for. One "happening" may be treated as a single event by one ability and as multiple events by another.

Example: If an attacking creature is blocked by two defending creatures, this is one event for a triggered ability that reads "Whenever [name] becomes blocked" but two events for a triggered ability that reads "Whenever [name] becomes blocked by a creature."

Event

Anything that happens in a game is an event. Multiple events may take place during the resolution of a spell or ability. The text of triggered abilities and replacement effects defines the event they're looking for. One "happening" may be treated as a single event by one ability and as multiple events by another.

Example: If an attacking creature is blocked by two defending creatures, this is one event for a triggered ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked" but two events for a triggered ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature."

Exchange

A spell or ability may instruct two players to exchange something (for example, life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. When such a spell or ability resolves, if it can't exchange the chosen things, it has no effect on them.

Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves, the spell does nothing to the other creature. Or if a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but both of those creatures are controlled by the same player, the spell does nothing to the two creatures. When control of two permanents is exchanged, each player simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. When life totals are exchanged, each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player's previous life total. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example, cards removed from the game and cards in a player's hand). These spells and abilities work the same as other "exchange" spells and abilities, except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player. If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone, and either of them is attached to an object, that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object. If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones, and one of the zones is empty, the cards in the zones are still exchanged.

Exchange

A spell or ability may instruct players to exchange something (for example, life totals or control of two permanents) as part of its resolution. When such a spell or ability resolves, if the entire exchange can't be completed, no part of the exchange occurs.

Example: If a spell attempts to exchange control of two target creatures but one of those creatures is destroyed before the spell resolves, the spell does nothing to the other creature. When control of two permanents is exchanged, if those permanents are controlled by different players, each of those players simultaneously gains control of the permanent that was controlled by the other player. If, on the other hand, those permanents are controlled by the same player, the exchange effect does nothing. When life totals are exchanged, each player gains or loses the amount of life necessary to equal the other player's previous life total. Replacement effects may modify these gains and losses, and triggered abilities may trigger on them. Some spells or abilities may instruct a player to exchange cards in one zone with cards in a different zone (for example, cards removed from the game and cards in a player's hand). These spells and abilities work the same as other "exchange" spells and abilities, except they can exchange the cards only if all the cards are owned by the same player. If a card in one zone is exchanged with a card in a different zone, and either of them is attached to an object, that card stops being attached to that object and the other card becomes attached to that object. If a spell or ability instructs a player to simply exchange two zones, and one of the zones is empty, the cards in the zones are still exchanged.

Forecast

Forecast is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player's hand. It's written "Forecast — [Activated ability]." A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until the upkeep step ends or until it leaves the player's hand, whichever comes first.

Forecast

Forecast is a special kind of activated ability that can be played only from a player's hand. It's written "Forecast — [Activated ability]." A forecast ability may be played only during the upkeep step of the card's owner and only once each turn. The controller of the forecast ability reveals the card with that ability from his or her hand as the ability is played. That player plays with that card revealed in his or her hand until it leaves the player's hand or until a step or phase that isn't an upkeep step begins, whichever comes first.

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Shadowmoor set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Linked Abilities

If an object has two abilities printed on it such that one of them causes actions to be taken or objects to be affected and the other one directly refers to those actions or objects, those abilities are linked. The second ability can refer only to actions that were taken or objects that were affected by the first ability, and not by any other ability. See rule 407, "Linked Abilities."

Mana

Mana is the resource used to play spells and is usually produced by lands. Mana is created by mana abilities (and sometimes by spells), and it can be used to pay costs immediately or can stay in the player's mana pool. See rule 406, "Mana Abilities." The colors of mana are white, blue, black, red, and green. The types of mana are white, blue, black, red, green, and colorless. Colored mana costs, represented by colored mana symbols, can be paid only with the appropriate color of mana. Generic mana costs can be paid with any color of, or with colorless, mana. See rule 104.3. The spell or ability that adds mana to a mana pool may restrict how it can be used. An ability might produce mana that can be used only to play creature spells or only to pay activation costs. The type of mana a permanent "could produce" at any time includes any type of mana that an ability of that permanent could generate if it were to resolve at that time, taking into account any applicable replacement effects in any possible order. Ignore whether any costs of the ability could be paid. If no type of mana can be defined this way, there's no type of mana that that permanent could produce. To tap a permanent for mana is to play an activated ability of that permanent that includes the {T} symbol in its cost and produces mana as part of its effect.

Mana

Mana is the resource used to play spells and is usually produced by lands. Mana is created by mana abilities (and sometimes by spells), and it can be used to pay costs immediately or can stay in the player's mana pool. See rule 406, "Mana Abilities." The colors of mana are white, blue, black, red, and green. The types of mana are white, blue, black, red, green, and colorless. Colored mana costs, represented by colored mana symbols, can be paid only with the appropriate color of mana. Generic mana costs can be paid with any color of, or with colorless, mana. See rule 104.3. The spell or ability that adds mana to a mana pool may restrict how it can be used. An ability might produce mana that can be used only to play creature spells or only to pay activation costs. The type of mana a permanent "could produce" at any time includes any type of mana that an ability of that permanent would generate if it were to resolve at that time, taking into account any applicable replacement effects in any possible order. Ignore whether any costs of the ability couldn't be paid. If that permanent wouldn't produce any mana under these conditions, or no type of mana can be defined this way, there's no type of mana that that permanent could produce. To tap a permanent for mana is to play an activated ability of that permanent that includes the {T} symbol in its cost and produces mana as part of its effect.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, and {X}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; the monocolored hybrid symbols {2/W}, {2/U}, {2/B}, {2/R}, and {2/G}; and the snow symbol {S}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways, as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. A hybrid mana symbol is each of its component colors. See rule 104.3f. Each of the monocolored hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one mana of a specific color or two mana of any type. {2/W} can be paid with either one white mana or two mana of any type, {2/U} one blue mana or two mana of any type, {2/B} one black mana or two mana of any type, {2/R} one red mana or two mana of any type, and {2/G} one green mana or two mana of any type, See rule 104.3f. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. See rule 104.3h.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, and {X}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; the monocolored hybrid symbols {2/W}, {2/U}, {2/B}, {2/R}, and {2/G}; and the snow symbol {S}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbol {X} represents an unspecified amount of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid in one of two ways, as represented by the two halves of the hybrid mana symbol. {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. A hybrid mana symbol is all of its component colors. See rule 104.3f. Each of the monocolored hybrid mana symbols represents a cost that can be paid with one mana of a specific color or two mana of any type. {2/W} can be paid with either one white mana or two mana of any type, {2/U} one blue mana or two mana of any type, {2/B} one black mana or two mana of any type, {2/R} one red mana or two mana of any type, and {2/G} one green mana or two mana of any type, See rule 104.3f. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. See rule 104.3i.

Placed

If a spell or ability refers to a counter being placed on a permanent, it means putting a counter on that permanent while it's in play, or that permanent coming into play with a counter. See rule 200.10c.

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Shadowmoor set, is as follows: Ajani, Chandra, Garruk, Jace, Liliana.

Planeswalker Type

Planeswalker subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Planeswalker — Jace." Planeswalker subtypes are also called planeswalker types. The list of planeswalker types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Ajani, Chandra, Garruk, Jace, Liliana.

Regenerate

Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage from it, tap it, and (if it's in combat) remove it from combat." Because it's a replacement effect, it must be active before the attempted destruction event. Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. See rule 419.6b.

Regenerate

Regeneration is a destruction-replacement effect. "Regenerate [permanent]" means "The next time [permanent] would be destroyed this turn, instead remove all damage from it and tap it. If it's an attacking or blocking creature, remove it from combat." Because it's a replacement effect, it must be active before the attempted destruction event. Abilities that trigger from damage being dealt still trigger even if the permanent regenerates. See rule 419.6b.

Retrace

Retrace is a static ability that functions while an instant or sorcery card with retrace is in a player's graveyard. ""Retrace" means "You may play this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to play it." Playing a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Shadowmoor set, is as follows: Arcane.

Spell Type

Instants and sorceries share the same set of subtypes. These subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." These subtypes are also called spell types. The list of spell types, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: Arcane.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Shadowmoor set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before its card types. If an object's card types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new card type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its card type and subtype. Changing an object's card type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its card type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Card Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Eventide set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

X

If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an "{X}" in it, the value of X must be announced as part of playing the spell or ability. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") While the spell or ability is on the stack, the {X} in its mana cost equals the amount announced as part of playing the spell or ability. If a card in any other zone has {X} in its mana cost, the amount is treated as 0. If you're playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost and an effect lets you play it without paying any cost that includes X, the only legal choice for X is 0. This does not apply to effects that only reduce a cost, even if they reduce it to zero. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." If a cost associated with a special action, such as a suspend cost or a morph cost, has an "{X}" in it, the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost. In other cases, X is defined by the text of a spell or ability. Note that the value of X may change while that spell or ability is on the stack. If X isn't defined, the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. All Xs on an object have the same value.

X

Many cards use the letter X as a placeholder for a number that needs to be determined. All instances of X on an object have the same value. If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an "{X}" in it, and the value of X isn't defined by the text of that spell or ability, the controller of that spell or ability chooses and announces the value of X as part of playing the spell or ability. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") While the spell or ability is on the stack, the {X} in its mana cost equals the announced value. If you're playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost, the value of X isn't defined by the text of that spell, and an effect lets you play that spell without paying any cost that includes X, then the only legal choice for X is 0. This doesn't apply to effects that only reduce a cost, even if they reduce it to zero. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." If a spell or activated ability has a cost with an "{X}" in it, and the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability, then that's the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. The controller of that spell or ability doesn't get to choose the value. If a cost associated with a special action, such as a suspend cost or a morph cost, has an "{X}" in it, the value of X is chosen by the player taking the special action as he or she pays that cost. If a card in any zone other than the stack has {X} in its mana cost, the value of {X} is treated as 0, even if the value of X is defined somewhere within its text. In other cases, X appears in the text of a spell or ability but not in a mana cost or activation cost. If the value of X is defined by the text of that spell or ability, then that's the value of X while that spell or ability is on the stack. The controller of that spell or ability doesn't get to choose the value. Note that the value of X may change while that spell or ability is on the stack. If the value of X isn't defined, the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X.