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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Time Spiral to Planar Chaos

General changes

Old rule (Time Spiral) New rule (Planar Chaos)

104.2.

If a creature's power or toughness, a mana cost, a player's life total, or an amount of damage would be less than 0, it's treated as 0 for all purposes except changing that total. If anything needs to use a number that can't be determined, it uses 0 instead.

Example: If a 3/3 creature gets -5/-0, it deals 0 damage in combat. But to raise its power back to 1, you'd have to give it +3/+0 (3 minus 5 plus 3 is 1).

Example: If you control no permanents, the "highest converted mana cost among permanents you control" can't be determined, so 0 is used instead.

104.2.

If a numerical value (such as a creature's power, toughness, or total power and toughness; a mana cost; a player's life total; or an amount of damage) would be less than 0, it's treated as 0 for all purposes except changing that total, if applicable. If anything needs to use a number that can't be determined, it uses 0 instead.

Example: If a 3/3 creature gets -5/-0, it deals 0 damage in combat. But to raise its power back to 1, you'd have to give it +3/+0 (3 minus 5 plus 3 is 1).

Example: If you control no permanents, the "highest converted mana cost among permanents you control" can't be determined, so 0 is used instead.

213.3.

The term "spell" is used to refer to a card while it's on the stack. The term "card" isn't used to refer to a card that's on the stack as a spell. It's only used to refer to a card that's not in play or on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand.

213.3.

The term "spell" is used to refer to a card or a copy of a card while it's on the stack.

214.3.

A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. Permanents come into play untapped. The term "permanent" is used to refer to a card or token while it's in play. The term "card" isn't typically used to refer to a card that's in play as a permanent; rather, it's nearly always used to refer to a card that's not in play and not on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. For more information, see rule 217, "Zones."

214.3.

A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. Permanents come into play untapped. The term "permanent" is used to refer to a card or token while it's in play. The term "card" isn't used to refer to a card that's in play as a permanent; rather, it's used to refer to a card that's not in play, such as a creature card in a player's hand. For more information, see rule 217, "Zones."

216.1.

Some effects put token creatures into play. A token is controlled by whomever put it into play and owned by the controller of the spell or ability that created it. The spell or ability may define any number of characteristics for the token. A token doesn't have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it. The spell or ability that creates the token sets both its name and its creature type. If the spell or ability doesn't specify the name of the token, its name is the same as its creature type(s). A "Goblin Scout creature token," for example, is named "Goblin Scout" and has the creature subtypes Goblin and Scout. Once a token is in play, changing its name doesn't change its creature type, and vice versa.

216.1.

Some effects put token creatures into play. A token is controlled by whomever put it into play and owned by the controller of the spell or ability that created it. (If no player controlled the effect that created it, the token is owned by whomever put it into play.) The spell or ability may define any number of characteristics for the token. These characteristics are functionally equivalent to the characteristics that are printed on a card; for example, they define the token's copiable values. A token doesn't have any characteristics not defined by the spell or ability that created it. The spell or ability that creates the token sets both its name and its creature type. If the spell or ability doesn't specify the name of the token, its name is the same as its creature type(s). A "Goblin Scout creature token," for example, is named "Goblin Scout" and has the creature subtypes Goblin and Scout. Once a token is in play, changing its name doesn't change its creature type, and vice versa.

216.3.

A token in a zone other than the in-play zone ceases to exist. This is a state-based effect. (Note that a token changing zones sets off triggered abilities before the token ceases to exist.) Once a token has left play, it can't be returned to play by any means.

216.3.

A token in a zone other than the in-play zone ceases to exist. This is a state-based effect. (Note that a token changing zones sets off triggered abilities before the token ceases to exist.)

216.4.

A token that has left play can't come back into play. If such a token would return to play, it remains in its current zone instead. It ceases to exist the next time state-based effects are checked.

217.1f.

If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game, it doesn't change zones, but it is treated as a new object that has just been removed from the game.

217.7a.

Effects can remove objects from the game. Some effects may provide a way for a card to return to a zone and use the term "set aside." Cards that are set aside this way are still removed from the game, even though that removal may be temporary. Objects that aren't cards can't be returned in any way.

217.7a.

Effects can remove objects from the game. Some effects may provide a way for a card to return to a zone and use the term "set aside." Cards that are set aside this way are still removed from the game, even though that removal may be temporary. Objects that aren't cards that would return to a zone remain removed from the game instead.

217.7e.

If an object in the removed-from-the-game zone is removed from the game, it doesn't change zones, but it is treated as a new object that has just been removed from the game.

310.5.

At the start of the combat damage step, if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502.2) or double strike (see rule 502.28), creatures without first strike or double strike don't assign combat damage. Instead of proceeding to end of combat, the phase gets a second combat damage step to handle the remaining creatures. In the second combat damage step, surviving attackers and blockers that didn't assign combat damage in the first step, plus any creatures with double strike, assign their combat damage.

310.5.

At the start of the combat damage step, if at least one attacking or blocking creature has first strike (see rule 502.2) or double strike (see rule 502.28), creatures without first strike or double strike don't assign combat damage. Instead of proceeding to end of combat, the phase gets a second combat damage step (see rule 310.1) to handle the remaining creatures. In the second combat damage step, any attackers and blockers that didn't assign combat damage in the first step, plus any creatures with double strike, assign their combat damage.

418.3b.

Continuous effects from spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities that modify the characteristics or change the controller of one or more objects don't affect objects that weren't affected when the continuous effect began. Note that these work differently than continuous effects from static abilities. Continuous effects that don't modify characteristics or change the controller of objects modify the rules of the game, so they can affect objects that weren't affected when the continuous effect began.

Example: An effect that reads "All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn" gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves-even if they change color later-and doesn't affect those that come into play or turn white afterward.

Example: An effect that reads "Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn" doesn't modify any object's characteristics, so it's modifying the rules of the game. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren't in play when the continuous effect began. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn.

418.3b.

The set of objects that are affected by continuous effects from spells, activated abilities, and triggered abilities that modify the characteristics or change the controller of those objects is determined when that continuous effect begins. After that point, the set won't change. Note that these work differently than continuous effects from static abilities. Continuous effects that don't modify characteristics or change the controller of objects modify the rules of the game, so they can affect objects that weren't affected when the continuous effect began.

Example: An effect that reads "All white creatures get +1/+1 until end of turn" gives the bonus to all permanents that are white creatures when the spell or ability resolves-even if they change color later-and doesn't affect those that come into play or turn white afterward.

Example: An effect that reads "Prevent all damage creatures would deal this turn" doesn't modify any object's characteristics, so it's modifying the rules of the game. That means the effect will apply even to damage from creatures that weren't in play when the continuous effect began. It also affects damage from permanents that become creatures later in the turn.

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-setting abilities first, then all other effects. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-setting abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white, it gets +1/+1 from Crusade, becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red, Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it, making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it, making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play, making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it, making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

Example: Svogthos, the Restless Tomb, is in play. An effect that says "Until end of turn, target land becomes a 3/3 creature that's still a land" is applied to it. An effect that says "Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn" is applied to it, making it a 4/4 land creature. Then you activate Svogthos's ability ("Until end of turn, Svogthos, the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard.' It's still a land.") while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard. It becomes a 10/10 land creature. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard, Svogthos's power and toughness will be modified accordingly. If the first effect is applied to it again, it will become a 3/3 land creature again.

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-setting abilities first, then all other effects in timestamp order. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-setting abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. Within each sublayer, apply effects in timestamp order. Note that dependency may alter the order in which effects are applied within a layer or sublayer. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white (layer 5), it gets +1/+1 from Crusade (layer 6d), becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red (layer 5), Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it (layer 6c), making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play (layer 6d), making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

418.5b.

If an effect should be applied in different layers, the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate layers. If an effect starts to apply in one layer, it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer, even if the ability generating the effect is removed during this process.

Example: An effect that reads "Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn" is both a power- and toughness-changing effect and an "other" kind of effect. The "becomes the color of your choice" part is applied in layer 5, and then the "gets +1/+1" part is applied in layer 6.

Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads "Until end of turn, you gain control of target creature and it gains haste." This is both a control-changing effect and an "other" effect. The "you gain control" part is applied in layer 2, and then the "it gains haste" part is applied in layer 5.

Example: An effect that reads "All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn" is both a type-changing effect and a power- and toughness-setting effect. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power- and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 6, even though those permanents aren't noncreature artifacts by then.

418.5b.

If an effect should be applied in different layers, the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate layers. If an effect starts to apply in one layer, it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer, even if the ability generating the effect is removed during this process.

Example: An effect that reads "Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn" is both a power- and toughness-changing effect and an "other" kind of effect. The "becomes the color of your choice" part is applied in layer 5, and then the "gets +1/+1" part is applied in layer 6.

Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads "Until end of turn, you gain control of target creature and it gains haste." This is both a control-changing effect and an "other" effect. The "you gain control" part is applied in layer 2, and then the "it gains haste" part is applied in layer 5.

Example: An effect that reads "All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn" is both a type-changing effect and a power- and toughness-setting effect. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power- and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 6, even though those permanents aren't noncreature artifacts by then.

Example: Svogthos, the Restless Tomb, is in play. An effect that says "Until end of turn, target land becomes a 3/3 creature that's still a land" is applied to it (layers 4 and 6b). An effect that says "Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn" is applied to it (layer 6b), making it a 4/4 land creature. Then you activate Svogthos's ability ("Until end of turn, Svogthos, the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard.' It's still a land.") while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard (layers 4, 5, and 6b). It becomes a 10/10 land creature. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard, Svogthos's power and toughness will be modified accordingly. If the first effect is applied to it again, it will become a 3/3 land creature again.

418.5j.

Some continuous effects affect players rather than objects. For example, effects may modify a player's maximum hand size. All such effects are applied in timestamp order following the determination of objects' characteristics. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

502.54a.

Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature comes into play, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature."

502.54a.

Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature comes into play, if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature."

502.60.

Vanishing

502.60a.

Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. "Vanishing N" means "This permanent comes into play with N time counters on it," "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it."

502.60b.

Vanishing without a number means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it" and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it."

502.60c.

If a permanent has multiple instances of vanishing, each works separately.

503.5.

An object that comes into play "as a copy" of another permanent becomes a copy as it comes into play. It doesn't come into play, and then become a copy of that permanent. If the text that's being copied includes any abilities that replace the comes-into-play event (such as "comes into play with" or "as [this] comes into play" abilities), those abilities will take effect. Also, any comes-into-play triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger.

Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads, "Fading 2 (This creature comes into play with two fade counters on it. At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from it. If you can't, sacrifice it.)

Skyshroud Behemoth comes into play tapped." A Clone that comes into play as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also come into play tapped with two fade counters on it.

Example: Striped Bears reads, "When Striped Bears comes into play, draw a card." A Clone comes into play as a copy of Striped Bears. The Clone has the Bears' comes-into-play triggered ability, so the Clone's controller draws a card.

503.5.

An object that comes into play "as a copy" of another permanent becomes a copy as it comes into play. It doesn't come into play, and then become a copy of that permanent. If the text that's being copied includes any abilities that replace the comes-into-play event (such as "comes into play with" or "as [this] comes into play" abilities), those abilities will take effect. Also, any comes-into-play triggered abilities of the copy will have a chance to trigger.

Example: Skyshroud Behemoth reads, "Fading 2 (This creature comes into play with two fade counters on it. At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from it. If you can't, sacrifice it.)" and "Skyshroud Behemoth comes into play tapped." A Clone that comes into play as a copy of a Skyshroud Behemoth will also come into play tapped with two fade counters on it.

Example: Striped Bears reads, "When Striped Bears comes into play, draw a card." A Clone comes into play as a copy of Striped Bears. The Clone has the Bears' comes-into-play triggered ability, so the Clone's controller draws a card.

503.7.

Because any choices that have been made for a permanent aren't copied, sometimes a copy card will gain an ability that refers to a choice that was never made. In that case, the choice is considered to be "zero" or "undefined."

Example: Voice of All comes into play and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. Voice of All reads, in part, "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color.

Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." Unstable Shapeshifter never got a chance to choose a color, because it didn't come into play as a Voice of All card, so the Shapeshifter's protection ability doesn't protect it from anything at all.

503.7.

Because any choices that have been made for a permanent aren't copied, sometimes a copy card will gain an ability that refers to a choice that was never made. In that case, the choice is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability has no effect.

Example: Voice of All comes into play and Unstable Shapeshifter copies it. Voice of All reads, in part, "As Voice of All comes into play, choose a color." and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." Unstable Shapeshifter never got a chance to choose a color, because it didn't come into play as a Voice of All card, so the Shapeshifter's protection ability doesn't protect it from anything at all.

503.8.

If an ability causes a player to make a choice as a copy comes into play, the copy will "remember" that choice and continue to use it for its abilities if appropriate. If the choice is not appropriate, it is considered to be "zero" or "undefined."

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit, and the Doppelganger's controller chooses blue. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. The Elves has the ability, "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." If the mana ability of the Doppelganger is played, it will produce blue mana.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Caller of the Hunt. Caller of the Hunt reads, in part, "As Caller of the Hunt comes into play, choose a creature type." The Doppelganger's controller chooses Goblin. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. If the mana ability of the Doppelganger is played, it will fail to produce any mana. It won't produce Goblin mana.

503.8.

If an ability causes a player to make a choice as a copy comes into play, the copy will "remember" that choice and continue to use it for its abilities if appropriate. If the choice is not appropriate, it is considered to be "undefined." If an ability refers to an undefined choice, that part of the ability has no effect.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Chameleon Spirit, and the Doppelganger's controller chooses blue. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. The Elves has the ability, "{T}: Add one mana of the chosen color to your mana pool." If the mana ability of the Doppelganger is played, it will produce blue mana.

Example: A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Caller of the Hunt. Caller of the Hunt reads, in part, "As Caller of the Hunt comes into play, choose a creature type." The Doppelganger's controller chooses Goblin. Later, the Doppelganger copies Quirion Elves. If the mana ability of the Doppelganger is played, it will fail to produce any mana. It won't produce Goblin mana.

503.10.

To copy a spell means to put a copy of the spell onto the stack; a copy of a spell isn't "played." In addition to copying the characteristics of the spell, all decisions made when the spell was played are copied. These include mode, targets, the value of X, and optional additional costs such as buyback. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, but it has no spell card associated with it. It works just like a normal spell: it can be countered or it can resolve, and it uses the same timing rules as normal spells.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature.

Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

503.10.

To copy a spell means to put a copy of the spell onto the stack; a copy of a spell isn't "played." In addition to copying the characteristics of the spell, all decisions made when the spell was played are copied. These include mode, targets, the value of X, and optional additional costs such as buyback. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") Choices that are normally made on resolution are not copied. If an effect of the copy refers to objects used to pay its costs, it uses the objects used to pay the costs of the original spell. A copy of a spell is controlled by the player who put it on the stack. A copy of a spell is itself a spell, but it has no spell card associated with it. It works just like a normal spell: it can be countered or it can resolve, and it uses the same timing rules as normal spells.

Example: A player plays Fork, targeting an Emerald Charm. Fork reads, "Put a copy of target instant or sorcery spell onto the stack, except that it copies Fork's color and you may choose new targets for the copy." Emerald Charm reads, "Choose one — Untap target permanent; or destroy target non-Aura enchantment; or target creature loses flying until end of turn." When the Fork resolves, it puts a copy of the Emerald Charm on the stack. The copy has the same mode that was chosen for the original Emerald Charm. It does not necessarily have the same target, but only because Fork allows choosing of new targets.

Example: Fling is an instant that reads, "As an additional cost to play Fling, sacrifice a creature." and "Fling deals damage equal to the sacrificed creature's power to target creature or player." When determining how much damage a copy of Fling deals, it checks the power of the creature sacrificed to pay for the original Fling.

503.10b.

Some effects copy a spell and state that its controller may choose new targets for the copy. The player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal. Once the player has decided what the copy's targets will be, the copy is put onto the stack with those targets.

505.3.

Because every split card consists of two halves with different colored mana symbols in their mana costs, each split card is a multicolored card while it's not a spell on the stack. While it's a spell on the stack, it's only the color or colors of the half being played.

505.3.

Each split card that consists of two halves with different colored mana symbols in their mana costs is a multicolored card while it's not a spell on the stack. While it's a spell on the stack, it's only the color or colors of the half being played.

505.6.

An effect that performs a positive comparison (such as asking if a card is red) or a relative comparison (such as asking if a card's converted mana cost is less than 2) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of each split card in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. An effect that performs a negative comparison (such as asking if cards have different names) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a "no" answer. If an effect performs a comparison involving multiple characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack, each characteristic is compared separately. If each of the individual comparisons would return a "yes" answer, the whole comparison returns a "yes" answer.

Example: Void reads, "Choose a number. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number." If a player plays Void and chooses 1, his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because the game sees its converted mana cost as "1, and 4." The same is true if the player chooses 4. If the player chooses 5, however, Assault/Battery would be unaffected.

505.6.

An effect that performs a positive comparison (such as asking if a card is red) or a relative comparison (such as asking if a card's converted mana cost is less than 2) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of each split card in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. An effect that performs a negative comparison (such as asking if cards have different names) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. If an effect performs a comparison involving multiple characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack, each characteristic is compared separately. If each of the individual comparisons would return a "yes" answer, the whole comparison returns a "yes" answer.

Example: Void reads, "Choose a number. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number." If a player plays Void and chooses 1, his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because the game sees its converted mana cost as "1, and 4." The same is true if the player chooses 4. If the player chooses 5, however, Assault/Battery would be unaffected.

600.4a.

When a player leaves the game, all objects (see rule 200.8) owned by that player leave the game, all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist, and any change-of-control effects which give that player control of any objects end. Then, if there are any objects still controlled by that player, those objects leave the game. (Any objects leaving the game this way that aren't owned by the player leaving the game are placed in the removed-from-the-game zone.) This is not a state-based effect. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. A player leaving the game doesn't affect combat damage on the stack.

Example: Alex plays Control Magic, an Aura that reads, "You control enchanted creature," on Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, so does Control Magic, and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, so does Wall of Wood, and Control Magic is put into Alex's graveyard.

Example: Alex plays Threaten, which reads, in part, "Untap target creature and gain control of it until end of turn," targeting Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, Threaten's change-of-control effect ends and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control.

Example: Alex plays Bribery, which reads, "Search target opponent's library for a creature card and put that card into play under your control. Then that player shuffles his or her library," targeting Bianca. Alex puts Wall of Wood into play from Bianca's library. If Alex leaves the game, Wall of Wood leaves the game. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, Wall of Wood still leaves the game.

Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber, which reads, "Whenever a nontoken creature comes into play, if Genesis Chamber is untapped, that creature's controller puts a 1/1 Myr artifact creature token into play." If Alex leaves the game, all Myr tokens created by Genesis Chamber while it was under Alex's control leave the game as well because Alex owns the tokens.

600.4a.

When a player leaves the game, all objects (see rule 200.8) owned by that player leave the game, all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist, and any change-of-control effects which give that player control of any objects end. Then, if there are any objects still controlled by that player, those objects leave the game. (Any objects leaving the game this way that aren't owned by the player leaving the game are placed in the removed-from-the-game zone.) This is not a state-based effect. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. If the player who left the game had priority at the time he or she left, priority passes to the next player in turn order who's still in the game. A player leaving the game doesn't affect combat damage on the stack.

Example: Alex plays Control Magic, an Aura that reads, "You control enchanted creature," on Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, so does Control Magic, and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, so does Wall of Wood, and Control Magic is put into Alex's graveyard.

Example: Alex plays Threaten, which reads, in part, "Untap target creature and gain control of it until end of turn," targeting Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, Threaten's change-of-control effect ends and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control.

Example: Alex plays Bribery, which reads, "Search target opponent's library for a creature card and put that card into play under your control. Then that player shuffles his or her library," targeting Bianca. Alex puts Wall of Wood into play from Bianca's library. If Alex leaves the game, Wall of Wood leaves the game. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, Wall of Wood still leaves the game.

Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber, which reads, "Whenever a nontoken creature comes into play, if Genesis Chamber is untapped, that creature's controller puts a 1/1 Myr artifact creature token into play." If Alex leaves the game, all Myr tokens created by Genesis Chamber while it was under Alex's control leave the game as well because Alex owns the tokens.

600.4e.

If a player leaves the game during his or her turn, that turn continues to its completion without an active player. If the active player would receive priority, instead the next player in turn order receives priority, or the top object on the stack resolves, or the phase or step ends, whichever is appropriate.

606.7a.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player.

606.7a.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player. Any one-shot effect or characteristic-setting ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect or of the object with the characteristic-setting ability chooses which one the spell or ability refers to. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player."

606.7b.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If a creature is unable to attack one of the defending players, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat comes into play, choose a color.

Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

606.7b.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat comes into play, choose a color." and "Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Eye, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Spuzzem, Spy, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Eye, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Hellion, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Spuzzem, Spy, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Graft

Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature comes into play, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature." If a creature has multiple instances of graft, each one works separately.

Graft

Graft represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Graft N" means "This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "Whenever another creature comes into play, if this permanent has a +1/+1 counter on it, you may move a +1/+1 counter from this permanent onto that creature." If a creature has multiple instances of graft, each one works separately.

Number

The Magic game uses only natural numbers. You may not choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, and so on. When a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. See rule 104, "Numbers and Symbols." If a creature's power or toughness, a mana cost, a player's life total, or an amount of damage is less than zero, it's treated as zero for all purposes except changing that total. If anything needs to use a number that can't be determined, it uses 0 instead.

Example: If a 3/3 creature gets -5/-0, it deals 0 damage in combat. But to raise its power back to 1, you'd have to give it +3/+0 (3 minus 5 plus 3 is 1).

Number

The Magic game uses only natural numbers. You may not choose a fractional number, deal fractional damage, and so on. When a spell or ability could generate a fractional number, the spell or ability will tell you whether to round up or down. See rule 104, "Numbers and Symbols." If a numerical value (such as a creature's power, toughness, or total power and toughness; a mana cost; a player's life total; or an amount of damage) is less than 0, it's treated as 0 for all purposes except changing that total, if applicable. If anything needs to use a number that can't be determined, it uses 0 instead.

Example: If a 3/3 creature gets -5/-0, it deals 0 damage in combat. But to raise its power back to 1, you'd have to give it +3/+0 (3 minus 5 plus 3 is 1).

Split Cards

Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal, full-size Magic card back. Split cards have two sets of characteristics: two names, two mana costs, and so on. They always have both sets, except when they're spells on the stack. When you play a split card, you announce which side you're playing. While it's on the stack, the other side is ignored completely. See rule 505, "Split Cards." Split cards have two mana costs with different colors of mana in them. That means they are multicolored cards while they're not on the stack. A split card is a multicolored card on the stack only if the half that's been played is multicolored. If an effect tells you to name a card, you must name all of a split card's names. An effect that asks for a split card's characteristic while it's in a zone other than the stack gets both answers. An effect that performs a positive comparison or a relative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of those split cards would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. An effect that performs a negative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a "no" answer.

Split Cards

Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal, full-size Magic card back. Split cards have two sets of characteristics (two names, two mana costs, and so on) and two converted mana costs. They always have both sets, except when they're spells on the stack. When you play a split card, you announce which side you're playing. While it's on the stack, the other side is ignored completely. See rule 505, "Split Cards." If a split card's two mana costs have different colors of mana in them, it's a multicolored card while it's not on the stack. A split card is a multicolored card on the stack only if the half that's been played is multicolored. If an effect tells you to name a card, you must name all of a split card's names. An effect that asks for a split card's characteristic while it's in a zone other than the stack gets both answers. An effect that performs a positive comparison or a relative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of those split cards would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. An effect that performs a negative comparison involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a "no" answer.

Vanishing

Vanishing is a keyword that represents three abilities. "Vanishing N" means "This permanent comes into play with N time counters on it," "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent has a time counter on it, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this permanent, sacrifice it." See rule 502.60, "Vanishing."