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Magic Rules Changes

Zendikar to Worldwake

General

ZendikarWorldwake
100.2b.100.2b.

In limited play (a way of playing in which each player gets a quantity of unopened Magic product and creates his or her own deck on the spot), each deck must contain at least forty cards. A limited deck may contain as many duplicates of a card as a player has.

In limited play (a way of playing in which each player gets the same quantity of unopened Magic product and creates his or her own deck using only this product), each deck must contain at least forty cards. A limited deck may contain as many duplicates of a card as are included with the product.

100.3.100.3.

Some casual variants (either constructed or limited) require additional items, such as specially designated cards, nontraditional Magic cards, and dice. See section 9, "Casual Variants."

Some casual variants require additional items, such as specially designated cards, nontraditional Magic cards, and dice. See section 9, "Casual Variants."

100.4a.100.4a.

In constructed play, a sideboard (if used) must contain exactly fifteen cards. The four-card limit (see rule 100.2a) applies to the combined deck and sideboard.

In constructed play, sideboards are optional, but must contain exactly fifteen cards if used. The four-card limit (see rule 100.2a) applies to the combined deck and sideboard.

100.6a.100.6a.

Tournaments usually consist of a series of matches. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games, or sometimes the best three of five. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game.

Tournaments usually consist of a series of matches. A two-player match usually involves playing until one player has won two games. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game.

100.6b.100.6b.

Players can use the Magic Locator at www.wizards.com/locator to find tournaments in their area by selecting "Events" and typing in the name of their city.

Players can use the Magic Store & Event Locator at www.wizards.com/locator to find tournaments in their area.

101.2.101.2.

When a rule or effect says something can happen and another effect says it can't, the "can't" effect wins.

Example: If one effect reads "You may play an additional land this turn" and another reads "You can't play land cards this turn," the effect that precludes you from playing lands wins.

When a rule or effect allows or directs something to happen, and another effect states that it can't happen, the "can't" effect takes precedence.

Example: If one effect reads "You may play an additional land this turn" and another reads "You can't play land cards this turn," the effect that precludes you from playing lands wins.

101.2a.101.2a.

Adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don't fall under this rule; see rule 112.10.

Adding abilities to objects and removing abilities from objects don't fall under this rule. (See rule 112.10.)

101.4.101.4.

If multiple players would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, the active player (the player whose turn it is) makes any choices required, then the next player in turn order (usually the player seated to the active player's left) makes any choices required, followed by the remaining nonactive players in turn order. Then the actions happen simultaneously. This rule is often referred to as the "Active Player, Nonactive Player (APNAP) order" rule.

Example: A card reads "Each player sacrifices a creature." First, the active player chooses a creature he or she controls. Then each of the nonactive players chooses a creature he or she controls. Then all creatures are sacrificed simultaneously.

If multiple players would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, the active player (the player whose turn it is) makes any choices required, then the next player in turn order (usually the player seated to the active player's left) makes any choices required, followed by the remaining nonactive players in turn order. Then the actions happen simultaneously. This rule is often referred to as the "Active Player, Nonactive Player (APNAP) order" rule.

Example: A card reads "Each player sacrifices a creature." First, the active player chooses a creature he or she controls. Then each of the nonactive players, in turn order, chooses a creature he or she controls. Then all creatures chosen this way are sacrificed simultaneously.

103.2.103.2.

After the decks have been shuffled, the players determine which one of them will choose who takes the first turn. In an individual game, or in the first game of a match, the players may use any mutually agreeable method (flipping a coin, rolling dice, etc.) to do so. In a match of several games, the loser of the previous game chooses who takes the first turn. If the previous game was a draw, the player who made the choice in that game gets to make the choice in this game.

After the decks have been shuffled, the players determine which one of them will choose who takes the first turn. In the first game of a match (including a single-game match), the players may use any mutually agreeable method (flipping a coin, rolling dice, etc.) to do so. In a match of several games, the loser of the previous game chooses who takes the first turn. If the previous game was a draw, the player who made the choice in that game makes the choice in this game.

104.2a.104.2a.

A player still in the game wins the game if all of that player's opponents have left the game.

A player still in the game wins the game if all of that player's opponents have left the game. This happens immediately and overrides all effects that would prevent that player from winning the game.

104.2b.104.2b.

An effect may state that a player wins the game. (In certain multiplayer games, this may not cause the game to end; see rule 104.3h.)

An effect may state that a player wins the game. (In multiplayer games, this may not cause the game to end; see rule 104.3h.)

104.2d.

In an Emperor game, a team wins the game if its emperor wins the game. (See rule 807.5.)

104.3h.104.3h.

In a multiplayer game using the limited range of influence option, an effect that states that a player wins the game instead causes all of that player's opponents within his or her range of influence to lose the game.

In a multiplayer game, an effect that states that a player wins the game instead causes all of that player's opponents to lose the game. (This may not cause the game to end if the limited range of influence option is being used; see rule 801.)

104.3i.104.3i.

In an Emperor game, a team loses the game if its emperor loses the game. (See rule 807.)

In an Emperor game, a team loses the game if its emperor loses the game. (See rule 807.5.)

104.3j.104.3j.

In an EDH game, a player that's been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same general over the course of the game loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704. Also see rule 903.)

In an EDH game, a player that's been dealt 21 or more combat damage by the same general over the course of the game loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704. Also see rule 903.12.)

104.3k.104.3k.

In a tournament game, a player can be awarded a Game Loss or a Match Loss by a judge. See rule 100.6.

In a tournament, a player may lose a game as a result of a penalty given by a judge. See rule 100.6.

104.4g.104.4g.

In the Emperor variant, the game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor. See rule 807.5.

In the Emperor variant, the game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor. (See rule 807.5.)

105.3.105.3.

Effects may change an object's color or give a color to a colorless object. If an effect gives an object a new color, the new color replaces all previous colors the object had (unless the effect said the object became that color "in addition" to its other colors).

Effects may change an object's color or give a color to a colorless object. If an effect gives an object a new color, the new color replaces all previous colors the object had (unless the effect said the object became that color "in addition" to its other colors). Effects may also make a colored object become colorless.

107.1c.

If a rule or ability instructs a player to choose "any number," that player may choose any positive number or zero, unless something (such as damage or counters) is being divided or distributed among "any number" of players and/or objects. In that case, a nonzero number of players and/or objects must be chosen if possible.

107.7.107.7.

Each activated ability of a planeswalker has an arrow-shaped loyalty symbol in its cost. Positive loyalty symbols point upward and feature a plus sign followed by a number or an X. Negative loyalty symbols point downward and feature a minus sign followed by a number or an X. [+N] means "Put N loyalty counters on this permanent," and [-N] means "Remove N loyalty counters from this permanent."

Each activated ability of a planeswalker has a loyalty symbol in its cost. Positive loyalty symbols point upward and feature a plus sign followed by a number. Negative loyalty symbols point downward and feature a minus sign followed by a number or an X. Neutral loyalty symbols don't point in either direction and feature a 0. [+N] means "Put N loyalty counters on this permanent," [-N] means "Remove N loyalty counters from this permanent," and [0] means "Put zero loyalty counters on this permanent."

108.2.108.2.

When a rule or text on a card refers to a "card," it means a Magic card with a Magic card front and a Magic card back. This includes both traditional Magic cards, which measure approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 cm) by 3.5 inches (8.8 cm) and have a "Deckmaster" back, and nontraditional Magic cards, which are oversized and have different backs. Tokens aren't considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn't considered a card for rules purposes.

When a rule or text on a card refers to a "card," it means only a Magic card. This includes both traditional Magic cards, which measure approximately 2.5 inches (6.3 cm) by 3.5 inches (8.8 cm) and have a "Deckmaster" back, and nontraditional Magic cards, which are oversized and have different backs. Tokens aren't considered cards—even a card that represents a token isn't considered a card for rules purposes.

112.3a.112.3a.

Spell abilities are abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving. Any text on an instant or sorcery spell is a spell ability unless it's an activated ability, a triggered ability, or a static ability that fits the criteria described in rules 112.5a-j.

Spell abilities are abilities that are followed as instructions while an instant or sorcery spell is resolving. Any text on an instant or sorcery spell is a spell ability unless it's an activated ability, a triggered ability, or a static ability that fits the criteria described in rule 112.6.

112.5.112.5.

Some activated abilities are loyalty abilities. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of that permanent's loyalty abilities have been activated that turn. See rule 606, "Loyalty Abilities."

Some activated abilities are loyalty abilities. Loyalty abilities follow special rules: A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if no player has previously activated a loyalty ability of that permanent that turn. See rule 606, "Loyalty Abilities."

112.6h.112.6h.

A trigger condition that can't trigger from the battlefield functions in all zones it can trigger from. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull enters the battlefield or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition triggers from the battlefield and the second trigger condition functions from the exile zone. (See rule 702.52, "Haunt.")

A trigger condition that can't trigger from the battlefield functions in all zones it can trigger from. Other trigger conditions of the same triggered ability may function in different zones.

Example: Absolver Thrull has the ability "When Absolver Thrull enters the battlefield or the creature it haunts is put into a graveyard, destroy target enchantment." The first trigger condition functions from the battlefield and the second trigger condition functions from the exile zone. (See rule 702.52, "Haunt.")

112.11.112.11.

An effect that sets an object's characteristic, or simply states a quality of that object, is different from an ability granted by an effect. When an object "gains" or "has" an ability, that ability can be removed by another effect. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object ("[permanent] is [characteristic value]"), it's not granting an ability. (See rule 604.3.)

Example: Muraganda Petroglyphs reads, "Creatures with no abilities get +2/+2." A Runeclaw Bear (a creature with no abilities) enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature has flying" would not get +2/+2. A Runeclaw Bear enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature is red" or "Enchanted creature is indestructible" would get +2/+2.

An effect that sets an object's characteristic, or simply states a quality of that object, is different from an ability granted by an effect. When an object "gains" or "has" an ability, that ability can be removed by another effect. If an effect defines a characteristic of the object ("[permanent] is [characteristic value]"), it's not granting an ability. (See rule 604.3.) Similarly, if an effect states a quality of that object ("[permanent]" is indestructible" or "[creature] is unblockable," for example), it's neither granting an ability nor setting a characteristic. (See rules 700.4 and 700.5.)

Example: Muraganda Petroglyphs reads, "Creatures with no abilities get +2/+2." A Runeclaw Bear (a creature with no abilities) enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature has flying" would not get +2/+2. A Runeclaw Bear enchanted by an Aura that says "Enchanted creature is red" or "Enchanted creature is indestructible" would get +2/+2.

113.6.113.6.

Some effects allow a player to change the target of a spell or ability. If so, the target can be changed only to another legal target. If the target can't be changed to another legal target, the original target is unchanged, even if the original target is itself illegal by then.

Some effects allow a player to change the target(s) of a spell or ability, and other effects allow a player to choose new targets for a spell or ability.

113.6a.

If an effect allows a player to "change the target(s)" of a spell or ability, each target can be changed only to another legal target. If a target can't be changed to another legal target, the original target is unchanged, even if the original target is itself illegal by then. If all the targets aren't changed to other legal targets, none of them are changed.

113.6b.

If an effect allows a player to "change any targets" of a spell or ability, the process described in rule 113.6a is followed, except that any number of those targets may be changed (rather than all of them or none of them).

113.6c.

If an effect allows a player to "choose new targets" for a spell or ability, the player may leave any number of the targets unchanged, even if those targets would be illegal. If the player chooses to change some or all of the targets, the new targets must be legal.

113.6a.113.7.

Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. An effect that allows a player to change the target of a modal spell or ability doesn't allow that player to change its mode. (See rule 700.2.)

Modal spells and abilities may have different targeting requirements for each mode. An effect that allows a player to change the target(s) of a modal spell or ability, or to choose new targets for a modal spell or ability, doesn't allow that player to change its mode. (See rule 700.2.)

113.7.113.8.

Some objects check what another spell or ability is targeting. Depending on the wording, these may check the current state of the targets, the state of the targets at the time they were selected, or both.

Some objects check what another spell or ability is targeting. Depending on the wording, these may check the current state of the targets, the state of the targets at the time they were selected, or both.

113.7a.113.8a.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] that targets [something]" checks the current state of that spell or ability's targets. If an object it targets is still in the zone it's expected to be in or a player it targets is still in the game, that target's current information is used, even if it's not currently legal for that spell or ability. If an object it targets is no longer in the zone it's expected to be in or a player it targets is no longer in the game, that target is ignored; its last known information is not used.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] that targets [something]" checks the current state of that spell or ability's targets. If an object it targets is still in the zone it's expected to be in or a player it targets is still in the game, that target's current information is used, even if it's not currently legal for that spell or ability. If an object it targets is no longer in the zone it's expected to be in or a player it targets is no longer in the game, that target is ignored; its last known information is not used.

113.7b.113.8b.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] with a single target" checks the number of times any objects, players, or zones became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack, not the number of its targets that are currently legal. If the same object, player, or zone became a target more than once, each of those instances is counted separately.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] with a single target" checks the number of times any objects, players, or zones became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack, not the number of its targets that are currently legal. If the same object, player, or zone became a target more than once, each of those instances is counted separately.

113.7c.113.8c.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] that targets only [something]" checks the number of different objects or players that became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack (as modified by effects that changed those targets), not the number of those objects or players that are currently legal targets. If that number is one (even if the spell or ability targets that object or player multiple times), the current state of that spell or ability's target is checked as described in rule 113.7a.

An object that looks for a "[spell or ability] that targets only [something]" checks the number of different objects or players that became the target of that spell or ability when it was put on the stack (as modified by effects that changed those targets), not the number of those objects or players that are currently legal targets. If that number is one (even if the spell or ability targets that object or player multiple times), the current state of that spell or ability's target is checked as described in rule 113.8a.

113.9a.113.9a.

Just because an object or player is being affected by a spell or ability doesn't make that object or player a target of that spell or ability. Unless that object or player is identified by the word "target" in the text of that spell or ability, or the rule for that keyword ability, it is not a target.

Just because an object or player is being affected by a spell or ability doesn't make that object or player a target of that spell or ability. Unless that object or player is identified by the word "target" in the text of that spell or ability, or the rule for that keyword ability, it's not a target.

116.3c.

Activating mana abilities is not mandatory, even if paying a cost is.

Example: A player controls Thorn of Amethyst, which says "Noncreature spells cost {1} more to cast." Another player removes the last time counter from a suspended sorcery card. That player must cast that spell if able, but doing so costs {1}. The player is forced to spend {1} if enough mana is in his or her mana pool, but the player isn't forced to activate a mana ability to produce that {1}. If he or she doesn't, the card simply remains exiled.

116.5.116.5.

Some costs are represented by {0}, or are reduced to {0}. The action necessary for a player to pay such a cost is the player's acknowledgment that he or she is paying it. Even though such a cost requires no resources, it is not automatically paid.

Some costs are represented by {0}, or are reduced to {0}. The action necessary for a player to pay such a cost is the player's acknowledgment that he or she is paying it. Even though such a cost requires no resources, it's not automatically paid.

116.7.116.7.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it is considered to be {0}. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

What a player actually needs to do to pay a cost may be changed or reduced by effects. If the mana component of a cost is reduced to nothing by cost reduction effects, it's considered to be {0}. Paying a cost changed or reduced by an effect counts as paying the original cost.

116.8.116.8.

Some spells and abilities have additional costs. An additional cost is a cost listed in a spell's rules text, or applied to a spell or ability from another effect, that its controller must pay at the same time that player pays the spell's mana cost or the ability's activation cost. A cost is an additional cost only if it is phrased using the word "additional." Note that some additional costs are listed in keywords; see rule 702.

Some spells and abilities have additional costs. An additional cost is a cost listed in a spell's rules text, or applied to a spell or ability from another effect, that its controller must pay at the same time that player pays the spell's mana cost or the ability's activation cost. A cost is an additional cost only if it's phrased using the word "additional." Note that some additional costs are listed in keywords; see rule 702.

117.4.117.4.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0, the player may do so only if his or her life total is greater than or equal to the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0, the player may do so only if his or her life total is greater than or equal to the amount of the payment. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her life total; in other words, the player loses that much life. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

118.4c.118.4c.

Finally, the damage event occurs.

Example: A player who controls Boon Reflection, an enchantment that says "If you would gain life, you gain twice that much life instead," attacks with a 3/3 creature with wither and lifelink. It's blocked by a 2/2 creature, and the defending player casts a spell that prevents the next 2 damage that would be dealt to the blocking creature. The damage event starts out as [3 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. The prevention effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [1 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 1 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Boon Reflection's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 2 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Then the damage event occurs.

Example: The defending player controls a creature and Worship, an enchantment that says "If you control a creature, damage that would reduce your life total to less than 1 reduces it to 1 instead." That player is at 2 life, and is being attacked by two unblocked 5/5 creatures. The player casts Awe Strike, which says "The next time target creature would deal damage this turn, prevent that damage. You gain life equal to the damage prevented this way," targeting one of the attackers. The damage event starts out as [10 damage is dealt to the defending player]. Awe Strike's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [5 damage is dealt to the defending player, the defending player gains 5 life]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [the defending player loses 5 life, the defending player gains 5 life]. Worship's effect sees that the damage event would not reduce the player's life total to less than 1, so it is not applied. Then the damage event occurs.

Finally, the damage event occurs.

Example: A player who controls Boon Reflection, an enchantment that says "If you would gain life, you gain twice that much life instead," attacks with a 3/3 creature with wither and lifelink. It's blocked by a 2/2 creature, and the defending player casts a spell that prevents the next 2 damage that would be dealt to the blocking creature. The damage event starts out as [3 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. The prevention effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [1 damage is dealt to the 2/2 creature, 2 damage is dealt to the 3/3 creature]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 1 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Boon Reflection's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [one -1/-1 counter is put on the 2/2 creature, the active player gains 2 life, 2 damage is marked on the 3/3 creature]. Then the damage event occurs.

Example: The defending player controls a creature and Worship, an enchantment that says "If you control a creature, damage that would reduce your life total to less than 1 reduces it to 1 instead." That player is at 2 life, and is being attacked by two unblocked 5/5 creatures. The player casts Awe Strike, which says "The next time target creature would deal damage this turn, prevent that damage. You gain life equal to the damage prevented this way," targeting one of the attackers. The damage event starts out as [10 damage is dealt to the defending player]. Awe Strike's effect is applied, so the damage event becomes [5 damage is dealt to the defending player, the defending player gains 5 life]. That's transformed into its results, so the damage event is now [the defending player loses 5 life, the defending player gains 5 life]. Worship's effect sees that the damage event would not reduce the player's life total to less than 1, so it's not applied. Then the damage event occurs.

120.4.120.4.

If an effect says to "move" a counter, it means to take that counter from the object it's currently on and put it onto a second object. If the first and second objects are the same object, nothing happens. If the first object has no counters, nothing happens; the second object doesn't get a counter put on it. If the second object (or any possible second objects) are no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter, nothing happens; a counter isn't removed from the first object.

If an effect says to "move" a counter, it means to take that counter from the object it's currently on and put it onto a second object. If the first and second objects are the same object, nothing happens. If the first object has no counters, nothing happens; the second object doesn't get a counter put on it. If the second object (or any possible second objects) is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would move the counter, nothing happens; a counter isn't removed from the first object.

200.3.200.3.

Objects that aren't cards (tokens, copies of cards, and copies of spells) may have some of the parts of a card, but only the ones that are also characteristics. See rule 110.5 and rule 706.

Some objects that aren't cards (tokens, copies of cards, and copies of spells) have some of the parts of a card, but only the ones that are also characteristics. See rule 110.5 and rule 706.

201.3.201.2.

Two cards have the same name if the English versions of their names are identical, regardless of anything else printed on the cards.

Two objects have the same name if the English versions of their names are identical.

201.3.

If an effect instructs a player to name a card, the player must choose the name of a card that exists in the Oracle card reference (see rule 108.1) and is legal in the format of the game the player is playing. (See rule 100.6.) If the player wants to name a split card, the player must name both halves of the split card. (See rule 708.) If the player wants to name a flip card's alternative name, the player may do so. (See rule 709.) A player may not choose the name of a token unless it's also the name of a card.

201.2.201.4.

Text that refers to the object it's on by name means just that particular object and not any other duplicates of it, regardless of any name changes caused by game effects.

Text that refers to the object it's on by name means just that particular object and not any other objects with that name, regardless of any name changes caused by game effects.

201.2b.201.4a.

If an ability of an object grants to an object an ability that refers to the first object by name, the name refers only to the object whose ability grants that ability, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads "Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token onto the battlefield. It has 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.'" The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token, not at any other Saproling Burst on the battlefield.

If an ability grants another ability to an object, and that second ability refers to that first ability's source by name, the name refers only to the specific object that is that first ability's source, not to any other object with the same name.

Example: Saproling Burst has an ability that reads "Remove a fade counter from Saproling Burst: Put a green Saproling creature token onto the battlefield. It has 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of fade counters on Saproling Burst.'" The ability granted to the token only looks at the Saproling Burst that created the token, not at any other Saproling Burst on the battlefield.

201.4b.

If an ability of an object refers to that object by name, and another effect causes a different object to gain that ability, all instances of the first object's name in the gained ability should be treated as the new object's name.

Example: Quicksilver Elemental says, in part, "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If it gains an ability that says "{B}: Regenerate Drudge Skeletons," activating that ability will regenerate Quicksilver Elemental, not the Drudge Skeletons it gained the ability from.

Example: Glacial Ray is an instant with "splice onto Arcane" that says "Glacial Ray deals 2 damage to target creature or player." If it's spliced onto a Kodama's Reach, that Kodama's Reach deals 2 damage to the target creature or player.

201.4c.

Text printed on some legendary cards refers to that card by a shortened version of its name. This occurs only on a second reference or later; first references always use the card's full name. Instances of a card's shortened name used in this manner are treated as though they used the card's full name.

201.2a.201.5.

If an ability of an object uses a phrase such as "this [something]" to identify an object, where [something] is a characteristic, it is referring to that particular object, even if it isn't the appropriate characteristic at the time.

Example: An ability reads "Target creature gets +2/+2 until end of turn. Destroy that creature at the beginning of the next end step." The ability will destroy the object it gave +2/+2 even if that object isn't a creature at the beginning of the next end step.

If an ability of an object uses a phrase such as "this [something]" to identify an object, where [something] is a characteristic, it is referring to that particular object, even if it isn't the appropriate characteristic at the time.

Example: An ability reads "Target creature gets +2/+2 until end of turn. Destroy that creature at the beginning of the next end step." The ability will destroy the object it gave +2/+2 to even if that object isn't a creature at the beginning of the next end step.

202.1.202.1.

A card's mana cost is indicated by mana symbols near the top of the card. (See rule 107.4.) On most cards, these symbols are printed in the upper right corner. Some cards from the Future Sight set have alternate frames in which the mana symbols appear to the left of the art.

A card's mana cost is indicated by mana symbols near the top of the card. (See rule 107.4.) On most cards, these symbols are printed in the upper right corner. Some cards from the Future Sight set have alternate frames in which the mana symbols appear to the left of the illustration.

202.2e.202.2e.

Effects may change an object's color or give a color to a colorless object; see rule 105.3.

Effects may change an object's color, give a color to a colorless object, or make a colored object become colorless; see rule 105.3.

204.1b.204.1b.

Some effects change an object's card type, supertype, or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior card type, supertype, or subtype. In such cases, all the object's prior card types, supertypes, and subtypes are retained. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase "in addition to its types" or that state that something is "still a [card type]." Some effects state that an object becomes an "artifact creature"; these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior card types and subtypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." The affected lands now have two card types: creature and land. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability's effect applied to them, those lands would become "artifact land creatures," not just "creatures," or "land creatures." The effect allows them to retain both the card type "artifact" and the card type "land."

Example: An ability reads, "All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures." If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment, it will become an "artifact enchantment creature."

Some effects change an object's card type, supertype, or subtype but specify that the object retains a prior card type, supertype, or subtype. In such cases, all the object's prior card types, supertypes, and subtypes are retained. This rule applies to effects that use the phrase "in addition to its types" or that state that something is "still a [card type]." Some effects state that an object becomes an "artifact creature"; these effects also allow the object to retain all of its prior card types and subtypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." The affected lands now have two card types: creature and land. If there were any lands that were also artifacts before the ability's effect applied to them, those lands would become "artifact land creatures," not just "creatures," or "land creatures." The effect allows them to retain both the card type "artifact" and the card type "land." In addition, each land affected by the ability retains any land types and supertypes it had before the ability took effect.

Example: An ability reads, "All artifacts are 1/1 artifact creatures." If a permanent is both an artifact and an enchantment, it will become an "artifact enchantment creature."

204.3b.204.3b.

Subtypes of each card type except plane are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype; such objects may have multiple types. Subtypes of planes are also listed after a long dash, but may be multiple words. Each word after the dash is, collectively, a single subtype.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the subtype Mountain. "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. "Artifact — Equipment" means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment.

Subtypes of each card type except plane are always single words and are listed after a long dash. Each word after the dash is a separate subtype; such objects may have multiple types. Subtypes of planes are also listed after a long dash, but may be multiple words; all words after the dash are, collectively, a single subtype.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the subtype Mountain. "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard. "Artifact — Equipment" means the card is an artifact with the subtype Equipment.

204.3d.204.3d.

If an instruction requires choosing a subtype, you must choose one, and only one, existing subtype, and the subtype you choose must be for the appropriate card type. For example, you can't choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type.

Example: When choosing a creature type, "Merfolk" or "Wizard" is acceptable, but "Merfolk Wizard" is not. Words like "artifact," "opponent," "Swamp," or "truck" can't be chosen because they aren't creature types.

If an effect instructs a player to choose a subtype, that player must choose one, and only one, existing subtype, and the subtype he or she chooses must be for the appropriate card type. For example, the player can't choose a land type if an instruction requires choosing a creature type.

Example: When choosing a creature type, "Merfolk" or "Wizard" is acceptable, but "Merfolk Wizard" is not. Words like "artifact," "opponent," "Swamp," or "truck" can't be chosen because they aren't creature types.

204.3f.204.3f.

Artifacts have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called artifact types. The artifact types are Contraption, Equipment (see rule 301.7), and Fortification (see rule 301.8).

Artifacts have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called artifact types. The artifact types are Contraption, Equipment (see rule 301.5), and Fortification (see rule 301.6).

204.3k.204.3k.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Ally, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

Creatures and tribals share their lists of subtypes; these subtypes are called creature types. The creature types are Advisor, Ally, Angel, Anteater, Antelope, Ape, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Badger, Barbarian, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Beeble, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bringer, Brushwagg, Camarid, Camel, Caribou, Carrier, Cat, Centaur, Cephalid, Chimera, Citizen, Cleric, Cockatrice, Construct, Coward, Crab, Crocodile, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Devil, Djinn, Dragon, Drake, Dreadnought, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Eldrazi, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, Elk, Eye, Faerie, Ferret, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Fungus, Gargoyle, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Griffin, Hag, Harpy, Hellion, Hippo, Homarid, Homunculus, Horror, Horse, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Insect, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lammasu, Leech, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Manticore, Masticore, Mercenary, Merfolk, Metathran, Minion, Minotaur, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Moonfolk, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nautilus, Nephilim, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noggle, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Pegasus, Pentavite, Pest, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pincher, Pirate, Plant, Prism, Rabbit, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Rigger, Rogue, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scarecrow, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Sheep, Siren, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Spawn, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Squid, Squirrel, Starfish, Surrakar, Survivor, Tetravite, Thalakos, Thopter, Thrull, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Volver, Wall, Warrior, Weird, Whale, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, and Zubera.

204.3m.204.3m.

Planes have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planar types. The planar types are Alara, Arkhos, Bolas's Meditation Realm, Dominaria, Equilor, Iquatana, Ir, Kaldheim, Kamigawa, Lorwyn, Mercadia, Mirrodin, Moag, Muraganda, Phyrexia, Rabiah, Rath, Ravnica, Segovia, Serra's Realm, Shadowmoor, Shandalar, Ulgrotha, Valla, Wildfire, and Zendikar.

Planes have their own unique set of subtypes; these subtypes are called planar types. The planar types are Alara, Arkhos, Bolas's Meditation Realm, Dominaria, Equilor, Iquatana, Ir, Kaldheim, Kamigawa, Lorwyn, Luvion, Mercadia, Mirrodin, Moag, Muraganda, Phyrexia, Pyrulea, Rabiah, Rath, Ravnica, Segovia, Serra's Realm, Shadowmoor, Shandalar, Ulgrotha, Valla, Wildfire, and Zendikar.

205.2.205.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, with the exception of the Chinese Fifth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A red-orange symbol indicates the card is mythic rare. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral(r) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, with the exception of the Simplified Chinese Fifth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

207.2b.207.2b.

The card may have a static ability that creates a replacement effect that sets the creature's power and toughness to one of a number of specific choices as it enters the battlefield or is turned face up. (See rule 614, "Replacement Effects.") Such an ability is worded "As [this creature] enters the battlefield . . . ," "As [this creature] is turned face up . . . ," or "[This creature] enters the battlefield as . . ." and lists two or more specific power and toughness values (and may also list additional characteristics). The characteristics chosen with these effects affect the creature's copiable values; see rule 706.2. While the card isn't on the battlefield, its power and toughness are each considered to be 0.

The card may have a static ability that creates a replacement effect that sets the creature's power and toughness to one of a number of specific choices as it enters the battlefield or is turned face up. (See rule 614, "Replacement Effects.") Such an ability is worded "As [this creature] enters the battlefield . . . ," "As [this creature] is turned face up . . . ," or "[This creature] enters the battlefield as . . ." and lists two or more specific power and toughness values (and may also list additional characteristics). The characteristics chosen with these effects affect the creature's copiable values. (See rule 706.2.) While the card isn't on the battlefield, its power and toughness are each considered to be 0.

300.2.300.2.

Some objects have more than one card type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects satisfy the criteria for any effect that applies to any of their card types.

Some objects have more than one card type (for example, an artifact creature). Such objects combine the aspects of each of those card types, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or all of those card types.

300.2a.

An object that's both a land and another card type (for example, an artifact land) can only be played as a land. It can't be cast as a spell.

300.2b.

Each tribal card has another card type. Casting and resolving a tribal card follow the rules for casting and resolving a card of the other card type.

301.5.

Artifact creatures combine the characteristics of both creatures and artifacts, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types.

301.7.301.5.

Some artifacts have the subtype "Equipment." An Equipment can be attached to a creature. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a creature.

Some artifacts have the subtype "Equipment." An Equipment can be attached to a creature. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a creature.

301.7c.301.5a.

The creature an Equipment is attached to is called the "equipped creature." The Equipment is attached to, or "equips," that creature.

The creature an Equipment is attached to is called the "equipped creature." The Equipment is attached to, or "equips," that creature.

301.7a.301.5b.

An Equipment is cast and enters the battlefield just like any other artifact. An Equipment doesn't enter the battlefield attached to a creature. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control (see rule 702.6, "Equip"). Control of the creature matters only when the equip ability is activated and when it resolves. The creature to which the Equipment is to be moved must be able to be equipped by it. If it can't, the Equipment doesn't move.

An Equipment is cast and enters the battlefield just like any other artifact. An Equipment doesn't enter the battlefield attached to a creature. The equip keyword ability attaches the Equipment to a creature you control (see rule 702.6, "Equip"). Control of the creature matters only when the equip ability is activated and when it resolves. The creature to which the Equipment is to be attached must be able to be equipped by it. If it can't, the Equipment remains on the battlefield unattached.

301.7b.301.5c.

An Equipment that's also a creature can't equip a creature. Equipment that loses the subtype "Equipment" can't equip a creature. An Equipment can't equip itself. An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains on the battlefield. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

An Equipment that's also a creature can't equip a creature. An Equipment that loses the subtype "Equipment" can't equip a creature. An Equipment can't equip itself. An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains on the battlefield. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

301.7d.301.5d.

An Equipment's controller is separate from the equipped creature's controller; the two need not be the same. Changing control of the creature doesn't change control of the Equipment, and vice versa. Only the Equipment's controller can activate its abilities. However, if the Equipment grants an ability to the equipped creature (with "gains" or "has"), the equipped creature's controller is the only one who can activate that ability.

An Equipment's controller is separate from the equipped creature's controller; the two need not be the same. Changing control of the creature doesn't change control of the Equipment, and vice versa. Only the Equipment's controller can activate its abilities. However, if the Equipment grants an ability to the equipped creature (with "gains" or "has"), the equipped creature's controller is the only one who can activate that ability.

301.6.

Artifact lands combine the characteristics of both lands and artifacts, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. Artifact lands can only be played as lands. They can't be cast as spells.

301.8.301.6.

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Rules 301.7a-d apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures, with one clarification relating to rule 301.7b: a Fortification that's also a creature (not a land) can't equip a land. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 702.64, "Fortify.")

Some artifacts have the subtype "Fortification." A Fortification can be attached to a land. It can't legally be attached to an object that isn't a land. Rules 301.5a-d apply to Fortifications in relation to lands just as they apply to Equipment in relation to creatures, with one clarification relating to rule 301.5c: a Fortification that's also a creature (not a land) can't equip a land. Fortification's analog to the equip keyword ability is the fortify keyword ability. (See rule 702.64, "Fortify.")

302.6.302.6.

A creature's activated ability with the tap symbol or the untap symbol in its activation cost can't be activated unless the creature has been under its controller's control continuously since his or her most recent turn began. A creature can't attack unless it has been under its controller's control continuously since his or her most recent turn began. This rule is informally called the "summoning sickness" rule. Ignore this rule for creatures with haste (see rule 702.10).

A creature's activated ability with the tap symbol or the untap symbol in its activation cost can't be activated unless the creature has been under its controller's control continuously since his or her most recent turn began. A creature can't attack unless it has been under its controller's control continuously since his or her most recent turn began. This rule is informally called the "summoning sickness" rule.

302.8.

Creature lands combine the characteristics of both lands and creatures, and are subject to spells and abilities that affect either or both card types. Creature lands can only be played as lands. They can't be cast as spells.

303.4d.303.4b.

The object or player an Aura is attached to is called enchanted. The Aura is attached to, or "enchants," that object or player.

The object or player an Aura is attached to is called enchanted. The Aura is attached to, or "enchants," that object or player.

303.4b.303.4c.

If an Aura is enchanting an illegal object or player, the object it was attached to no longer exists, or the player it was attached to has left the game, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

If an Aura is enchanting an illegal object or player, the object it was attached to no longer exists, or the player it was attached to has left the game, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

303.4c.303.4d.

An Aura can't enchant itself. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. An Aura that's also a creature can't enchant anything. If this occurs somehow, the Aura becomes unattached, then is put into its owner's graveyard. (These are state-based actions. See rule 704.)

An Aura can't enchant itself. If this occurs somehow, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard. An Aura that's also a creature can't enchant anything. If this occurs somehow, the Aura becomes unattached, then is put into its owner's graveyard. (These are state-based actions. See rule 704.)

305.5.305.5.

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3h for the complete list of land types.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the Mountain subtype.

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. See rule 204.3h for the complete list of land types.

Example: "Basic Land — Mountain" means the card is a land with the subtype Mountain.

305.9.305.9.

If an object is both a land and another card type, it can be played only as a land. It can't be played as a spell.

If an object is both a land and another card type, it can be played only as a land. It can't be cast as a spell.

306.9.306.9.

If a planeswalker's loyalty is 0, it's put into its owner's graveyard as a state-based action. See rule 704.

If a planeswalker's loyalty is 0, it's put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

309.3.309.3.

Plane subtypes are listed after a long dash, and may be multiple words: "Plane — Serra's Realm." Each word after the dash is, collectively, a single subtype. Planar subtypes are called planar types. A plane can have only one subtype. See rule 204.3m for the complete list of planar types.

Plane subtypes are listed after a long dash, and may be multiple words: "Plane — Serra's Realm." All words after the dash are, collectively, a single subtype. Planar subtypes are called planar types. A plane can have only one subtype. See rule 204.3m for the complete list of planar types.

310.1.310.1.

Vanguard is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Vanguard casual variant uses vanguards. See Section 902, "Vanguard."

Vanguard is a card type seen only on nontraditional Magic cards. Only the Vanguard casual variant uses vanguard cards. See Section 902, "Vanguard."

400.4b.400.4b.

If a plane card would leave the command zone, it remains in the command zone.

If a plane or vanguard card would leave the command zone, it remains in the command zone.

400.10a.400.10a.

Cards in a player's sideboard are outside the game. See rules 100.4.

Cards in a player's sideboard are outside the game. See rule 100.4.

402.1.402.1.

The hand is where a player holds cards that have been drawn but not yet played. At the beginning of the game, each player draws a hand of seven cards. (See rule 103, "Starting the Game.")

The hand is where a player holds cards that have been drawn. Cards can be put into a player's hand by other effects as well. At the beginning of the game, each player draws a hand of seven cards. (See rule 103, "Starting the Game.")

403.5.403.5.

For many years, the battlefield was called the "in-play zone." Cards that were printed with text that contains the phrases "in play," "from play," "into play," or the like are referring to the battlefield. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

Previously, the battlefield was called the "in-play zone." Cards that were printed with text that contains the phrases "in play," "from play," "into play," or the like are referring to the battlefield. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

405.4.405.4.

Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated or triggered ability that's on the stack has the text of the ability that created it and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the person who cast the spell. The controller of an activated ability is the player who activated the ability. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability's source when it triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.

Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated or triggered ability that's on the stack has the text of the ability that created it and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the person who cast it. The controller of an activated ability is the player who activated it. The controller of a triggered ability is the player who controlled the ability's source when it triggered, unless it's a delayed triggered ability. The controller of a delayed triggered ability is the player who controlled the spell or ability that created it.

405.6c.405.6c.

Mana abilities resolve immediately. If a mana ability produces both mana and another effect, both the mana and the other effect happen immediately. If a player had priority before a mana ability was activated, that player gets priority after it resolves. (See rule 605, "Mana Abilities.")

Mana abilities resolve immediately. If a mana ability both produces mana and has another effect, the mana is produced and the other effect happens immediately. If a player had priority before a mana ability was activated, that player gets priority after it resolves. (See rule 605, "Mana Abilities.")

406.7.406.7.

For many years, the exile zone was called the "removed-from-the-game zone." Cards that were printed with text that "removes [an object] from the game" exiles that object. The same is true for cards printed with text that "sets [an object] aside." Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

Previously, the exile zone was called the "removed-from-the-game zone." Cards that were printed with text that "removes [an object] from the game" exiles that object. The same is true for cards printed with text that "sets [an object] aside." Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

505.1a.505.1a.

If an effect causes a turn to have an additional combat phase and an additional main phase, the additional main phase is also a postcombat main phase.

Only the first main phase of the turn is a precombat main phase. All other main phases are postcombat main phases. This includes the second main phase of a turn in which the combat phase has been skipped. It is also true of a turn in which an effect has caused an additional combat phase and an additional main phase to be created.

506.4d.506.4d.

A permanent that's both a blocking creature and a planeswalker that's being attacked is partially removed from combat if it stops being either a creature or a planeswalker (but not both). It's not removed from the portion of combat that's relevant to the card type it still is.

A permanent that's both a blocking creature and a planeswalker that's being attacked is removed from combat only if it stops being both a creature and a planeswalker. If it stops being one of those card types but continues to be the other, it continues to be either a blocking creature or a planeswalker that's being attacked, whichever is appropriate.

506.6.

Some spells state that they may be cast "only [before/after] [a particular point in the combat phase]," in which that point may be "attackers are declared," "blockers are declared," "the combat damage step," "the end of combat step," "the combat phase," or "combat."

506.6a.

A spell that states it may be cast "only before (or after) attackers are declared" is referring to the turn-based action of declaring attackers. It may be cast only before (or after) the declare attackers step begins, regardless of whether any attackers are actually declared. (See rule 508.)

506.6b.

A spell that states it may be cast "only before (or after) blockers are declared" is referring to the turn-based action of declaring blockers. It may be cast only before (or after) the declare blockers step begins, regardless of whether any blockers are actually declared. (See rule 509.)

506.6c.

Some spells state that they may be cast only "during combat" or "during a certain player's combat phase" in addition to the criteria described in rule 506.6. If a turn has multiple combat phases, such spells may be cast at an appropriate time during any of them.

506.6d.

Some spells state that they may be cast "only before (or after) [a particular point in the combat phase]," but don't meet the additional criteria described in rule 506.6c. If a turn has multiple combat phases, such spells may be cast that turn only before (or after) the stated point of the first combat phase.

506.6e.

If a spell states that it may be cast "only before [a particular point in the combat phase]," but the stated point doesn't exist within the relevant combat phase because the declare blockers step and the combat damage step are skipped (see rule 508.6), then the spell may be cast only before the declare attackers step ends.

506.6f.

If a spell states that it may be cast "only during combat after blockers are declared," but the declare blockers step is skipped that combat phase (see rule 508.6), then the spell may not be cast during that combat phase.

506.6g.

Rules 506.6 and 506.6a-f apply to abilities that state that they may be activated only at certain times with respect to combat just as they apply to spells that state that they may be cast only at certain times with respect to combat.

508.1.508.1.

First, the active player declares attackers. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. To declare attackers, the active player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of attackers, the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration was illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions").

First, the active player declares attackers. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. To declare attackers, the active player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of attackers, the active player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions").

508.1d.508.1d.

The active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it's affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature must attack, or that it must attack if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of attackers is illegal. Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to attack are exempt from effects that would require them to attack.

Example: A player controls two creatures: one that "attacks if able" and one with no abilities. An effect states, "No more than one creature can attack each turn." The only legal attack is for just the creature that "attacks if able" to attack. It's illegal to attack with the other creature, attack with both, or attack with neither.

The active player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it's affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature must attack, or that it must attack if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of attackers is illegal. Tapped creatures and creatures that can't attack unless you pay a cost are exempt from effects that would require them to attack.

Example: A player controls two creatures: one that "attacks if able" and one with no abilities. An effect states "No more than one creature can attack each turn." The only legal attack is for just the creature that "attacks if able" to attack. It's illegal to attack with the other creature, attack with both, or attack with neither.

509.1.509.1.

First, the defending player declares blockers. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. To declare blockers, the defending player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of blockers, the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration was illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions").

First, the defending player declares blockers. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. To declare blockers, the defending player follows the steps below, in order. If at any point during the declaration of blockers, the defending player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the declaration is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the declaration (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions").

509.1c.509.1c.

The defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it's affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature must block, or that it must block if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of blockers is illegal. Tapped creatures and creatures with unpaid costs to block are exempt from effects that would require them to block.

Example: A player controls one creature that "blocks if able" and another creature with no abilities. An effect states, "Creatures can't be blocked except by two or more creatures." Having only the first creature block violates the restriction. Having neither creature block fulfills the restriction but not the requirement. Having both creatures block the same attacking creature fulfills both the restriction and the requirement, so that's the only option.

The defending player checks each creature he or she controls to see whether it's affected by any requirements (effects that say a creature must block, or that it must block if some condition is met). If the number of requirements that are being obeyed is fewer than the maximum possible number of requirements that could be obeyed without disobeying any restrictions, the declaration of blockers is illegal. Tapped creatures and creatures that can't block unless you pay a cost are exempt from effects that would require them to block.

Example: A player controls one creature that "blocks if able" and another creature with no abilities. An effect states "Creatures can't be blocked except by two or more creatures." Having only the first creature block violates the restriction. Having neither creature block fulfills the restriction but not the requirement. Having both creatures block the same attacking creature fulfills both the restriction and the requirement, so that's the only option.

509.2.509.2.

Second, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active player announces its damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. (During the combat damage step, an attacking creature can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless each creature ahead of that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.)

Example: Craw Wurm is blocked by Llanowar Elves, Runeclaw Bear, and Serra Angel. The Craw Wurm's controller announces the Craw Wurm's damage assignment order as Serra Angel, then Runeclaw Bear, then Llanowar Elves.

Second, for each attacking creature that's become blocked, the active player announces that creature's damage assignment order, which consists of the creatures blocking it in an order of that player's choice. (During the combat damage step, an attacking creature can't assign combat damage to a creature that's blocking it unless each creature ahead of that blocking creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.) This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

Example: Craw Wurm is blocked by Llanowar Elves, Runeclaw Bear, and Serra Angel. The Craw Wurm's controller announces the Craw Wurm's damage assignment order as Serra Angel, then Runeclaw Bear, then Llanowar Elves.

509.3.509.3.

Third, for each creature that's blocking multiple creatures (because some effect allows it to), the defending player announces its damage assignment order among the attacking creatures. This turn-based action doesn't use the stack. (During the combat damage step, a blocking creature can't assign combat damage to a creature it's blocking unless each creature ahead of that blocked creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.)

Third, for each blocking creature, the defending player announces that creature's damage assignment order, which consists of the creatures it's blocking in an order of that player's choice. (During the combat damage step, a blocking creature can't assign combat damage to a creature it's blocking unless each creature ahead of that blocked creature in its order is assigned lethal damage.) This turn-based action doesn't use the stack.

509.4a.509.4a.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] blocks, . . ." generally triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it blocks multiple creatures. It triggers if the creature is declared as a blocker. It will also trigger if that creature becomes a blocker as the result of an effect, but only if it wasn't a blocking creature at that time. (See rule 509.1g.)

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] blocks, . . ." generally triggers only once each combat for that creature, even if it blocks multiple creatures. It triggers if the creature is declared as a blocker. It will also trigger if that creature becomes a blocker as the result of an effect, but only if it wasn't a blocking creature at that time. (See rule 509.1g.) It won't trigger if the creature is put onto the battlefield blocking.

509.4b.509.4b.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] blocks a creature, . . ." triggers once for each attacking creature the creature with the ability blocks. It triggers only if the creature is declared as a blocker.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] blocks a creature, . . ." triggers once for each attacking creature the creature with the ability blocks. It triggers if the creature is declared as a blocker. It will also trigger if an effect causes that creature to block an attacking creature, but only if it wasn't already blocking that attacking creature at that time. It won't trigger if the creature is put onto the battlefield blocking.

509.4d.509.4d.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature, . . ." triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature, even if it had already been blocked that combat. It won't trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.

An ability that reads "Whenever [this creature] becomes blocked by a creature, . . ." triggers once for each creature that blocks the named creature. It triggers if a creature is declared as a blocker for the attacking creature. It will also trigger if an effect causes a creature to block the attacking creature, but only if it wasn't already blocking that attacking creature at that time. In addition, it will trigger if a creature is put onto the battlefield blocking that creature. It won't trigger if the creature becomes blocked by an effect rather than a creature.

509.4f.509.4f.

If an ability triggers when a creature with certain characteristics blocks, it will trigger only if the creature has those characteristics at the point blockers are declared. If an ability triggers when a creature with certain characteristics becomes blocked, it will trigger only if the creature has those characteristics at the point it becomes a blocked creature. If an ability triggers when a creature becomes blocked by a creature with certain characteristics, it will trigger only if the latter creature has those characteristics at the point becomes a blocking creature. None of those abilities will trigger if the relevant creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition later on.

Example: A creature has the ability "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a white creature, destroy that creature at end of combat." If the creature becomes blocked by a black creature that is later turned white, the ability will not trigger.

If an ability triggers when a creature with certain characteristics blocks, it will trigger only if the creature has those characteristics at the point blockers are declared, or at the point an effect causes it to block. If an ability triggers when a creature with certain characteristics becomes blocked, it will trigger only if the creature has those characteristics at the point it becomes a blocked creature. If an ability triggers when a creature becomes blocked by a creature with certain characteristics, it will trigger only if the latter creature has those characteristics at the point it becomes a blocking creature. None of those abilities will trigger if the relevant creature's characteristics change to match the ability's trigger condition later on.

Example: A creature has the ability "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a white creature, destroy that creature at end of combat." If the creature becomes blocked by a black creature that is later turned white, the ability will not trigger.

510.1f.510.1f.

Once a player has assigned combat damage from each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls, the total damage assignment is checked to see if it complies with the above rules. If it doesn't, the combat damage assignment was illegal; the game returns to the moment before that player began to assign combat damage. (See rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions").

Once a player has assigned combat damage from each attacking or blocking creature he or she controls, the total damage assignment is checked to see if it complies with the above rules. If it doesn't, the combat damage assignment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that player began to assign combat damage. (See rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions").

601.1.601.1.

For many years, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as "playing" that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "casting" that spell or that card.

Previously, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as "playing" that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "casting" that spell or that card.

601.2.601.2.

To cast a spell is to take it from the zone it's in (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Casting a spell follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the casting of a spell, a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the spell was cast illegally; the game returns to the moment before that spell started to be cast (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions"). Announcements and payments can't be altered after they've been made.

To cast a spell is to take it from the zone it's in (usually the hand), put it on the stack, and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Casting a spell follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the casting of a spell, a player is unable to comply with any of the steps listed below, the casting of the spell is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that spell started to be cast (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions"). Announcements and payments can't be altered after they've been made.

601.2b.601.2b.

If the spell is modal the player announces the mode choice (see rule 700.2). If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 702.44), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell has alternative, additional, or other special costs that will be paid as it's being cast such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs (see rules 116.8 and 116.9), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 601.2e). A player can't apply two alternative methods of casting or two alternative costs to a single spell. If the spell has a variable cost that will be paid as it's being cast (such as an {X} in its mana cost; see rule 107.3), the player announces the value of that variable. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes hybrid mana symbols, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. Previously made choices (such as choosing to cast a spell with flashback from a graveyard or choosing to cast a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

If the spell is modal the player announces the mode choice (see rule 700.2). If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell (see rule 702.44), he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell has alternative or additional costs that will be paid as it's being cast such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs (see rules 116.8 and 116.9), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 601.2e). A player can't apply two alternative methods of casting or two alternative costs to a single spell. If the spell has a variable cost that will be paid as it's being cast (such as an {X} in its mana cost; see rule 107.3), the player announces the value of that variable. If a cost that will be paid as the spell is being cast includes hybrid mana symbols, the player announces the nonhybrid equivalent cost he or she intends to pay. Previously made choices (such as choosing to cast a spell with flashback from a graveyard or choosing to cast a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

601.2c.601.2c.

The player announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each target the spell requires. A spell may require some targets only if an alternative, additional, or special cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost), or a particular mode, was chosen for it; otherwise, the spell is cast as though it did not have those targets. If the spell has a variable number of targets, the player announces how many targets he or she will choose before he or she announces those targets. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell. However, if the spell uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). If any effects say that an object or player must be chosen as a target, the player chooses targets so that he or she obeys the maximum possible number of such effects without violating any rules or effects that say that an object or player can't be chosen as a target. The chosen players, objects, and/or zones each become a target of that spell. (Any abilities that trigger when those players, objects, and/or zones become the target of a spell trigger at this point; they'll wait to be put on the stack until the spell has finished being cast.)

Example: If a spell says "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the spell requires two different legal targets. A spell that says "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

The player announces his or her choice of an appropriate player, object, or zone for each target the spell requires. A spell may require some targets only if an alternative or additional cost (such as a buyback or kicker cost), or a particular mode, was chosen for it; otherwise, the spell is cast as though it did not require those targets. If the spell has a variable number of targets, the player announces how many targets he or she will choose before he or she announces those targets. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell. However, if the spell uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria). If any effects say that an object or player must be chosen as a target, the player chooses targets so that he or she obeys the maximum possible number of such effects without violating any rules or effects that say that an object or player can't be chosen as a target. The chosen players, objects, and/or zones each become a target of that spell. (Any abilities that trigger when those players, objects, and/or zones become the target of a spell trigger at this point; they'll wait to be put on the stack until the spell has finished being cast.)

Example: If a spell says "Tap two target creatures," then the same creature can't be chosen twice; the spell requires two different legal targets. A spell that says "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

601.2h.601.2h.

Once the steps described in 601.2a-g are completed, the spell becomes cast. Any abilities that trigger on a spell being cast or put onto the stack trigger at this time. If the spell's controller had priority before casting it, he or she gets priority.

Once the steps described in 601.2a-g are completed, the spell becomes cast. Any abilities that trigger when a spell is cast or put onto the stack trigger at this time. If the spell's controller had priority before casting it, he or she gets priority.

602.1b.602.1b.

For many years, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.

Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.

602.2.602.2.

To activate an ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object's controller (or its owner, if it doesn't have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. Activating an ability follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the activation of an ability, a player is unable to comply with any of those steps, the ability was activated illegally; the game returns to the moment before that ability started to be activated (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions"). Announcements and payments can't be altered after they've been made.

To activate an ability is to put it onto the stack and pay its costs, so that it will eventually resolve and have its effect. Only an object's controller (or its owner, if it doesn't have a controller) can activate its activated ability unless the object specifically says otherwise. Activating an ability follows the steps listed below, in order. If, at any point during the activation of an ability, a player is unable to comply with any of those steps, the activation is illegal; the game returns to the moment before that ability started to be activated (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions"). Announcements and payments can't be altered after they've been made.

602.2a.602.2a.

The player announces that he or she is activating the ability. If an activated ability is being activated from a hidden zone, the card that has that ability is revealed. That ability is created on the stack as an object that's not a card. It becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. Its controller is the player who activated the ability. The ability remains on the stack until it's countered or resolves.

The player announces that he or she is activating the ability. If an activated ability is being activated from a hidden zone, the card that has that ability is revealed. That ability is created on the stack as an object that's not a card. It becomes the topmost object on the stack. It has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. Its controller is the player who activated the ability. The ability remains on the stack until it's countered, it resolves, or an effect moves it elsewhere.

603.3b.603.3b.

If multiple abilities have triggered since the last time a player received priority, each player, in APNAP order, puts triggered abilities he or she controls on the stack in any order he or she chooses. (See rule 101.4.) Then the game once again checks for and resolve state-based actions until none are performed, then abilities that triggered during this process go on the stack. This process repeats until no new state-based actions are performed and no abilities trigger. Then the appropriate player gets priority.

If multiple abilities have triggered since the last time a player received priority, each player, in APNAP order, puts triggered abilities he or she controls on the stack in any order he or she chooses. (See rule 101.4.) Then the game once again checks for and resolves state-based actions until none are performed, then abilities that triggered during this process go on the stack. This process repeats until no new state-based actions are performed and no abilities trigger. Then the appropriate player gets priority.

605.3b.605.3b.

An activated mana ability doesn't go on the stack, so it can't be targeted, countered, or otherwise responded to. Rather, it resolves immediately after it is activated. (See rule 405.3c.)

An activated mana ability doesn't go on the stack, so it can't be targeted, countered, or otherwise responded to. Rather, it resolves immediately after it is activated. (See rule 405.6c.)

606.3.606.3.

A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if none of its loyalty abilities have been activated that turn.

A player may activate a loyalty ability of a permanent he or she controls any time he or she has priority and the stack is empty during a main phase of his or her turn, but only if no player has previously activated a loyalty ability of that permanent that turn.

608.2b.608.2b.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's no longer in the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally, affecting only the targets that are still legal. If a target is illegal, the spell or ability can't perform any actions on it or make the target perform any actions.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left the battlefield), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell.

If the spell or ability specifies targets, it checks whether the targets are still legal. A target that's no longer in the zone it was in when it was targeted is illegal. Other changes to the game state may cause a target to no longer be legal; for example, its characteristics may have changed or an effect may have changed the text of the spell. If the source of an ability has left the zone it was in, its last known information is used during this process. The spell or ability is countered if all its targets, for every instance of the word "target," are now illegal. If the spell or ability is not countered, it will resolve normally. However, if any of its targets are illegal, the part of the spell or ability's effect for which it is an illegal target can't perform any actions on that target or make that target perform any actions. The effect may still determine information about illegal targets, though, and other parts of the effect for which those targets are not illegal may still affect them.

Example: Aura Blast is a white instant that reads, "Destroy target enchantment. Draw a card." If the enchantment isn't a legal target during Aura Blast's resolution (say, if it has gained protection from white or left the battlefield), then Aura Blast is countered. Its controller doesn't draw a card.

Example: Plague Spores reads, "Destroy target nonblack creature and target land. They can't be regenerated." Suppose the same animated land is chosen both as the nonblack creature and as the land, and the color of the creature land is changed to black before Plague Spores resolves. Plagues Spores isn't countered because the black creature land is still a legal target for the "target land" part of the spell. The "destroy target nonblack creature" part of the spell won't affect that permanent, but the "destroy target land" part of the spell will still destroy it. It can't be regenerated.

608.2d.608.2d.

If an effect of a spell or ability offers any choices other than choices already made as part of casting the spell, activating the ability, or otherwise putting the spell or ability on the stack, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible, with the exception that having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 119.3).

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

If an effect of a spell or ability offers any choices other than choices already made as part of casting the spell, activating the ability, or otherwise putting the spell or ability on the stack, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible, with the exception that having an empty library doesn't make drawing a card an impossible action (see rule 119.3). If an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among any number of untargeted players and/or objects, the player chooses the amount and division such that at least one player or object is chosen if able, and each chosen player or object receives at least one of whatever is being divided. (Note that if an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among some number of target objects and/or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put onto the stack rather than at this time; see rule 601.2d.)

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

608.2g.608.2g.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures on the battlefield), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself or a target that's become illegal, the effect uses the current information of that object if it's in the zone it was expected to be in; otherwise, the effect uses the object's last known information. See rule 112.7a. (Note that if an effect divides or distributes something, such as damage or counters, as a player chooses among some number of target creatures or players, the amount and division were determined as the spell or ability was put onto the stack rather than at this time; see rule 601.2d.) If the ability text states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it, not the ability.

If an effect requires information from the game (such as the number of creatures on the battlefield), the answer is determined only once, when the effect is applied. If the effect requires information from a specific object, including the source of the ability itself or a target that's become illegal, the effect uses the current information of that object if it's in the public zone it was expected to be in; if it's no longer in that zone, or if the effect has moved it from a public zone to a hidden zone, the effect uses the object's last known information. See rule 112.7a. If an ability states that an object does something, it's the object as it exists—or as it most recently existed—that does it, not the ability.

613.1d.613.1d.

Layer 4: Type-changing effects are applied. This includes effects that change an object's card type, subtype, and/or supertype.

Layer 4: Type-changing effects are applied. These include effects that change an object's card type, subtype, and/or supertype.

613.8.613.8.

One continuous effect can override another. Sometimes the results of one effect determine whether another effect applies or what another effect does.

Example: Two Auras are enchanting the same creature: one that says "Enchanted creature gains flying" and one that says "Enchanted creature loses flying." Neither of these depends on the other, since nothing changes what they affect or what they're doing to it. Applying them in timestamp order means the one that was generated last "wins." It's irrelevant whether an effect is temporary (such as "Target creature loses flying until end of turn") or global (such as "All creatures lose flying").

Example: One effect reads, "White creatures get +1/+1," and another reads, "Enchanted creature is white." The enchanted creature gets +1/+1 from the first effect, regardless of its previous color.

One continuous effect can override another. Sometimes the results of one effect determine whether another effect applies or what another effect does.

Example: Two effects are affecting the same creature: one from an Aura that says "Enchanted creature gains flying" and one from an Aura that says "Enchanted creature loses flying." Neither of these depends on the other, since nothing changes what they affect or what they're doing to it. Applying them in timestamp order means the one that was generated last "wins." The same process would be followed, and the same result reached, if either of the effects had a duration (such as "Target creature loses flying until end of turn") or came from a non-Aura source (such as "All creatures lose flying").

Example: One effect reads, "White creatures get +1/+1," and another reads, "Enchanted creature is white." The enchanted creature gets +1/+1 from the first effect, regardless of its previous color.

614.12.614.12.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent enters the battlefield. (See rules 614.1c-d.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. To determine how and whether these replacement effects apply, check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist on the battlefield, taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it enters the battlefield, continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent's characteristics on the stack (see rule 400.7a), and continuous effects from the permanent's own static abilities, but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put onto the battlefield, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk enters the battlefield tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put onto the battlefield from a graveyard enters the battlefield tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents enter the battlefield tapped." It will not affect itself, so Orb of Dreams enters the battlefield untapped.

Some replacement effects modify how a permanent enters the battlefield. (See rules 614.1c-d.) Such effects may come from the permanent itself if they affect only that permanent (as opposed to a general subset of permanents that includes it). They may also come from other sources. To determine how and whether these replacement effects apply, check the characteristics of the permanent as it would exist on the battlefield, taking into account replacement effects that have already modified how it enters the battlefield, continuous effects generated by the resolution of spells or abilities that changed the permanent's characteristics on the stack (see rule 400.7a), and continuous effects from the permanent's own static abilities, but ignoring continuous effects from any other source that would affect it.

Example: Voice of All says "As Voice of All enters the battlefield, choose a color" and "Voice of All has protection from the chosen color." An effect creates a token that's a copy of Voice of All. As that token is put onto the battlefield, its controller chooses a color for it.

Example: Yixlid Jailer says "Cards in graveyards have no abilities." Scarwood Treefolk says "Scarwood Treefolk enters the battlefield tapped." A Scarwood Treefolk that's put onto the battlefield from a graveyard enters the battlefield tapped.

Example: Orb of Dreams is an artifact that says "Permanents enter the battlefield tapped." It won't affect itself, so Orb of Dreams enters the battlefield untapped.

701.7c.

If a card is discarded, but an effect causes it to be put into a hidden zone instead of into its owner's graveyard without being revealed, all values of that card's characteristics are considered to be undefined. If a card is discarded this way to pay a cost that specifies a characteristic about the discarded card, that cost payment is illegal; the game returns to the moment before the cost was paid (see rule 714, "Handling Illegal Actions").

701.10d.701.10d.

For many years, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as "playing" that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "casting" that spell or that card.

Previously, the action of casting a spell, or casting a card as a spell, was referred to on cards as "playing" that spell or that card. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "casting" that spell or that card.

701.10e.701.10e.

For many years, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.

Previously, the action of using an activated ability was referred to on cards as "playing" that ability. Cards that were printed with that text have received errata in the Oracle card reference so they now refer to "activating" that ability.

701.15.

Shuffle

701.15a.

To shuffle a library or a face-down pile of cards, randomize the cards within it so that no player knows their order.

701.15b.

Some effects cause a player to search a library for a card or cards, shuffle that library, then put the found card or cards in a certain position in that library. Even though the found card or cards never leave that library, they aren't included in the shuffle. Rather, all the cards in that library except those are shuffled. Abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.

701.15c.

If an effect would cause a player to shuffle one or more specific objects into a library, but none of those objects are in the zone they're expected to be in, that library is not shuffled.

Example: Guile says, in part, "When Guile is put into a graveyard from anywhere, shuffle it into its owner's library." It's put into a graveyard and its ability triggers, then a player exiles it from that graveyard in response. When the ability resolves, nothing happens.

701.15d.

If an effect would cause a player to shuffle a set of objects into a library, that library is shuffled even if there are no objects in that set.

Example: Loaming Shaman says "When Loaming Shaman enters the battlefield, target player shuffles any number of target cards from his or her graveyard into his or her library." It enters the battlefield, its ability triggers, and no cards are targeted. When the ability resolves, the targeted player will still have to shuffle his or her library.

701.15e.

If an effect causes a player to shuffle a library containing zero or one cards, abilities that trigger when a library is shuffled will still trigger.

701.15f.

If two or more effects cause a library to be shuffled multiple times simultaneously, abilities that trigger when that library is shuffled will trigger that many times.

701.15.701.16.

Tap and Untap

Tap and Untap

701.15a.701.16a.

To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.

To tap a permanent, turn it sideways from an upright position. Only untapped permanents can be tapped.

701.15b.701.16b.

To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.

To untap a permanent, rotate it back to the upright position from a sideways position. Only tapped permanents can be untapped.

701.16.701.17.

Scry

Scry

701.16a.701.17a.

To "scry N" means to look at the top N cards of your library, put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order, and put the rest on top of your library in any order.

To "scry N" means to look at the top N cards of your library, put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order, and put the rest on top of your library in any order.

701.17.701.18.

Fateseal

Fateseal

701.17a.701.18a.

To "fateseal N" means to look at the top N cards of an opponent's library, put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order, and put the rest on top of that library in any order.

To "fateseal N" means to look at the top N cards of an opponent's library, put any number of them on the bottom of that library in any order, and put the rest on top of that library in any order.

701.18.701.19.

Clash

Clash

701.18a.701.19a.

To clash, a player reveals the top card of his or her library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.

To clash, a player reveals the top card of his or her library. That player may then put that card on the bottom of his or her library.

701.18b.701.19b.

"Clash with an opponent" means "Choose an opponent. You and that opponent each clash."

"Clash with an opponent" means "Choose an opponent. You and that opponent each clash."

701.18c.701.19c.

A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash.

A player wins a clash if that player revealed a card with a higher converted mana cost than all other cards revealed in that clash.

701.19.701.20.

Planeswalk

Planeswalk

701.19a.701.20a.

A player may planeswalk only during a Planar Magic game. Only the planar controller may planeswalk. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

A player may planeswalk only during a Planar Magic game. Only the planar controller may planeswalk. See rule 901, "Planar Magic."

701.19b.701.20b.

To planeswalk is to put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up.

To planeswalk is to put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up.

701.19c.701.20c.

A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 309.6) or because the owner of the face-up plane card leaves the game (see rule 901.9).

A player may planeswalk as the result of the "planeswalking ability" (see rule 309.6) or because the owner of the face-up plane card leaves the game (see rule 901.9).

701.19d.701.20d.

The plane card that's turned face up is the plane the player planeswalks to. The plane card that's turned face down, or that leaves the game, is the plane the player planeswalks away from.

The plane card that's turned face up is the plane the player planeswalks to. The plane card that's turned face down, or that leaves the game, is the plane the player planeswalks away from.

702.12b.702.12b.

Landwalk is an evasion ability. A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one land with the specified subtype (as in "islandwalk"), with the specified supertype (as in "legendary landwalk"), without the specified supertype (as in "nonbasic landwalk"), or with both the specified supertype and the specified subtype (as in "snow swampwalk"). (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

Landwalk is an evasion ability.

702.12c.702.12c.

If a player is allowed to choose any landwalk ability, that player chooses a landwalk ability that includes one land subtype and/or one supertype. The chosen ability doesn't need to have been printed on a card.

A creature with landwalk is unblockable as long as the defending player controls at least one land with the specified subtype (as in "islandwalk"), with the specified supertype (as in "legendary landwalk"), without the specified supertype (as in "nonbasic landwalk"), or with both the specified supertype and the specified subtype (as in "snow swampwalk"). (See rule 509, "Declare Blockers Step.")

702.13a.702.13a.

Lifelink is a static ability. Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that source's controller, or its owner if it has no controller, to gain that much life (in addition to any other results that damage causes). See rule 118.3.

Lifelink is a static ability.

702.13b.

Damage dealt by a source with lifelink causes that source's controller, or its owner if it has no controller, to gain that much life (in addition to any other results that damage causes). See rule 118.3.

702.13b.702.13c.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had lifelink.

If a permanent leaves the battlefield before an effect causes it to deal damage, its last known information is used to determine whether it had lifelink.

702.13c.702.13d.

The lifelink rules function no matter what zone an object with lifelink deals damage from.

The lifelink rules function no matter what zone an object with lifelink deals damage from.

702.13d.702.13e.

Multiple instances of lifelink on the same object are redundant.

Multiple instances of lifelink on the same object are redundant.

702.17d.702.17d.

If a creature with trample is attacking a planeswalker, none of its combat damage can be assigned to the defending player, even if that planeswalker has been removed from combat or the damage the attacking creature could assign to that planeswalker exceeds its loyalty.

If a creature with trample is attacking a planeswalker, none of its combat damage can be assigned to the defending player, even if that planeswalker has been removed from combat or the damage the attacking creature could assign is greater than the planeswalker's loyalty.

702.19m.702.19m.

Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant. Multiple instances of bands with other of the same kind on the same creature are redundant.

Multiple instances of banding on the same creature are redundant. Multiple instances of "bands with other" of the same kind on the same creature are redundant.

702.26e.702.26e.

Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards' typecycling abilities.

Typecycling abilities are cycling abilities, and typecycling costs are cycling costs. Any cards that trigger when a player cycles a card will trigger when a card is discarded to pay a typecycling cost. Any effect that stops players from cycling cards will stop players from activating cards' typecycling abilities. Any effect that increases or reduces a cycling cost will increase or reduce a typecycling cost.

702.28a.702.28a.

Horsemanship is an evasion ability that appeared in the Portal Three Kingdoms (tm) set.

Horsemanship is an evasion ability.

702.30a.702.30a.

Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell." The phrase "Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]" means the same thing as "Kicker [cost 1], kicker [cost 2]." Paying a spell's kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Kicker is a static ability that functions while the spell with kicker is on the stack. "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you cast this spell." Paying a spell's kicker cost(s) follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.30b.

The phrase "Kicker [cost 1] and/or [cost 2]" means the same thing as "Kicker [cost 1], kicker [cost 2]."

702.30c.

Multikicker is a variant of the kicker ability. "Multikicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] any number of times as you cast this spell." A multikicker cost is a kicker cost.

702.30b.702.30d.

If a spell's controller declares the intention to pay any of that spell's kicker costs, that spell has been "kicked." See rule 601.2b.

If a spell's controller declares the intention to pay any of that spell's kicker costs, that spell has been "kicked." If a spell has two kicker costs or has multikicker, it may be kicked multiple times. See rule 601.2b.

702.30c.702.30e.

Objects with kicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if it was kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker abilities. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

Objects with kicker or multikicker have additional abilities that specify what happens if they are kicked. These abilities are linked to the kicker or multikicker abilities printed on that object: they can refer only to those specific kicker or multikicker abilities. See rule 607, "Linked Abilities."

702.30d.702.30f.

Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if it was kicked with its [A] kicker" and "if it was kicked with its [B] kicker," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. Each of those abilities is linked to the appropriate kicker ability.

Objects with more than one kicker cost have abilities that each correspond to a specific kicker cost. They contain the phrases "if it was kicked with its [A] kicker" and "if it was kicked with its [B] kicker," where A and B are the first and second kicker costs listed on the card, respectively. Each of those abilities is linked to the appropriate kicker ability.

702.30e.702.30g.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if that spell was kicked, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if that spell was kicked. Otherwise, the spell is cast as if it did not have those targets. See rule 601.2c.

If part of a spell's ability has its effect only if that spell was kicked, and that part of the ability includes any targets, the spell's controller chooses those targets only if that spell was kicked. Otherwise, the spell is cast as if it did not have those targets. See rule 601.2c.

702.47a.702.47a.

Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you can't cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.9.

Epic represents both a spell ability and a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means "For the rest of the game, you can't cast spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps for the rest of the game, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 706.9.

702.48a.702.48a.

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to cast this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Example: You cast Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi, a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}. You announce that you're going to tap a colorless creature, a red creature, and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell's cost by {1}. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell's cost by {1}, {G}, or {W}. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi's cost.

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell with convoke is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to cast this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Example: You cast Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi, a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}. You announce that you're going to tap a colorless creature, a red creature, and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell's cost by {1}. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell's cost by {1}, {G}, or {W}. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi's cost.

702.53a.702.53a.

Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Replicate [cost]" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may pay [cost] any number of times" and "When you cast this spell, if a replicate cost was paid for it, copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any number of the copies." Paying a spell's replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Replicate is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with replicate is on the stack. "Replicate [cost]" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may pay [cost] any number of times" and "When you cast this spell, if a replicate cost was paid for it, copy it for each time its replicate cost was paid. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for any of the copies." Paying a spell's replicate cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.63a.702.63a.

Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has it is on the stack. "Delve" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may exile any number of cards from your graveyard. Each card exiled this way reduces the cost to cast this spell by {1}." Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Delve is a static ability that functions while the spell that has delve is on the stack. "Delve" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may exile any number of cards from your graveyard. Each card exiled this way reduces the cost to cast this spell by {1}." Using the delve ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.71a.702.71a.

Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card can be cast and a triggered ability that functions on the battlefield. "Evoke [cost]" means "You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "When this permanent enters the battlefield, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it." Paying a card's evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Evoke represents two abilities: a static ability that functions in any zone from which the card with evoke can be cast and a triggered ability that functions on the battlefield. "Evoke [cost]" means "You may cast this card by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "When this permanent enters the battlefield, if its evoke cost was paid, its controller sacrifices it." Paying a card's evoke cost follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.75a.702.75a.

Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Conspire" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it" and "When you cast this spell, if its conspire cost was paid, copy it. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." Paying a spell's conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Conspire is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. The second is a triggered ability that functions while the spell with conspire is on the stack. "Conspire" means "As an additional cost to cast this spell, you may tap two untapped creatures you control that each share a color with it" and "When you cast this spell, if its conspire cost was paid, copy it. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." Paying a spell's conspire cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.78a.702.78a.

Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the card is in a player's graveyard. "Retrace" means "You may cast this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to cast it." Casting a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

Retrace appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents a static ability that functions while the card with retrace is in a player's graveyard. "Retrace" means "You may cast this card from your graveyard by discarding a land card as an additional cost to cast it." Casting a spell using its retrace ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 601.2b and 601.2e-g.

702.81a.702.81a.

Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card is in a graveyard. "Unearth [cost]" means "[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to the battlefield. It gains haste. Exile it at the beginning of the next end step. If it would leave the battlefield, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

Unearth is an activated ability that functions while the card with unearth is in a graveyard. "Unearth [cost]" means "[Cost]: Return this card from your graveyard to the battlefield. It gains haste. Exile it at the beginning of the next end step. If it would leave the battlefield, exile it instead of putting it anywhere else. Activate this ability only any time you could cast a sorcery."

706.11.706.11.

An effect that instructs a player to "cast a copy" of an object follows the rules for casting spells, except that the copy is cast while another spell or ability is resolving. Casting a copy of an object follows steps 601.2a-g of rule 601, "Casting Spells," then the copy becomes cast. The cast copy is a spell on the stack, and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered.

An effect that instructs a player to "cast a copy" of an object follows the rules for casting spells, except that the copy is cast while another spell or ability is resolving. Casting a copy of an object follows steps 601.2a-g of rule 601, "Casting Spells," and then the copy becomes cast. The cast copy is a spell on the stack, and just like any other spell it can resolve or be countered.

708.1.708.1.

Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back.

Split cards have two card faces on a single card. The back of a split card is the normal Magic card back.

708.2a.

If a player casts a split card, that player chooses which half of that split card he or she is casting before putting it onto the stack. Only the half that is being cast is considered to be put onto the stack.

709.1.709.1.

Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card's normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back.

Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card's normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic card back.

712.2.712.2.

As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library, moves them to his or her subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in section 103, "Starting the Game."

As the subgame starts, an entirely new set of game zones is created. Each player takes all the cards in his or her main-game library, moves them to his or her subgame library, and shuffles them. No other cards in a main-game zone are moved to their corresponding subgame zone, except as specified in rules 712.2a-c. Randomly determine which player goes first. The subgame proceeds like a normal game, following all other rules in section 103, "Starting the Game."

712.2a.

As a subgame of a Planar Magic game starts, each player moves his or her planar deck from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone and shuffles it. (Face-up plane cards remain in the main-game command zone.)

712.2b.

As a subgame of a Vanguard game starts, each player moves his or her vanguard card from the main-game command zone to the subgame command zone.

712.2c.

As a subgame of an EDH game starts, each player moves his or her general from the main-game command zone (if it's there) to the subgame command zone.

712.5.712.5.

At the end of a subgame, each player puts all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame into his or her library in the main game, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame's exile zone. All other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that's no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner's main-game library when the subgame ends.

At the end of a subgame, each player takes all cards he or she owns that are in the subgame other than those in the subgame command zone, puts them into his or her main-game library, then shuffles them. This includes cards in the subgame's exile zone. Except as specified in rules 712.5a-c, all other objects in the subgame cease to exist, as do the zones created for the subgame. The main game continues from the point at which it was discontinued: First, the spell or ability that created the subgame finishes resolving, even if it was created by a spell card that's no longer on the stack. Then, if any main-game abilities triggered while the subgame was in progress due to cards being removed from the main game, those abilities are put onto the stack.

Example: If a card was brought into the subgame either from the main game or from outside the main game, that card will be put into its owner's main-game library when the subgame ends.

712.5a.

At the end of a subgame of a Planar Magic game, the face-up plane card is turned face down and put on the bottom of its owner's planar deck. Then each player moves his or her planar deck from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone and shuffles it.

712.5b.

At the end of a subgame of a Vanguard game, each player moves his or her vanguard card from the subgame command zone to the main-game command zone.

712.5c.

At the end of a subgame of an EDH game, each player moves his or her general from the subgame command zone (if it's there) to the main-game command zone.

800.6.

In a multiplayer game not using the limited range of influence option (see rule 801), if an effect states that a player wins the game, all of that player's opponents lose the game instead.

801.7a.801.7a.

If a trigger event includes an object moving out of or into a player's range of influence, use the game state before or after the event as appropriate to determine whether the triggered ability will trigger. See rule 603.6.

Example: Carissa and Alex are outside each other's range of influence. Carissa controls a creature owned by Alex and they each control a Soul Net, an artifact which reads, "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from the battlefield, you may pay {1}. If you do, you gain 1 life." The creature is destroyed and is put into Alex's graveyard. Alex's Soul Net doesn't trigger because the destruction event was outside Alex's range of influence. Carissa's Soul Net does trigger, even though the creature is going to a graveyard outside her range, because the destruction event was within her range.

If a trigger event includes an object moving out of or into a player's range of influence, use the game state before or after the event as appropriate to determine whether the triggered ability will trigger. See rule 603.6.

Example: Carissa and Alex are outside each other's range of influence. Carissa controls a Runeclaw Bear owned by Alex and they each control an Extractor Demon, a creature which reads, in part, "Whenever another creature leaves the battlefield, you may have target player put the top two cards of his or her library into his or her graveyard." The Runeclaw Bear is destroyed and is put into Alex's graveyard. The ability of Alex's Extractor Demon doesn't trigger because the leaves-the-battlefield event was outside Alex's range of influence. The ability of Carissa's Extractor Demon does trigger, even though the creature is going to a graveyard outside her range, because the leaves-the-battlefield event was within her range.

802.2a.802.2a.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If the source of an ability that refers to a defending player is an attacking creature, it will usually refer to the player it's attacking or the controller of the planeswalker it's attacking. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the ability chooses one.

Example: Rob attacks Alex with Runeclaw Bear and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. If the source of an ability that refers to a defending player is an attacking creature, it will usually refer to the player it's attacking or the controller of the planeswalker it's attacking. Similarly, if a spell or ability refers to both an attacking creature and a defending player, unless otherwise specified, the defending player it's referring to is the player that creature is attacking or the controller of the planeswalker it's attacking. If the spell or ability could apply to multiple attacking creatures, the appropriate defending player is individually determined for each of those attacking creatures. If there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the ability chooses one.

Example: Rob attacks Alex with Runeclaw Bear and attacks Carissa with a creature with mountainwalk. Whether the creature with mountainwalk is unblockable depends only on whether Carissa controls a Mountain.

806.6.

The Two-Headed Giant variant slightly modifies some of the rules used when starting the game.

806.6b.806.6b.

The team who plays first skips the draw step of their first turn.

The team who plays first skips the draw step of its first turn.

806.6.806.7.

Timing of Team Turns

Timing of Team Turns

806.6c.806.7a.

Teams have priority, not individual players.

Teams have priority, not individual players.

806.6d.806.7b.

The Active Player, Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 101.4) is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. The team whose turn it is is the active team. The other team is the nonactive team. If both teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first the active team makes any choices required, then the nonactive team makes any choices required. Then the actions happen simultaneously.

The Active Player, Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 101.4) is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. The team whose turn it is is the active team. The other team is the nonactive team. If both teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first the active team makes any choices required, then the nonactive team makes any choices required. If each player would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first each player on the active team makes any choices required in whatever order they like, then the players on the nonactive team do the same. Once all choices have been made, the actions happen simultaneously.

806.6e.806.7c.

A player may cast a spell, activate an ability, or take a special action when his or her team has priority. Each player on a team draws a card during that team's draw step. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team's turns.

A player may cast a spell, activate an ability, or take a special action when his or her team has priority. Each player on a team draws a card during that team's draw step. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team's turns.

806.6f.806.7d.

If multiple triggered abilities have triggered since the last time a team received priority, the members of the active team put all triggered abilities either of them controls on the stack in any order they choose, then the members of the nonactive team do the same.

If multiple triggered abilities have triggered since the last time a team received priority, the members of the active team put all triggered abilities either of them controls on the stack in any order they choose, then the members of the nonactive team do the same.

806.6g.806.7e.

If a team has priority and neither player on that team wishes to do anything, that team passes. If both teams pass in succession (that is, if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing), the top object on the stack resolves, then the active team receives priority. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession, the phase or step ends and the next one begins.

If a team has priority and neither player on that team wishes to do anything, that team passes. If both teams pass in succession (that is, if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing), the top object on the stack resolves, then the active team receives priority. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession, the phase or step ends and the next one begins.

806.6h.806.7f.

If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player's turn, that player's team takes the extra turn, phase, or step. If an effect causes a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, that player's team does so. If a single effect causes both players on the same team to add or skip the same step, phase, or turn, that team adds or skips only that step, phase, or turn. If an effect causes a player to control another player's turn, the controller of that effect controls the affected player's team's turn.

If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player's turn, that player's team takes the extra turn, phase, or step. If an effect causes a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, that player's team does so. If a single effect causes both players on the same team to add or skip the same step, phase, or turn, that team adds or skips only that step, phase, or turn. If an effect causes a player to control another player's turn, the controller of that effect controls the affected player's team's turn.

806.6i.806.7g.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

806.7.806.8.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants.

806.7a.806.8a.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player.

Each team's creatures attack the other team as a group. During the combat phase, the active team is the attacking team and each player on the active team is an attacking player. Likewise, the nonactive team is the defending team and each player on the nonactive team is a defending player.

806.7b.806.8b.

Any one-shot effect that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect chooses which one the spell or ability refers to at the time the effect is applied. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." Any characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the ability refers to at the time the nonactive players become defending players. All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

Any one-shot effect that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the effect chooses which one the spell or ability refers to at the time the effect is applied. The same is true for any one-shot effect that refers to the "attacking player." Any characteristic-defining ability that refers to the "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to both of the defending players. The controller of the object with the characteristic-defining ability chooses which one the ability refers to at the time the nonactive players become defending players. All other cases in which the "defending player" is referred to actually refer to both defending players. If the reference involves a positive comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls an Island) or a relative comparison (such as asking whether you control more creatures than the defending player), it gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either defending player in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. If the reference involves a negative comparison (such as asking whether the defending player controls no black permanents), it also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the analogous positive comparison would return a "no" answer. The same is true for all other cases that refer to the "attacking player."

806.7c.806.8c.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 508.1.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat comes into play, choose a color." and "Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If an effect of an object controlled by a defending player prohibits a creature from attacking him or her, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 508.1.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat comes into play, choose a color." and "Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

806.7d.806.8d.

As the declare blockers step begins, the defending team declares blockers. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. The defending team has one combined block, and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 509.1.

Example: If an attacking creature has forestwalk and either player on the defending team controls a Forest, the creature can't be blocked.

As the declare blockers step begins, the defending team declares blockers. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. The defending team has one combined block, and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole. See rule 509.1.

Example: If an attacking creature has forestwalk and either player on the defending team controls a Forest, the creature can't be blocked.

806.7e.806.8e.

Once blockers have been declared, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active team announces the damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. Then, for each creature that's blocking multiple creatures, the defending team announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures.

Once blockers have been declared, for each attacking creature that's become blocked by multiple creatures, the active team announces the damage assignment order among the blocking creatures. Then, for each creature that's blocking multiple creatures, the defending team announces the damage assignment order among the attacking creatures.

806.7f.806.8f.

As the combat damage step begins, the active team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. If an attacking creature would assign combat damage to the defending team, the active team chooses only one of the defending players for that creature to assign its combat damage to. Then the defending team announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. See rule 510.1.

As the combat damage step begins, the active team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. If an attacking creature would assign combat damage to the defending team, the active team chooses only one of the defending players for that creature to assign its combat damage to. Then the defending team announces how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. See rule 510.1.

806.8.806.9.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 104), with the following additions and specifications.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the normal rules for winning or losing the game (see rule 104), with the following additions and specifications.

806.8a.806.9a.

Players win and lose the game only as a team, not as individuals. If either player on a team loses the game, the team loses the game. If either player on a team wins the game, the entire team wins the game. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game, that player's team can't win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game, that player's team can't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Transcendence, which reads, in part, "You don't lose the game for having 0 or less life." If that player's team's life total is 0 or less, that team doesn't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player's library. That player loses the game, so that player's entire team loses the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Platinum Angel, which reads, "You can't lose the game and your opponents can't win the game." Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is on the battlefield, and neither player on the opposing team can win the game.

Players win and lose the game only as a team, not as individuals. If either player on a team loses the game, the team loses the game. If either player on a team wins the game, the entire team wins the game. If an effect would prevent a player from winning the game, that player's team can't win the game. If an effect would prevent a player from losing the game, that player's team can't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Transcendence, which reads, in part, "You don't lose the game for having 0 or less life." If that player's team's life total is 0 or less, that team doesn't lose the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player attempts to draw a card while there are no cards in that player's library. That player loses the game, so that player's entire team loses the game.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Platinum Angel, which reads, "You can't lose the game and your opponents can't win the game." Neither that player nor his or her teammate can lose the game while Platinum Angel is on the battlefield, and neither player on the opposing team can win the game.

806.8b.806.9b.

If a player concedes, his or her team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.

If a player concedes, his or her team leaves the game immediately. That team loses the game.

806.8c.806.9c.

If a team's life total is 0 or less, the team loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

If a team's life total is 0 or less, the team loses the game. (This is a state-based action. See rule 704.)

806.9.806.10.

Damage, loss of life, and gaining life happen to each player individually. The result is applied to the team's shared life total.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player casts Flame Rift, which reads, "Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player." Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage.

Damage, loss of life, and gaining life happen to each player individually. The result is applied to the team's shared life total.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player casts Flame Rift, which reads, "Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player." Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage.

806.9a.806.10a.

If an effect needs to know the value of an individual player's life total, that effect uses the team's life total divided by two, rounded up, instead.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a team is at 17 life when a player activates Heartless Hidetsugu's ability, which reads, "Heartless Hidetsugu deals to each player damage equal to half that player's life total, rounded down." For the purposes of this ability, each player on that team is considered to be at 9 life. Heartless Hidetsugu deals 4 damage to each of those players, for a total of 8 damage. The team will end up at 9 life.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Test of Endurance, an enchantment that reads, "At the beginning of your upkeep, if you have 50 or more life, you win the game." At the beginning of that player's upkeep, the player's team wins the game only if his or her share of the team's life total is 50 or more. The team's life total must be 99 or more for that to happen.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Lurking Jackals, which reads, "When an opponent has 10 life or less, if Lurking Jackals is an enchantment, it becomes a 3/2 Hound creature." If the opposing team has 22 life and 1 damage is dealt to a particular opponent, Lurking Jackals won't become a creature. The opposing team's life total must be 20 or less for that to happen.

If an effect needs to know the value of an individual player's life total, that effect uses the team's life total divided by two, rounded up, instead.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a team is at 17 life when a player activates Heartless Hidetsugu's ability, which reads, "Heartless Hidetsugu deals to each player damage equal to half that player's life total, rounded down." For the purposes of this ability, each player on that team is considered to be at 9 life. Heartless Hidetsugu deals 4 damage to each of those players, for a total of 8 damage. The team will end up at 9 life.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Test of Endurance, an enchantment that reads, "At the beginning of your upkeep, if you have 50 or more life, you win the game." At the beginning of that player's upkeep, the player's team wins the game only if his or her share of the team's life total is 50 or more. The team's life total must be 99 or more for that to happen.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player controls Lurking Jackals, which reads, "When an opponent has 10 life or less, if Lurking Jackals is an enchantment, it becomes a 3/2 Hound creature." If the opposing team has 22 life and 1 damage is dealt to a particular opponent, Lurking Jackals won't become a creature. The opposing team's life total must be 20 or less for that to happen.

806.9b.806.10b.

If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number, the result is the sum of all the numbers.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player casts Biorhythm, which reads, "Each player's life total becomes the number of creatures he or she controls." If one member of a team that has 25 life controls three creatures and the other member controls four creatures, that team's life total becomes 7. The first player is considered to have lost 10 life (13 - 3), and the second player is considered to have lost 9 life (13 - 4), even though the team didn't lose a total of 19 life.

If an effect would set the life total of each player on a team to a number, the result is the sum of all the numbers.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player casts Biorhythm, which reads, "Each player's life total becomes the number of creatures he or she controls." If one member of a team that has 25 life controls three creatures and the other member controls four creatures, that team's life total becomes 7. The first player is considered to have lost 10 life (13 - 3), and the second player is considered to have lost 9 life (13 - 4), even though the team didn't lose a total of 19 life.

806.9c.806.10c.

If an effect would set a single player's life total to a number, that player's individual life total becomes that number. The team's life total is adjusted by the amount of life that player gained or lost.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 25 life casts a spell that reads, "Your life total becomes 20." That player's life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell, so it becomes 20 and the team's life total becomes 32 (25 + (20 - 13)).

If an effect would set a single player's life total to a number, that player's individual life total becomes that number. The team's life total is adjusted by the amount of life that player gained or lost.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 25 life casts a spell that reads, "Your life total becomes 20." That player's life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell, so it becomes 20 and the team's life total becomes 32 (25 + (20 - 13)).

806.9d.806.10d.

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game, the player may do so only if his or her team's life total is greater than or equal to the total amount of life both team members are paying for that cost or effect. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her team's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

If a cost or effect allows a player to pay an amount of life greater than 0 in a Two-Headed Giant game, the player may do so only if his or her team's life total is greater than or equal to the total amount of life both team members are paying for that cost or effect. If a player pays life, the payment is subtracted from his or her team's life total. (Players can always pay 0 life.)

806.10.806.11.

The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players. Each team's starting life total is equal to 15 times the number of players on the team. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant, Four-Headed Giant, and so on.)

The Two-Headed Giant variant can also be played with equally sized teams of more than two players. Each team's starting life total is equal to 15 times the number of players on the team. (These variants are unofficially called Three-Headed Giant, Four-Headed Giant, and so on.)

807.5a.807.5a.

A team loses the game if its emperor loses.

A team wins the game if its emperor wins.

807.5b.

A team loses the game if its emperor loses.

807.5b.807.5c.

The game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor.

The game is a draw for a team if the game is a draw for its emperor.

901.10.901.10.

After the game has started, if a player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up, that player has "planeswalked." Continuous effects with durations that last until a player planeswalks end. Abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks trigger. See rule 701.19.

After the game has started, if a player moves the top card of his or her planar deck off that planar deck and turns it face up, that player has "planeswalked." Continuous effects with durations that last until a player planeswalks end. Abilities that trigger when a player planeswalks trigger. See rule 701.20.

903.8.903.8.

If a player would add mana to his or her mana pool of a color that isn't in the mana cost of his or her deck's general, that player adds colorless mana to his or her mana pool instead.

If mana would be added to a player's mana pool of a color that isn't in the mana cost of his or her deck's general, that amount of colorless mana is added to that player's mana pool instead.

Active Player, Nonactive Player OrderActive Player, Nonactive Player Order

A system that determines the order by which players make choices if multiple players are instructed to make choices at the same time. See rule 101.4. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play; see rule 806.6d.

A system that determines the order by which players make choices if multiple players are instructed to make choices at the same time. See rule 101.4. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play; see rule 806.7b.

Active TeamActive Team

The team whose turn it is in a Two-Headed Giant game. See rule 806.6d.

The team whose turn it is in a Two-Headed Giant game. See rule 806.7b.

AmplifyAmplify

A keyword ability than can allow a creature to enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 702.35, "Amplify."

A keyword ability than can have a creature enter the battlefield with +1/+1 counters on it. See rule 702.35, "Amplify."

AttachAttach

To physically move an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification onto another object. See rule 701.3, "Attach."

To move an Aura, Equipment, or Fortification onto another object. See rule 701.3, "Attach."

Attack AloneAttack Alone

A creature "attacks alone" if it's the only creature declared as an attacker during the declare attackers step. A creature" is attacking alone" if it's attacking but no other creatures are. See rule 506.5.

A creature "attacks alone" if it's the only creature declared as an attacker during the declare attackers step. A creature "is attacking alone" if it's attacking but no other creatures are. See rule 506.5.

BuybackBuyback

A keyword ability of instants and sorceries that lets the spell return to its owner's hand as it resolves. See rule 702.24, "Buyback."

A keyword ability of instants and sorceries that can let the spell return to its owner's hand as it resolves. See rule 702.24, "Buyback."

Caster (Obsolete)Caster (Obsolete)

A term that referred to the player who cast a spell. In general, cards that were printed with the term "caster" have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say "controller."

An obsolete term that referred to the player who cast a spell. In general, cards that were printed with the term "caster" have received errata in the Oracle card reference to say "controller."

Casting Cost (Obsolete)Casting Cost (Obsolete)

A obsolete term for mana cost. Cards printed with this text have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

An obsolete term for mana cost. Cards printed with this text have received errata in the Oracle card reference.

ClashClash

To have a mini-contest involving the top cards of players' libraries. See rule 701.18, "Clash."

To have a mini-contest involving the top cards of players' libraries. See rule 701.19, "Clash."

Defending PlayerDefending Player

The player who can be attacked, and whose planeswalkers can be attacked, during the combat phase. See rule 506.2. In certain multiplayer games, there may be more than one defending player; see rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option," and rule 806.7.

The player who can be attacked, and whose planeswalkers can be attacked, during the combat phase. See rule 506.2. In certain multiplayer games, there may be more than one defending player; see rule 802, "Attack Multiple Players Option," and rule 806.8.

Defending TeamDefending Team

The team who can be attacked, and whose planeswalkers can be attacked, during the combat phase of a Two-Headed Giant game. See rule 806.7.

The team who can be attacked, and whose planeswalkers can be attacked, during the combat phase of a Two-Headed Giant game. See rule 806.8.

Extra TurnExtra Turn

A turn created as an effect of a spell or ability. See rule 500.7. For rules about extra turns in a Two-Headed Giant game, see 806.6h. For rules about extra turns in a Grand Melee game, see rule 808.4.

A turn created by an effect of a spell or ability. See rule 500.7. For rules about extra turns in a Two-Headed Giant game, see 806.7f. For rules about extra turns in a Grand Melee game, see rule 808.4.

FatesealFateseal

To manipulate some of the cards on top of an opponent's library. See rule 701.17, "Fateseal."

To manipulate some of the cards on top of an opponent's library. See rule 701.18, "Fateseal."

In Play (Obsolete)In Play (Obsolete)

Obsolete term for the battlefield. Cards that were printed with text that contain the phrases "in play," "from play," "into play," or the like are referring to the battlefield and have received errata in the Oracle card reference. See Battlefield.

An obsolete term for the battlefield. Cards that were printed with text that contain the phrases "in play," "from play," "into play," or the like are referring to the battlefield and have received errata in the Oracle card reference. See Battlefield.

Lose the GameLose the Game

There are several ways to lose the game. See rule 104, "Winning and Losing," rule 806.8 (for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games), and rule 807.5 (for additional rules for Emperor games).

There are several ways to lose the game. See rule 104, "Winning and Losing," rule 806.9 (for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games), rule 807.5 (for additional rules for Emperor games), and rule 903.12 (for an additional rule for EDH games).

Multikicker

Multikicker is a variant of the kicker keyword ability. It represents an optional additional cost that may be paid any number of times. See rule 702.30, "Kicker." See also Kicker.

PlaneswalkPlaneswalk

To put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up in a Planar Magic game. See rule 701.19, "Planeswalk."

To put the face-up plane card on the bottom of its owner's planar deck face down, then move the top card of your planar deck off that planar deck and turn it face up in a Planar Magic game. See rule 701.20, "Planeswalk."

RequirementRequirement

An effect that forces one or more creatures to attack or block. See rules 508.1b and 509.1b.

An effect that forces one or more creatures to attack or block. See rules 508.1d and 509.1c.

RestrictionRestriction

An effect that precludes one or more creatures from attacking or blocking. See rules 508.1b and 509.1b.

An effect that precludes one or more creatures from attacking or blocking. See rules 508.1c and 509.1b.

ScryScry

To manipulate some of the cards on top of your library. See rule 701.16, "Scry."

To manipulate some of the cards on top of your library. See rule 701.17, "Scry."

SearchSearch

To look at all cards in a stated zone and find a card that matches a given description. See rule 701.14, "Search."

To look at all cards in a stated zone and possibly find a card that matches a given description. See rule 701.14, "Search."

TapTap

To turn a permanent sideways from an upright position. See rule 701.15, "Tap and Untap."

To turn a permanent sideways from an upright position. See rule 701.16, "Tap and Untap."

TappedTapped

A status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 701.15, "Tap and Untap." See also Untapped.

A status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 701.16, "Tap and Untap." See also Untapped.

UntapUntap

To rotate a permanent back to the upright position from a sideways position. See rule 701.15, "Tap and Untap."

To rotate a permanent back to the upright position from a sideways position. See rule 701.16, "Tap and Untap."

UntappedUntapped

A default status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 701.15, "Tap and Untap." See also Tapped.

A default status a permanent may have. See rule 110.6 and rule 701.16, "Tap and Untap." See also Tapped.

Win the GameWin the Game

There are several ways to win the game. See rule 104, "Winning and Losing," and rule 806.8b (for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games).

There are several ways to win the game. See rule 104, "Winning and Losing," and rules 806.9 (for additional rules for Two-Headed Giant games) and rule 807.5 (for additional rules for Emperor games).