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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Core Set - Ninth Edition to Ravnica: City of Guilds

General changes

Old rule (Core Set - Ninth Edition) New rule (Ravnica: City of Guilds)

100.5.

Most Magic tournaments have special rules (not included here) and may limit the use of some cards, including barring all cards from some older sets. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI(r) Floor Rules for more information. They can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/utr/intro.

100.5.

Most Magic tournaments have special rules (not included here) and may limit the use of some cards, including barring all cards from some older sets. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI(r) Floor Rules for more information. They can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home.

102.2c.

In a multiplayer game between teams, a team wins the game if all the other teams have lost the game.

102.2c.

In a multiplayer game between teams, a team with at least one player still in the game wins the game if all other teams have lost the game. Each player on the winning team wins the game, even if one or more of those players had previously lost that game.

102.5.

If a player loses the game, he or she leaves the game. Likewise, if a player leaves the game, he or she loses the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leave the game; see rule 600.4.

102.5.

If a player loses the game, he or she leaves the game. Likewise, if a player leaves the game, he or she loses the game. The multiplayer rules handle what happens when a player leaves the game; see rule 600.4.

104.3.

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, {Z} and the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on.

104.3.

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, {Z}, the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on, and the half-half symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}.

104.3f.

Each of the half-half mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue.

Example: {G/W}{G/W} can be paid by spending {G}{G}, {G}{W}, or {W}{W}.

200.2.

Use the Oracle (tm) card reference when determining a card's wording. It can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/oracle.

200.2.

Use the Oracle (tm) card reference when determining a card's wording. A card's Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer.wizards.com.

203.2e.

An object with one or more half-half mana symbols in its mana cost is each of the colors of that mana symbol, in addition to any other colors the object might be. Most cards with half-half mana symbols in their mana costs are printed in a two-tone frame. See rule 104.3.

207.3.

A guild icon appears in the text box of many Ravnica (tm) block cards. These cards either have the specified guild's exclusive mechanic or somehow relate to the two colors associated with that guild. Guild icons have no effect on game play.

212.1d.

An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object's supertype changes, though, the new supertype replaces any existing supertypes.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." If any of the affected lands were legendary, they are still legendary.

212.1d.

An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had.

Example: An ability reads, "All lands are 1/1 creatures that are still lands." If any of the affected lands were legendary, they are still legendary.

212.2h.

An Equipment is played and comes into play just like any other artifact. An Equipment doesn't come into play attached to a creature. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control (see rule 502.33, "Equip"). Control of the creature matters only when the equip ability is played and resolved.

212.2h.

An Equipment is played and comes into play just like any other artifact. An Equipment doesn't come into play attached to a creature. The equip keyword ability moves the Equipment onto a creature you control (see rule 502.33, "Equip"). Control of the creature matters only when the equip ability is played and when it resolves. The creature to which the Equipment is to be moved must be able to be equipped by it. If it can't, the Equipment doesn't move.

212.3c.

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," etc. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes.

Example: "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard.

212.3c.

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes.

Example: "Creature — Goblin Wizard" means the card is a creature with the subtypes Goblin and Wizard.

212.4e.

An Aura spell requires a target, which is restricted by its enchant ability. Other restrictions can limit what a permanent can be enchanted by. If an Aura is coming into play by any other means than being played and the effect putting it into play doesn't specify what it will enchant, the player putting it into play chooses a permanent for it to enchant as it comes into play. The player must choose a legal permanent according to the Aura's enchant ability. If no legal permanent is available, the Aura remains in the zone from which it attempted to move instead of coming into play. The same rule applies to moving an Aura from one permanent to another: The permanent to which the Aura is to be moved must be able to be enchanted by it. If it isn't legal, the Aura doesn't move.

212.4e.

An Aura spell requires a target, which is restricted by its enchant ability. Other restrictions can limit what a permanent can be enchanted by. If an Aura is coming into play by any other means than being played and the effect putting it into play doesn't specify what it will enchant, the player putting it into play chooses a permanent for it to enchant as it comes into play. The player must choose a legal permanent according to the Aura's enchant ability. If an Aura is coming into play from the stack and there is no legal permanent for it to enchant, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play. If an Aura is coming into play from any zone other than the stack and there is no legal permanent for it to enchant, the Aura remains in the zone from which it attempted to move instead of coming into play. The same rule applies to moving an Aura from one permanent to another: The permanent to which the Aura is to be moved must be able to be enchanted by it. If it can't, the Aura doesn't move.

212.6d.

The basic land types are Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. If an object uses the words "basic land type," it's referring to one of these subtypes. A land with a basic land type has an intrinsic ability to produce colored mana. (See rule 406, "Mana Abilities.") The land is treated as if its text box included, "{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool," even if the text box doesn't actually contain text. Plains produce white mana; Islands, blue; Swamps, black; Mountains, red; and Forests, green.

212.6d.

The basic land types are Plains, Island, Swamp, Mountain, and Forest. If an object uses the words "basic land type," it's referring to one of these subtypes. A land with a basic land type has an intrinsic ability to produce colored mana. (See rule 406, "Mana Abilities.") The land is treated as if its text box included, "{T}: Add [mana symbol] to your mana pool," even if the text box doesn't actually contain text or the card has no text box. Plains produce white mana; Islands, blue; Swamps, black; Mountains, red; and Forests, green.

212.6e.

If an effect changes a land's type to one or more of the basic land types, the land no longer has its old land type. It loses any rules text it had in its text box, and it gains the rules text for the appropriate mana ability for each of its basic land types. Note that this doesn't remove any abilities that were granted to the land by other effects. Changing a land's type doesn't add or remove any types (such as creature) or supertypes (such as basic, legendary, and snow-covered) the land may have. If a land gains one or more land types in addition to its own, it keeps its land types and rules text, and it gains the new land types and mana abilities.

212.6e.

If an effect changes a land's type to one or more of the basic land types, the land no longer has its old land type. It loses all abilities generated from its rules text and its old land types, and it gains the appropriate mana ability for each new basic land type. Note that this doesn't remove any abilities that were granted to the land by other effects. Changing a land's type doesn't add or remove any types (such as creature) or supertypes (such as basic, legendary, and snow-covered) the land may have. If a land gains one or more land types in addition to its own, it keeps its land types and rules text, and it gains the new land types and mana abilities.

212.7e.

If a spell, ability, or effect states that a player can do something only "any time he or she could play an sorcery," it means only that the player must have priority, it must be during the main phase of his or her turn, and the stack must be empty. The player doesn't need to have a sorcery he or she could actually play.

212.7e.

If a spell, ability, or effect states that a player can do something only "any time he or she could play a sorcery," it means only that the player must have priority, it must be during the main phase of his or her turn, and the stack must be empty. The player doesn't need to have a sorcery he or she could actually play.

217.7d.

An object may have an ability that refers to "the removed cards" or to cards "removed from the game with [name]." If the ability is printed on that object, it refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed by that object as an effect of an ability printed on it. If that ability is printed on a different object, it refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed by that object as an effect of an ability copied from the same object at the same time.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}: Remove the top ten cards of your library from the game: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Remove from the game target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death into play under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, plays it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, plays the remove-from-game ability, and then plays the return-to-play ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to play. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

217.9a.

Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing "for keeps." Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game, and it's allowed only where it's not forbidden by law or by other rules. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the DCI Universal Tournament Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/utr/intro).

217.9a.

Earlier versions of the Magic rules included an ante rule as a way of playing "for keeps." Playing Magic games for ante is now considered an optional variation on the game, and it's allowed only where it's not forbidden by law or by other rules. Playing for ante is strictly forbidden under the DCI Universal Tournament Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home).

308.1.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active player declares attackers (this game action doesn't use the stack). If the game allows the active player to attack multiple other players, he or she declares which player each creature is attacking. Effects from a creature that refer to a defending player refer only to the defending player it is attacking. Then any abilities that triggered on attackers being declared go on the stack. (See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities.") Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.

Example: Tanglewalker reads, "Creatures you control are unblockable as long as defending player controls an artifact land." Whether Tanglewalker is unblockable depends only on whether the player being attacked by it controls an artifact land.

Example: Guiltfeeder reads, in part, "Whenever Guiltfeeder attacks and isn't blocked, defending player loses 1 life for each card in his or her graveyard." Only the player being attacked loses life due to Guiltfeeder's ability.

308.1.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active player declares attackers (this game action doesn't use the stack). If the game allows the active player to attack multiple other players, he or she declares which player each creature is attacking. Effects from a creature that refer to a defending player refer only to the defending player it is attacking. Then any abilities that triggered on attackers being declared go on the stack. (See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities.") Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities.

Example: Tanglewalker reads, "Creatures you control are unblockable as long as defending player controls an artifact land." Whether a creature you control is unblockable depends only on whether the player being attacked by it controls an artifact land.

Example: Guiltfeeder reads, in part, "Whenever Guiltfeeder attacks and isn't blocked, defending player loses 1 life for each card in his or her graveyard." Only the player being attacked loses life due to Guiltfeeder's ability.

405.2.

Some objects have static abilities which state that the object "has" one or more characteristic values; "is" a particular type, supertype, subtype, or color; or that one or more of its characteristics "is" or "are" a particular value. These abilities are characteristic-setting abilities. Abilities of an object that affect the characteristics of another object are not characteristic-setting abilities. See rule 201, "Characteristics," and rule 418.5a.

405.2.

Some objects have intrinsic static abilities which state that the object "has" one or more characteristic values; "is" a particular type, supertype, subtype, or color; or that one or more of its characteristics "is" or "are" a particular value. These abilities are characteristic-setting abilities. Abilities of an object that affect the characteristics of another object are not characteristic-setting abilities; neither are abilities that an object grants to itself. See rule 201, "Characteristics," and rule 418.5a.

408.1d.

A player may play a spell or activated ability only when he or she has priority. Spells other than instants can be played only during a player's main phase, when that player has priority and the stack is empty.

408.1d.

A player may play an instant spell or an activated ability any time he or she has priority. Spells other than instants may be played during a player's main phase, when that player has priority and the stack is empty.

409.1a.

The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability. It moves from the zone it's in to the stack and remains there until it's countered or resolves. In the case of spells, the physical card goes onto the stack. In the case of activated abilities, the ability goes onto the stack without any card associated with it. Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated ability that's on the stack has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the player who played the spell. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability.

409.1a.

The player announces that he or she is playing the spell or activated ability. It moves from the zone it's in to the stack and remains there until it's countered or resolves. In the case of spells, the physical card goes onto the stack. In the case of activated abilities, the ability goes onto the stack without any card associated with it. Each spell has all the characteristics of the card associated with it. Each activated ability on the stack has the text of the ability that created it, and no other characteristics. The controller of a spell is the player who played the spell. The controller of an activated ability is the player who played the ability.

409.1b.

If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase "Choose one -" or "[specified player] chooses one -"), the player announces the mode choice. If the spell or ability has a variable mana cost (indicated by {X}) or some other variable cost, the player announces the value of that variable at this time. If the spell or ability has alternative, additional, or other special costs (such as buyback or kicker costs), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409.1f). You can't apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

409.1b.

If the spell or ability is modal (uses the phrase "Choose one -" or "[specified player] chooses one -"), the player announces the mode choice. If the player wishes to splice any cards onto the spell, he or she reveals those cards in his or her hand. If the spell or ability has a variable mana cost (indicated by {X}) or some other variable cost, the player announces the value of that variable at this time. If the spell or ability has alternative, additional, or other special costs (such as buyback, kicker, or convoke costs), the player announces his or her intentions to pay any or all of those costs (see rule 409.1f). You can't apply two alternative methods of playing or two alternative costs to a single spell or ability. Previously made choices (such as choosing to play a spell with flashback from his or her graveyard or choosing to play a creature with morph face down) may restrict the player's options when making these choices.

409.1c.

If the spell or ability requires any targets, the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets), then announces the targets themselves. A spell or ability can't be played unless the required number of legal targets are chosen. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object or player can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).

Example: If an ability reads "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the ability requires two different legal targets. An ability that reads "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

409.1c.

If the spell or ability requires any targets, the player first announces how many targets he or she will choose (if the spell or ability has a variable number of targets), then announces the targets themselves. A player can't play a spell or ability unless he or she chooses the required number of legal targets. The same target can't be chosen multiple times for any one instance of the word "target" on the spell or ability. If the spell or ability uses the word "target" in multiple places, the same object, player, or zone can be chosen once for each instance of the word "target" (as long as it fits the targeting criteria).

Example: If an ability reads "Tap two target creatures," then the same target can't be chosen twice; the ability requires two different legal targets. An ability that reads "Destroy target artifact and target land," however, can target the same artifact land twice because it uses the word "target" in multiple places.

410.10d.

Abilities that trigger on one or more permanents leaving play, or on a player losing control of a permanent, must be treated specially because the permanent with the ability may no longer be in play after the event. The game has to "look back in time" to determine what triggered. Each time an event removes from play or changes who controls one or more permanents, all the permanents in play just before the event (with continuous effects that existed at that time) are checked for trigger events that match what just left play or changed control.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

410.10d.

Abilities that trigger on one or more permanents leaving play, or on a player losing control of a permanent, must be treated specially because the permanent with the ability may no longer be in play after the event. The game has to "look back in time" to determine what triggered. Each time an event removes from play or changes who controls one or more permanents, all the permanents in play just before the event (with continuous effects that existed at that time) are checked for trigger events that match what just left play or changed control. The same is true for cards with abilities that trigger when they leave a graveyard, as they may move to a zone that is hidden from a player.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

411.3.

Triggered mana abilities trigger when an activated mana ability is played. These abilities resolve immediately after the mana ability that triggered them, without waiting for priority. If an activated or triggered ability produces both mana and another effect, both the mana and the other effect resolve immediately.

Example: An enchantment reads, "Whenever a player taps a land for mana, that player adds one mana of that type to his or her mana pool.." If a player taps lands for mana while playing a spell, the additional mana is added to the player's mana pool immediately and can be used to pay for the spell.

411.3.

Triggered mana abilities trigger when an activated mana ability is played. These abilities resolve immediately after the mana ability that triggered them, without waiting for priority. If an activated or triggered ability produces both mana and another effect, both the mana and the other effect resolve immediately.

Example: An enchantment reads, "Whenever a player taps a land for mana, that player adds one mana of that type to his or her mana pool." If a player taps lands for mana while playing a spell, the additional mana is added to the player's mana pool immediately and can be used to pay for the spell.

415.1.

An instant or sorcery spell is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object or player. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target, that ability is targeted, but the spell is not.)

Example: A sorcery card has the ability "When you cycle this card, target creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn." This triggered ability is targeted, but that doesn't make the card it's on targeted.

415.1.

An instant or sorcery spell is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target, that ability is targeted, but the spell is not.)

Example: A sorcery card has the ability "When you cycle this card, target creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn." This triggered ability is targeted, but that doesn't make the card it's on targeted.

415.2.

An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object or player.

415.2.

An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone.

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"), (2) control-changing effects, (3) text-changing effects, (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects, (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power or toughness, and (6) power- or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer, apply effects from characteristic-setting abilities first, then effects from all other abilities. For power- or toughness-changing effects, apply changes from counters after changes from characteristic-setting abilities. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white, it gets +1/+1 from Crusade, becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red, Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

418.5a.

The values of an object's characteristics are determined by starting with the actual object, then applying continuous effects in a series of layers in the following order: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness; and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside each layer from 1 through 5, apply effects from characteristic-setting abilities first, then all other effects. Inside layer 6, apply effects in a series of sublayers in the following order: (6a) effects from characteristic-setting abilities; (6b) all other effects not specifically applied in 6c, 6d, or 6e; (6c) changes from counters; (6d) effects from static abilities that modify power and/or toughness but don't set power and/or toughness to a specific number or value; and (6e) effects that switch a creature's power and toughness. See also the rules for timestamp order and dependency (rules 418.5b-418.5g).

Example: Crusade is an enchantment that reads "White creatures get +1/+1." Crusade and a 2/2 black creature are in play. If an effect then turns the creature white, it gets +1/+1 from Crusade, becoming 3/3. If the creature's color is later changed to red, Crusade's effect stops applying to it, and it will return to being a 2/2.

Example: Gray Ogre, a 2/2 creature, is in play. An effect puts a +1/+1 counter on it, making it 3/3. An effect that says "Target creature gets +4/+4 until end of turn" is applied to it, making it 7/7. An enchantment that says "Creatures you control get +0/+2" enters play, making it a 7/9. An effect that says "Target creature becomes 0/1 until end of turn" is applied to it, making it a 1/4 (0/1, plus +1/+1 from the counter, plus +0/+2 from the enchantment).

Example: Svogthos, the Restless Tomb, is in play. An effect that says "Until end of turn, target land becomes a 3/3 creature that's still a land" is applied to it. An effect that says "Target creature gets +1/+1 until end of turn" is applied to it, making it a 4/4 land creature. Then you activate Svogthos's ability ("Until end of turn, Svogthos, the Restless Tomb becomes a black and green Plant Zombie creature with 'This creature's power and toughness are each equal to the number of creature cards in your graveyard.' It's still a land.") while you have ten creature cards in your graveyard. It becomes a 10/10 land creature. If a creature card enters or leaves your graveyard, Svogthos's power and toughness will be modified accordingly. If the first effect is applied to it again, it will become a 3/3 land creature again.

418.5b.

If an effect other than a type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effect should be applied in different layers, the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate layers. If a type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effect should be applied in different layers, all are applied only in layer four (type-, subtype- and supertype changing effects).

Example: A player plays an ability that reads "{2}: Until end of turn, Chimeric Sphere becomes a 3/2 artifact creature," which is a both a type-changing effect and a power- and toughness-changing effect. Since it's a type-changing effect, the entire effect is applied when type-changing effects are applied, in layer four, even though power- and toughness-changing effects are normally applied in layer six. Later in the turn, Chimeric Sphere is affected by an ability that reads "Target creature becomes 0/2 until end of turn," which is applied only in layer six since it's solely a power- and toughness-changing effect. At this point, playing Chimeric Sphere's (layer 4) ability again won't do anything, as the layer-six effect will always be applied after it. The artifact creature remains 0/2.

Example: An effect that reads "Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn" is both a power- and toughness changing effect and an "other" kind of effect. The "becomes the color of your choice" part is applied in layer five, and then the "gets +1/+1" part is applied in layer six.

Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads "Until end of turn, you gain control of target creature and it gains haste." This is both a control-changing effect and an "other" effect. The "you gain control" part is applied in layer two, and then the "it gains haste" part is applied in layer five.

418.5b.

If an effect should be applied in different layers, the parts of the effect each apply in their appropriate layers. If an effect starts to apply in one layer, it will continue to be applied to the same set of objects in each other applicable layer, even if the ability generating the effect is removed during this process.

Example: An effect that reads "Wild Mongrel gets +1/+1 and becomes the color of your choice until end of turn" is both a power- and toughness-changing effect and an "other" kind of effect. The "becomes the color of your choice" part is applied in layer 5, and then the "gets +1/+1" part is applied in layer 6.

Example: Grab the Reins has an effect that reads "Until end of turn, you gain control of target creature and it gains haste." This is both a control-changing effect and an "other" effect. The "you gain control" part is applied in layer 2, and then the "it gains haste" part is applied in layer 5.

Example: An effect that reads "All noncreature artifacts become 2/2 artifact creatures until end of turn" is both a type-changing effect and a power- and toughness-setting effect. The type-changing effect is applied to all noncreature artifacts in layer 4 and the power- and toughness-setting effect is applied to those same permanents in layer 6, even though those permanents aren't noncreature artifacts by then.

418.5c.

An effect is said to "depend on" another if (a) it is applied in the same layer as the other effect (see rule 418.5a) and (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect, what it applies to, or what it does to any of the things it applies to. Otherwise, the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect.

418.5c.

An effect is said to "depend on" another if (a) it's applied in the same layer (and, if applicable, sublayer) as the other effect (see rule 418.5a) and (b) applying the other would change the text or the existence of the first effect, what it applies to, or what it does to any of the things it applies to. Otherwise, the effect is considered to be independent of the other effect.

418.5d.

Whenever one effect depends on another, the independent one is applied first. If several dependent effects form a loop, or if none depends on another, they're applied in "timestamp order."

418.5d.

An effect dependent on one or more other effects waits to apply until just after all of those effects have been applied, even if this causes a characteristic-setting ability to apply after another effect. If multiple dependent effects would apply simultaneously in this way, they're applied in "timestamp order" relative to each other. If several dependent effects form a dependency loop, then this rule is ignored and the effects in the dependency loop are applied in timestamp order.

418.5e.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, with three exceptions: (1) If two or more objects enter a zone (or zones) simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. (2) Whenever an Aura or Equipment becomes attached to a permanent, the Aura or Equipment receives a new timestamp. (3) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out.

418.5e.

An object's timestamp is the time it entered the zone it's currently in, with three exceptions: (a) If two or more objects enter a zone (or zones) simultaneously, the active player determines their timestamp order at the time they enter that zone. (b) Whenever an Aura or Equipment becomes attached to a permanent, the Aura or Equipment receives a new timestamp. (c) Permanents that phase in keep the same timestamps they had when they phased out.

418.5f.

Continuous effects generated by static abilities have the same timestamp as the objects that generate them.

418.5f.

A continuous effect generated by a static ability has the same timestamp as the object the static ability is on, or the timestamp of the effect that created the ability, whichever is later.

418.5g.

Continuous effects generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receive a timestamp at the time they're created.

418.5g.

A continuous effect generated by the resolution of a spell or ability receives a timestamp at the time it's created.

418.5i.

Some effects can switch a creature's power and toughness. When they're applied, they take the value of power and apply it to the object's toughness, and take the object's toughness and apply it to the object's power. Any effects that are applied after the switching effect apply normally.

Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. Then another effect switches the creature's power and toughness. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. After the "switch" effect resolves, another effect gives the creature +5/+0. Its power and toughness is 9/1.

Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. Then another effect switches the creature's power and toughness. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. If the +0/+1 effect ends before the switch effect ends, the creature becomes a 3/1.

418.5i.

Some effects switch a creature's power and toughness. When they're applied, they take the value of power and apply it to the object's toughness, and take the object's toughness and apply it to the object's power. These effects are applied after all other effects that affect power and toughness. (See rule 418.5a.)

Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. Then another effect switches the creature's power and toughness. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. A new effect gives the creature +5/+0. Its "unswitched" power and toughness would be 6/4, so its actual power and toughness is 4/6.

Example: A 1/3 creature is given +0/+1 by an effect. Then another effect switches the creature's power and toughness. Its new power and toughness is 4/1. If the +0/+1 effect ends before the switch effect ends, the creature becomes a 3/1.

419.5b.

Some abilities read, "Whenever [X], you may [Y]. If you do, [Z]." The "if you do" clause refers to choosing to do the event Y, regardless of what events actually occur as a result of that decision. If Y is replaced entirely or in part by a different event, the "if you do" clause refers to the event that replaced Y.

419.5b.

Some abilities read, "you may [X]. If you do, [Y]." An "if you do" clause that follows an "if you may [X]" clause refers to choosing to do the event X, regardless of what events actually occur as a result of that decision. If X is replaced entirely or in part by a different event, the "if you do" clause refers to the event that replaced X.

419.7c.

Some prevention effects prevent the next N damage that would be dealt to each of a number of untargeted creatures. Such an effect creates a prevention shield for each applicable creature when the spell or ability that generates that effect resolves.

Example: Wojek Apothecary has an ability that says "{T}: Prevent the next 1 damage that would be dealt to target creature and each other creature that shares a color with it this turn." When the ability resolves, it gives the target creature and each other creature in play that shares a color with it at that time a shield preventing the next 1 damage that would be dealt to it. Changing creatures' colors after the ability resolves doesn't add or remove shields, and creatures that come into play later in the turn don't get the shield.

420.5d.

An Aura that enchants an illegal or nonexistent permanent is put into its owner's graveyard.

420.5d.

An Aura attached to an illegal permanent or not attached to a permanent is put into its owner's graveyard.

420.5e.

If two or more permanents with the same name have the supertype legendary, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "legend rule." If only one of those permanents is legendary, this rule doesn't apply.

420.5e.

If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This is called the "legend rule." If only one of those permanents is legendary, this rule doesn't apply.

420.5k.

An Equipment that equips an illegal or nonexistent permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play.

420.5k.

An Equipment attached to an illegal permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play.

420.5m.

A non-Aura, non-Equipment permanent attached to another permanent becomes unattached from that permanent but remains in play.

421.3.

If a loop contains optional actions controlled by two players and actions by both of those players are required to continue the loop, the first player ( or the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number. The other player then has two choices. He or she can choose a lower number, in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the active player to "have the last word." Or he or she can agree to the number the first player chose, in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the second player to "have the last word." (Note that either fraction may be zero.) This sequence of choices is extended to all applicable players if there are more than two players involved.

Example: In a two-player game, one player controls a creature with the ability "{0}: [This creature] gains flying," and another player controls a permanent with the ability "{0}: Target creature loses flying." The "infinity rule" ensures that regardless of which player initiated the gain/lose flying ability, the nonactive player will always have the final choice and therefore be able to determine whether the creature has flying. (Note that this assumes that the first player attempted to give the creature flying at least once.)

421.3.

If a loop contains optional actions controlled by two players and actions by both of those players are required to continue the loop, the first player (or the first involved player after the active player in turn order) chooses a number. The other player then has two choices. He or she can choose a lower number, in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the active player to "have the last word." Or he or she can agree to the number the first player chose, in which case the loop continues that number of times plus whatever fraction is necessary for the second player to "have the last word." (Note that either fraction may be zero.) This sequence of choices is extended to all applicable players if there are more than two players involved.

Example: In a two-player game, one player controls a creature with the ability "{0}: [This creature] gains flying," and another player controls a permanent with the ability "{0}: Target creature loses flying." The "infinity rule" ensures that regardless of which player initiated the gain/lose flying ability, the nonactive player will always have the final choice and therefore be able to determine whether the creature has flying. (Note that this assumes that the first player attempted to give the creature flying at least once.)

422.1.

If a player realizes that he or she can't legally take an action after starting to do so, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was playing a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities played while making the illegal play, unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn't reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library or from a library to any zone other than the stack. Players may not reverse actions that involved a random choice or random zone change.

422.1.

If a player realizes that he or she can't legally take an action after starting to do so, the entire action is reversed and any payments already made are canceled. No abilities trigger and no effects apply as a result of an undone action. If the action was playing a spell, the spell returns to the zone it came from. The player may also reverse any legal mana abilities played while making the illegal play, unless mana from them or from any triggered mana abilities they triggered was spent on another mana ability that wasn't reversed. Players may not reverse actions that moved cards to a library or from a library to any zone other than the stack.

500.1.

Some effects restrict declaring attackers or blockers in combat or require certain creatures to be declared as attackers or blockers. (See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step," and rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.") A restriction is an effect which says that a creature can't block (or attack) or that it can't block (or attack) unless some condition is met. A requirement is an effect which says that a creature must block (or attack) or that it must block (or attack) if some condition is met.

500.1.

Some effects restrict declaring attackers or blockers in combat or require certain creatures to be declared as attackers or blockers. (See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step," and rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.") A restriction is an effect that says a creature can't block (or attack) or it can't block (or attack) unless some condition is met. A requirement is an effect that says a creature must block (or attack) or it must block (or attack) if some condition is met.

502.7d.

A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality. Such an Equipment becomes unattached from that permanent, but remains in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.")

502.7d.

A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that have the stated quality. Such Equipment become unattached from that permanent, but remain in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.")

502.9b.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. If all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among the blocking creatures and the defending player. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already on the creature and damage from other creatures that is to be assigned at the same time (see rule 502.9e). The controller need not assign lethal damage to all blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the defending player.

502.9b.

The controller of an attacking creature with trample first assigns damage to the creature(s) blocking it. If all those blocking creatures are assigned lethal damage, any remaining damage is assigned as its controller chooses among the blocking creatures and the defending player. When checking for assigned lethal damage, take into account damage already on the creature and damage from other creatures that will be assigned at the same time (see rule 502.9e). The controller need not assign lethal damage to all blocking creatures but in that case can't assign any damage to the defending player.

502.12a.

Rampage is a triggered ability. "Rampage X" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked, it gets +X/+X until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first." (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

502.12a.

Rampage is a triggered ability. "Rampage N" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first." (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

502.15d.

Permanents phasing in don't trigger any comes-into-play abilities, and effects that modify how a permanent comes into play are ignored. Abilities and effects that specifically mention phasing can modify or trigger on this event, however. Permanents phasing out trigger leaves-play abilities as usual. (Because no player receives priority during the untap step, any abilities triggering off of the phasing event won't go onto the stack until the upkeep step begins.)

502.15d.

Permanents phasing in or out don't trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities, and effects that modify how a permanent comes into play are ignored. Abilities and effects that specifically mention phasing can modify or trigger on these events, however. (Because no player receives priority during the untap step, any abilities triggering off of the phasing event won't go onto the stack until the upkeep step begins.)

502.15h.

Phased-out cards "remember" their past histories and will return to play in the same state. They "remember" any counters they had on them, any choices made when they first came into play, and whether they were tapped or untapped when they left play. They also "remember" who controlled them when they phased out, although they may phase in under the control of a different player if a control effect with limited duration has expired.

Example: Diseased Vermin reads, in part, "At the beginning of your upkeep, Diseased Vermin deals X damage to target opponent previously dealt damage by it, where X is the number of infection counters on it." If Diseased Vermin phases out, it "remembers" how many counters it has and also which opponents it has previously damaged. When it phases back in, it will still be able to target those opponents with its upkeep-triggered ability.

502.15h.

Phased-out cards "remember" their past histories and will return to play in the same state. They "remember" any counters they had on them, any choices made when they first came into play, whether they were flipped when they left play, and whether they were tapped or untapped when they left play. They also "remember" who controlled them when they phased out, although they may phase in under the control of a different player if a control effect with limited duration has expired.

Example: Diseased Vermin reads, in part, "At the beginning of your upkeep, Diseased Vermin deals X damage to target opponent previously dealt damage by it, where X is the number of infection counters on it." If Diseased Vermin phases out, it "remembers" how many counters it has and also which opponents it has previously damaged. When it phases back in, it will still be able to target those opponents with its upkeep-triggered ability.

502.20a.

Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. "Fading X" means "This permanent comes into play with X fade counters on it" and "At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from this permanent. If you can't, sacrifice the permanent."

502.20a.

Fading is a keyword that represents two abilities. "Fading N" means "This permanent comes into play with N fade counters on it" and "At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from this permanent. If you can't, sacrifice the permanent."

502.27a.

Amplify is a static ability. "Amplify X" means "As this object comes into play, reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. This permanent comes into play with X +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. You can't reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card."

502.27a.

Amplify is a static ability. "Amplify N" means "As this object comes into play, reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. You can't reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card."

502.33a.

Equip is an activated ability of artifact Equipment cards. "Equip [cost]" means "[cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery."

502.33a.

Equip is an activated ability of artifact Equipment cards. "Equip [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery."

502.35a.

Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Modular X" means "This permanent comes into play with X +1/+1 counters on it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

502.35a.

Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Modular N" means "This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent."

502.36a.

Scry is a static ability that functions while a spell or ability is resolving. "Scry X" means "Look at the top X cards of your library. Put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order and the rest on top of your library in any order."

502.36a.

Scry is a static ability that functions while a spell or ability is resolving. "Scry N" means "Look at the top N cards of your library. Put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order and the rest on top of your library in any order."

502.37a.

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this permanent is coming into play from the stack and is a creature, it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost. If this permanent is coming into play from the stack and isn't a creature, it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost."

502.37a.

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature, it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn't coming into play as a creature, it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost."

502.38a.

Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido X" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +X/+X until end of turn." (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

502.38a.

Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido N" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn." (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

502.39a.

Soulshift is a triggered ability. "Soulshift X" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost X or less from your graveyard to your hand."

502.39a.

Soulshift is a triggered ability. "Soulshift N" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand."

502.43c.

A ninjutsu ability may be played only while a creature in play is unblocked. The creature with ninjutsu is put into play unblocked.

502.43c.

A ninjutsu ability may be played only while a creature in play is unblocked (see rule 309.2f). The creature with ninjutsu is put into play unblocked. It will be attacking the same player as the creature that was returned to its owner's hand.

502.44a.

Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means, "For the rest of the game, you can't play spells." and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 503.10.

502.44a.

Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means, "For the rest of the game, you can't play spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 503.10.

502.46.

Convoke

502.46a.

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 4091f-h.

Example: You play Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi, a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}. You announce that you're going to tap a colorless creature, a red creature, and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell's cost by {1}. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell's cost by {1}, {G}, or {W}. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi's cost.

502.46b.

Convoke can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0.

502.46c.

Multiple instances of convoke on the same spell are redundant.

502.47.

Dredge

502.47a.

Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player's graveyard. "Dredge N" means "As long as you have at least N cards in your library, if you would draw a card, you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand."

502.47b.

A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can't put any of them into his or her graveyard this way.

502.48.

Transmute

502.48a.

Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player's hand. "Transmute [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card, reveal that card, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery."

502.48b.

Although the transmute ability is playable only if the card is in a player's hand, it continues to exist while the object is in play and in all other zones. Therefore objects with transmute will be affected by effects that depend on objects having one or more activated abilities.

502.49.

Substance

502.49a.

Substance is a static ability with no effect.

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, plus any values set for face-down spells or permanents. Other effects (including type-changing effects) and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, plus any values set for face-down spells or permanents and any values set by "comes into play as" abilities. Other effects (including type-changing effects) and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

600.3.

Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here, including rules for deck construction. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules for more information. They can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/utr/intro.

600.3.

Many multiplayer Magic tournaments have additional rules not included here, including rules for deck construction. See the most current Magic: The Gathering DCI Floor Rules for more information. They can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home.

601.5c.

If an effect requires a choice and there's no player who can make that choice within its controller's range of influence, the closest appropriate player to its controller's left makes that choice.

Example: In an Emperor game, an emperor (whose range of influence is limited to 1) plays Fact or Fiction, which reads, "Reveal the top five cards of your library. An opponent separates those cards into two piles. Put one pile into your hand and the other into your graveyard." Since no opponent is within the emperor's range of influence, the nearest opponent to the emperor's left separates the cards into piles.

601.5c.

If an effect requires a choice and there's no player who can make that choice within its controller's range of influence, the closest appropriate player to its controller's left makes that choice.

Example: In an Emperor game in which all players have range of influence 1, an emperor plays Fact or Fiction, which reads, "Reveal the top five cards of your library. An opponent separates those cards into two piles. Put one pile into your hand and the other into your graveyard." Since no opponent is within the emperor's range of influence, the nearest opponent to the emperor's left separates the cards into piles.

602.2a.

602.2a Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. This will usually be the defending player that the creature with the ability is attacking; if there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the ability chooses one.

602.2a.

Any rule, object, or effect that refers to a "defending player" refers to one specific defending player, not to all of the defending players. This will usually be the defending player that the creature with the ability is attacking; if there are multiple defending players that could be chosen, the controller of the ability chooses one.

605.2b.

Exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used. See rule 604, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 603, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

605.2b.

Exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used. See rule 604, "Attack Left and Attack Right Options," and rule 602, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

605.2c.

The deploy creatures option isn't normally used in the Teams variant.

605.2c.

The deploy creatures option isn't used in the Free-for-All variant.

606.5.

With the exception of life total, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates may review each other's hands and discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

606.5.

With the exception of life total, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared in the Two-Headed Giant variant. Teammates may review each other's hands and discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

606.6d.

A player may play a spell or activated ability, or take a special action, only when his or her team has priority. If both players on a team want to take an action at the same time, the primary player decides who takes the action.

606.6d.

A player may play a spell or activated ability, or take a special action, only when his or her team has priority. If both players on a team want to take an action at the same time, the primary player decides who takes the action. Each player on a team draws a card during that team's draw step. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team's turns.

606.9c.

If an effect would set a single player's life total to a number, that player's team's life total becomes that number.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player is on a team that has 25 life and plays a spell that reads, "Double your life total." That player's life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell, so the spell sets that team's life total to 26.

606.9c.

If an effect would set a single player's life total to a number, that player's individual life total becomes that number. The team's life total is adjusted by the amount that player's life total was adjusted.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player on a team that has 25 life plays a spell that reads, "Your life total becomes 20." That player's life total is considered to be 13 for the purpose of the spell, so it becomes 20 and the team's life total becomes 32 (25 + (20 — 13)).

607.7.

In the Emperor variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates may review each other's hands and discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

609.2c.

The deploy creatures option isn't normally used in the Teams variant.

609.3.

At the start of the game, players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.

Example: In a Teams game with three teams, A, B, and C, the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3, C3, and so on.

609.4.

At the start of the game, players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out.

Example: In a Teams game with three teams, A, B, and C, the seating around the table at the start of the game is A1, B1, C1, A2, B2, C2, A3, B3, C3, and so on.

609.4.

A player can't attack opponents who aren't seated next to him or her.

609.5.

A player can't attack opponents who aren't seated next to him or her.

609.5.

Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102).

609.6.

Team games use the normal rules for winning and losing the game (see rule 102).

609.6.

In the Teams variant, a team's resources (cards in hand, mana, and so on) are not shared. Teammates can't review each other's hands unless they are sitting next to each other. Teammates may discuss strategies at any time. Teammates can't manipulate each other's cards or permanents.

"As though"

Text that states a player or card may do something "as though" some condition were true applies only to the stated action. For purposes of that action, treat the game exactly as if the stated condition is true. For all other purposes, treat the game normally.

Example: Giant Spider reads, "Giant Spider can block as though it had flying." You may treat the Spider as a creature with flying, but only for the purpose of declaring blockers. This allows Giant Spider to block a creature with flying (and creatures that "can't be blocked except by creatures with flying"), assuming no other blocking restrictions apply. For example, Giant Spider can't normally block a creature with both flying and shadow. If two cards state that a player or card may do the same thing "as though" different conditions were true, both conditions could apply. If one "as though" effect satisfies the requirements for another "as though" effect, then both effects will apply.

"As though"

Text that states a player may do something "as though" some condition were true or a creature can do something "as though" some condition were true applies only to the stated action. For purposes of that action, treat the game exactly as if the stated condition were true. For all other purposes, treat the game normally.

Example: Giant Spider reads, "Giant Spider can block as though it had flying." Treat the Spider as a creature with flying, but only for the purpose of declaring blockers. This allows Giant Spider to block a creature with flying (and creatures that "can't be blocked except by creatures with flying"), assuming no other blocking restrictions apply. For example, Giant Spider can't normally block a creature with both flying and shadow. If two cards state that a player may (or a creature can) do the same thing "as though" different conditions were true, both conditions could apply. If one "as though" effect satisfies the requirements for another "as though" effect, then both effects will apply.

Ability

"Ability" and "effect" are often confused with one another. An instruction in an object's text is an ability. The result of following such an instruction is an effect. For more information, see section 4, "Spells, Abilities, and Effects." When an activated ability is played, it goes onto the stack and stays there until it resolves or is countered. When an effect states that an object "gains" or "has" an ability, it's granting that object an ability. If an effect defines a property of an object ("[card or permanent] is [property]"), it's not granting an ability. For example, an Aura might read, "Enchanted creature is red." The Aura isn't granting an ability of any kind; it's simply changing the enchanted creature's color to red.

Ability

"Ability" and "effect" are often confused with one another. An instruction in an object's text is an ability. The result of following such an instruction is an effect. For more information, see section 4, "Spells, Abilities, and Effects." When an activated ability is played, it goes onto the stack and stays there until it's countered, it resolves, or it otherwise leaves the stack. When an effect states that an object "gains" or "has" an ability, it's granting that object an ability. If an effect defines a property of an object ("[card or permanent] is [property]"), it's not granting an ability. For example, an Aura might read, "Enchanted creature is red." The Aura isn't granting an ability of any kind; it's simply changing the enchanted creature's color to red.

Active Player, Nonactive Player Order

Whenever players are instructed to make choices at the same time, the active player makes all his or her choices first, then the nonactive players do so in turn order. This is called the "Active Player, Nonactive Player order" rule, or "APNAP order" rule. See rule 103.4.

Active Player, Nonactive Player Order

Whenever players are instructed to make choices at the same time, the active player makes all his or her choices first, then the nonactive players do so in turn order. This is called the "Active Player, Nonactive Player order" rule, or "APNAP order" rule. See rule 103.4. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play; see rule 606.6c.

Active Team

In the Two-Headed Giant variant, the active team is the team whose turn it is. The active team gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps), after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves, and after combat damage resolves. See rule 200.3 and rule 606.6c.

Affinity

Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Affinity [text]" means "This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control." The affinity ability only reduces generic mana costs. It doesn't reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell. It can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0. See rule 502.31, "Affinity."

Affinity

Affinity is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Affinity for [text]" means "This spell costs you {1} less to play for each [text] you control." The affinity ability reduces only generic mana costs. It doesn't reduce how much colored mana you have to pay for a spell. It can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0. See rule 502.31, "Affinity."

Alternative Cost

The rules text of some spells reads, "You may [action] rather than pay [this object's] mana cost," or include the phrase, "you may play [this object] without paying its mana cost." These are alternative costs. Only one such alternative cost can be applied to any one spell. Other spells and abilities that ask for a spell's mana cost still see the actual mana cost, not what was paid to play the spell. If an effect requires paying additional costs to play a spell, it still applies to the alternative cost. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities."

Alternative Cost

The rules text of some spells reads, "You may [action] rather than pay [this object's] mana cost," or includes the phrase, "you may play [this object] without paying its mana cost." These are alternative costs. Only one such alternative cost can be applied to any one spell. Other spells and abilities that ask for a spell's mana cost still see the actual mana cost, not what was paid to play the spell. If an effect requires paying additional costs to play a spell, it still applies to the alternative cost. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities."

Amplify

Amplify is a static ability. "Amplify X" means "As this object comes into play, reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with this object. This object comes into play with X +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. You can't reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card." See rule 502.27, "Amplify."

Amplify

Amplify is a static ability. "Amplify N" means "As this object comes into play, reveal any number of cards from your hand that share a creature type with it. This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it for each card revealed this way. You can't reveal this card or any other cards that are coming into play at the same time as this card." See rule 502.27, "Amplify."

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. However, if an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Ninth Edition set, is as follows: Equipment.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. However, if an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Ravnica: City of Guilds (tm) set, is as follows: Equipment.

Assign Combat Damage

As the combat damage step begins, the active player announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. Then the defending player(s) announce how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. All assignments of combat damage go on the stack as a single entry. See rule 310, "Combat Damage Step.

Assign Combat Damage

As the combat damage step begins, the active player or team announces how each attacking creature will assign its combat damage. Then the defending player(s) announce how each blocking creature will assign its combat damage. All assignments of combat damage go on the stack as a single entry. See rule 310, "Combat Damage Step.

Attach

To attach an Aura or Equipment to a permanent means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that permanent. If the Aura or Equipment no longer exists or the object it will move onto is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would attach it, nothing happens. Similarly, an Aura or Equipment can't be attached a permanent it couldn't enchant or equip; the Aura or Equipment stays where it is. Attaching an Aura in play to a different permanent causes the Aura to receive a new timestamp. Nothing else about the Aura changes. The Aura never left play, so no comes-into-play or leaves-play triggered abilities will trigger. If an ability of the moved Aura affecting "enchanted [permanent]" was on the stack when the Aura moved, it will affect the new enchanted permanent when it resolves, not the old one. The same is true for moved Equipment.

Attach

To attach an Aura or Equipment to a permanent means to take it from where it currently is and put it onto that permanent. If the Aura or Equipment no longer exists or the object it will move onto is no longer in the correct zone when the effect would attach it, nothing happens. Similarly, an Aura or Equipment can't be attached to a permanent it couldn't enchant or equip. The Aura or Equipment stays where it is, with one exception: If an Aura is coming into play from the stack and there is no legal permanent for it to enchant, the Aura is put into its owner's graveyard instead of coming into play. Attaching an Aura in play to a different permanent causes the Aura to receive a new timestamp. Nothing else about the Aura changes. The Aura never left play, so no comes-into-play or leaves-play triggered abilities will trigger. If an ability of the moved Aura affecting "enchanted [permanent]" was on the stack when the Aura moved, it will affect the new enchanted permanent when it resolves, not the old one. The same is true for moved Equipment.

Attack

A creature attacks when it is declared as an attacker during the combat phase. (See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step.") Playing a spell or ability (even during the combat phase) is never considered to be an attack.

Attack

A creature attacks when it's declared as an attacker during the combat phase. (See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step.") Playing a spell or ability (even during the combat phase) is never considered to be an attack.

Attacked

Some triggered abilities trigger when a player is "attacked." At least one creature must actually be attacking that player for such abilities to trigger. Also, "attacked" means "attacked by one or more creatures," so such abilities can trigger only once each combat phase. See rule 306.3.

Attacking Creature

A creature becomes an attacking creature when (a) it's declared as part of a legal attack during the combat phase and (b) all attack costs have been paid. It remains an attacking creature until it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. Attacking creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step."

Attacking Creature

A creature becomes an attacking creature when (a) it's declared as part of a legal attack during the combat phase and (b) all costs to attack, if any, have been paid. It remains an attacking creature until it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. Attacking creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step."

Aura

Some enchantments have the subtype "Aura." An Aura spell requires a target whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. An Aura permanent comes into play attached to the permanent or player the spell targeted. See rule 212.4, "Enchantments," and rule 502.45, "Enchant." An Aura can enchant only a permanent or player whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. An Aura attached to an illegal or nonexistent permanent is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

Aura

Some enchantments have the subtype "Aura." An Aura spell requires a target whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. An Aura permanent comes into play attached to the permanent or player the spell targeted. See rule 212.4, "Enchantments," and rule 502.45, "Enchant." An Aura can enchant only a permanent or player whose properties are indicated by its enchant keyword ability. An Aura attached to an illegal permanent or not attached to a permanent is put into its owner's graveyard. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.)

Banding, "Bands with Other"

Banding is a static ability that affects the combat phase. "Bands with other" is a specialized version of the ability. See rule 502.10, "Banding," and rule 502.11, "Bands with Other."

Banding, "Bands with Other"

Banding is a static ability that modifies the rules for declaring attackers and assigning combat damage. "Bands with other" is a specialized version of the ability. See rule 502.10, "Banding," and rule 502.11, "Bands with Other."

Becomes

Some trigger events use the word "becomes" (for example, "becomes tapped" or "becomes blocked"). These trigger only at the time the named event happens-they don't trigger if that state already exists or retrigger if it persists. For example, "becomes tapped" triggers only once and only when a permanent's status changes from untapped to tapped.

Becomes

Some trigger events use the word "becomes" (for example, "becomes tapped" or "becomes blocked"). These trigger only at the time the named event happens-they don't trigger if that state already exists or retrigger if it persists. For example, "becomes tapped" triggers only when a permanent's status changes from untapped to tapped.

Blocking Creature

A creature becomes a blocking creature when (a) it's declared as part of a legal block during the combat phase and (b) all block costs have been paid. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. Blocking creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step."

Blocking Creature

A creature becomes a blocking creature when (a) it's declared as part of a legal block during the combat phase and (b) all costs to block, if any, have been paid. It remains a blocking creature until it's removed from combat, it stops being a creature, its controller changes, or the combat phase ends. Blocking creatures don't exist outside of the combat phase. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step."

Bury (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the term "bury," which meant to put a permanent into its owner's graveyard. In general, cards that were printed with the term "bury" now read, "Destroy [a permanent]. It can't be regenerated."

Bury (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the term "bury," which meant to put a permanent into its owner's graveyard. In general, cards that were printed with the term "bury" now read, "Destroy [a permanent]. It can't be regenerated," or "Sacrifice [a permanent]."

Bushido

Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido X" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +X/+X until end of turn." The bushido bonus is calculated only once per combat, when the triggered ability resolves. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won't change the bonus. (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

Bushido

Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido N" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn." The bushido bonus is calculated only once per combat, when the triggered ability resolves. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won't change the bonus. (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

Buyback

Buyback is a replacement effect modifying rule 413.2h. When playing a spell with buyback, the controller of the spell may pay an additional cost specified on the card. If he or she does, when the spell resolves, the spell is put into his or her hand instead of into his or her graveyard. If the spell goes to some zone other than its owner's graveyard as it resolves, buyback's effect "loses track" of it, and it isn't returned to its owner's hand. See rule 502.16, "Buyback."

Buyback

Buyback is a static ability of some instants and sorceries that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell. If you do, put the spell into your hand instead of into your graveyard as it resolves." Paying a spell's buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. If the spell goes to some zone other than its owner's graveyard as it resolves, buyback's effect "loses track" of it, and it isn't returned to its owner's hand. See rule 502.16, "Buyback."

Characteristic-Setting Ability

Some objects have static abilities which state that that object "has" one or more characteristics; "is" a particular type, supertype, subtype, or color; or that one or more of its characteristics "is" or "are" a particular value. These abilities are characteristic-setting abilities. See rule 405.2.

Characteristic-Setting Ability

Some objects have intrinsic static abilities which state that that object "has" one or more characteristics; "is" a particular type, supertype, subtype, or color; or that one or more of its characteristics "is" or "are" a particular value. These abilities are characteristic-setting abilities. See rule 405.2.

Characteristic-Setting Effect

An effect from a characteristic-setting ability is a characteristic-setting effect. See rule 405.2.

Characteristics

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, abilities, rules text, power, and toughness. Characteristics don't include any other information, such as whether a permanent is tapped, a spell or permanent's controller, a spell's target, what an Aura enchants, and so on. See rule 201, "Characteristics."

Characteristics

An object's characteristics are name, mana cost, color, type, subtype, supertype, expansion symbol, rules text, abilities, power, and toughness. Characteristics don't include any other information, such as whether a permanent is tapped, a spell or permanent's controller, a spell's target, what an Aura enchants, and so on. See rule 201, "Characteristics."

Controlling Another Player's Turn

One card (Mindslaver) allows a player to control another player's turn. The controller of another player's turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make or is told to make during that turn by rules or by any objects. A player doesn't lose life due to mana burn while another player controls his or her turn. See rule 507, "Controlling Another Player's Turn."

Controlling Another Player's Turn

One card (Mindslaver) allows a player to control another player's turn. The controller of another player's turn makes all choices and decisions that player is allowed to make, or is told to make, during that turn by rules or by any objects. A player doesn't lose life due to mana burn while another player controls his or her turn. See rule 507, "Controlling Another Player's Turn."

Convoke

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 4091f-h. It can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0. See rule 502.46, "Convoke."

Copiable Values

An object's "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, plus any values set for face-down spells or permanents. Other effects (including type-changing effects) and counters are not copied. See rules 503.2 and 503.3.

Copiable Values

An object's "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, plus any values set for face-down spells or permanents and any values set by "comes into play as" abilities. Other effects (including type-changing effects) and counters are not copied. See rules 503.2 and 503.3.

Cost

Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost. Most costs are paid in mana, but they may also include paying life, tapping or sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 203, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 403, "Activated Abilities."

Cost

Playing spells and activated abilities requires paying a cost. Most costs are paid in mana, but costs may also include paying life, tapping or sacrificing permanents, discarding cards, and so on. A player can't pay a cost unless he or she has the necessary resources to pay it fully. For example, a player with only 1 life can't pay a cost of 2 life, and a permanent that's already tapped can't be tapped to pay a cost. See rule 203, "Mana Cost and Color," and rule 403, "Activated Abilities."

Counter

Counter has two meanings in the Magic game. 1. To counter a spell or ability is to cancel it, removing it from the stack. It doesn't resolve and none of its effects occur. A countered spell is put into its owner's graveyard. See rule 414, "Countering Spells and Abilities." 2. A counter is a marker placed on an object, either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an effect. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. These bonuses are added after permanent-type changing effects and before other power and toughness changing effects. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. Counters may also be given to players. For information about poison counters, see rule 102.3d.

Counter

Counter has two meanings in the Magic game. 1. To counter a spell or ability is to cancel it, removing it from the stack. It doesn't resolve and none of its effects occur. A countered spell is put into its owner's graveyard. See rule 414, "Countering Spells and Abilities." 2. A counter is a marker placed on an object, either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an effect. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. These bonuses are added after permanent-type changing effects and after most other power and toughness changing effects. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. See rule 418.5a. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. Counters may also be given to players. For information about poison counters, see rule 102.3d.

Counts As (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with text stating that the card "counts as" something. As far as the game rules and other cards are concerned the card is that thing. (Newer Magic cards use "is" instead.)

Counts As (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with text stating that the card "counts as" something. As far as the game rules and other cards are concerned, the card is that thing. (Newer Magic cards use "is" instead.)

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," etc. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Ninth Edition core set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Ancestor, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Butterfly, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cavalry, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Dandan, Demon, Dervish, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Flying-Men, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gaea's-Liege, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin,Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hunter, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Lichenthrope, Licid, Lion, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maggot, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Mantis, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Meerkat, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mindsucker, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mistfolk, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mosquito, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Necrosavant, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Sindbad, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Sponge, Sprite, Spuzzem, Spy, Squire, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Stone, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Taskmaster, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tombspawn, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Uncle-Istvan, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Warthog, Wasp, Wave, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wildebeest, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Wood, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Ravnica: City of Guilds set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Butterfly, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cavalry, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Dandan, Demon, Dervish, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Flying-Men, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gaea's-Liege, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin,Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hunter, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Lichenthrope, Licid, Lion, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Mindsucker, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mistfolk, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mosquito, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Necrosavant, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Sindbad, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Sponge, Sprite, Spuzzem, Spy, Squire, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Taskmaster, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Uncle-Istvan, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Warthog, Wasp, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wildebeest, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Cumulative Upkeep

Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability. "Cumulative upkeep [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, put an age counter on this permanent, then sacrifice this permanent unless you pay [cost] for each age counter on it." Note that if a permanent has more than one instance of cumulative upkeep, each creates a separate triggered ability at the beginning of upkeep that counts all the age counters on the permanent from both abilities. See rule 502.13, "Cumulative Upkeep."

Cumulative Upkeep

Cumulative upkeep is a triggered ability that imposes an increasing cost on a permanent. "Cumulative upkeep [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, put an age counter on this permanent, then sacrifice this permanent unless you pay [cost] for each age counter on it." Note that if a permanent has more than one instance of cumulative upkeep, each creates a separate triggered ability at the beginning of upkeep that counts all the age counters on the permanent from both abilities. See rule 502.13, "Cumulative Upkeep."

Damage

Damage can be dealt to creatures and/or players. Damage dealt to a player is subtracted from his or her life total. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until end of turn, even if it stops being a creature. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Damage doesn't alter a creature's toughness. A noncreature permanent isn't affected by damage (but if it becomes a creature again before the damage is removed, the creature may be destroyed). During the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents. Costs and effects that read "lose life" or "pay life" don't deal damage, and that loss of life can't be prevented or otherwise altered by damage-prevention effects.

Damage

Damage can be dealt to creatures and/or players. Damage dealt to a player is subtracted from his or her life total. Damage dealt to a creature stays on the permanent until end of turn, even if it stops being a creature. A creature with damage greater than or equal to its toughness has been dealt lethal damage and is destroyed. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Damage doesn't alter a creature's toughness. A noncreature permanent isn't affected by damage (but if it becomes a creature again before the damage is removed, the creature may be destroyed). During the cleanup step, all damage is removed from permanents. Costs and effects that read "lose life" or "pay life" don't deal damage, and that loss of life can't be prevented or otherwise altered by effects that prevent or replace damage.

Damage-Prevention Ability

A damage-prevention ability is a static or activated ability that generates a damage-prevention effect. See rule 419.7, "Prevention Effects."

Deck

A player's deck is the collection of cards that player starts the game with. When the game begins, each player's deck becomes his or her library.

Deck

A player's deck is the collection of cards that player starts the game with. When the game begins, each player's deck becomes his or her library. See section 100, "General," and section 101, "Starting the Game."

Declare Attackers Step

The declare attackers step is the second step of the combat phase. The active player declares attackers during this step. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step."

Declare Attackers Step

The declare attackers step is the second step of the combat phase. The active player declares attackers during this step (or chooses not to attack). Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. See rule 308, "Declare Attackers Step."

Declare Blockers Step

The declare blockers step is the third step of the combat phase. The defending player declares blockers during this step. Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step."

Declare Blockers Step

The declare blockers step is the third step of the combat phase. The defending player declares blockers during this step (or chooses not to block). Then the active player gets priority and players may play spells and abilities. See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step."

Defending Player

During the combat phase, the active player is attacking and is the attacking player. As the combat phase starts, the active player chooses one opponent. The chosen opponent is being attacked and is the defending player. Creatures can attack only the defending player; they can't attack other creatures. During phases other than combat, there is no defending player. See rule 306.3. If the "attack multiple players" option is used, there can be more than one defending player. See rule 602, "Attack Multiple Players Option."

Defending Player

During the combat phase, the active player is attacking and is the attacking player. As the combat phase starts, the active player chooses one opponent. The chosen opponent is being attacked and is the defending player. Creatures can attack only the defending player; they can't attack other creatures. During phases other than combat, there is no defending player. See rule 306.3. If the "attack multiple players" option is used in a multiplayer game, there can be more than one defending player. See rule 602, "Attack Multiple Players Option." The Two-Headed Giant variant uses different combat rules than other multiplayer variants; see rule 606.7.

Distribute

Distribute has its normal English meaning in the Magic game. If a spell or ability requires a player to distribute something (such as counters) as he or she chooses among one or more targets, or among any number of untargeted objects or players, each of these targets, objects, or players must receive at least one of whatever is being distributed. See rules 409.1e and 310.2.

Distribute

Distribute has its normal English meaning in the Magic game. If a spell or ability requires a player to distribute something (such as counters) as he or she chooses among one or more targets, or among any number of untargeted objects or players, then each of these targets, objects, or players must receive at least one of whatever is being distributed. See rules 409.1e and 310.2.

Draw

Draw has two meanings in the Magic game. 1. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. If an instruction tells a player to draw more than one card, the cards are drawn one at a time. An effect may move cards from a player's library to that player's hand without the player "drawing" them; this makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws. 2. A drawn game is a game where the game ends, and there is no winner. See rule 102.4.

Draw

Draw has two meanings in the Magic game. 1. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. If an instruction tells a player to draw more than one card, the cards are drawn one at a time. An effect may move cards from a player's library to that player's hand without the player "drawing" them; this makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws. 2. A drawn game is a game where the game ends and there is no winner. See rule 102.4.

Dredge

Dredge is a static ability that functions only while the card with dredge is in a player's graveyard. "Dredge N" means "As long as you have at least N cards in your library, if you would draw a card, you may instead put N cards from the top of your library into your graveyard and return this card from your graveyard to your hand." A player with fewer cards in his or her library than the number required by a dredge ability can't put any of them into his or her graveyard this way. See rule 502.47, "Dredge."

Dual Land (Informal)

Ten "dual land" cards were printed in early Magic editions; each of these has two basic land types. For example, Taiga has the land types Forest and Mountain. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those types. However, they are not basic lands. A dual land card doesn't count as two lands while in play-it's just one land with multiple land types.

Dual Land (Informal)

The Ravnica: City of Guilds set and early Magic core sets contain "dual lands"; each of these has two basic land types. For example, Temple Garden has the land types Forest and Plains. Dual land cards have the default abilities of both basic land types and are treated as both by all spells and abilities that specifically refer to those types. However, they are not basic lands. A dual land doesn't count as two lands while in play-it's just one land with multiple land types.

During (Obsolete)

Some older cards used the phrase "during [phase], [action]." These abilities were called "phase abilities. In general, cards that were printed with phase abilities now have abilities that trigger at the beginning of a step or phase. "During" still appears in current card text, but only in its normal English sense and not as game terminology.

During (Obsolete)

Some older cards used the phrase "during [phase], [action]." These abilities were called "phase abilities." In general, cards that were printed with phase abilities now have abilities that trigger at the beginning of a step or phase. "During" still appears in current card text, but only in its normal English sense and not as game terminology.

Emperor

Emperor is a multiplayer variant with its own rules. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team has one emperor, who sits in the middle of the team. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor. In addition to the normal rules for winning and losing, a team loses if its emperor loses the game. See rule 607, "Emperor Variant." The Emperor variant uses the following default options: (a) The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals (see rule 601), (b) Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603), and (c) A player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.

Emperor

Emperor is a multiplayer variant with its own rules. The Emperor variant involves two or more teams of three players each. Each team sits together on one side of the table. Each team has one emperor, who sits in the middle of the team. The remaining players on the team are generals whose job is to protect the emperor. In addition to the normal rules for winning and losing, a team loses if its emperor loses the game. See rule 607, "Emperor Variant." The Emperor variant uses the following default options: (a) The range of influence is limited to 2 for emperors and 1 for generals (see rule 601), (b) Emperor games use the deploy creatures option (see rule 603), and (c) a player can attack only an opponent seated immediately next to him or her.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Ninth Edition core set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Ravnica: City of Guilds set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Epic

Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means, "For the rest of the game, you can't play spells." and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 502.44, "Epic."

Epic

Epic represents both a static ability and a delayed triggered ability. "Epic" means, "For the rest of the game, you can't play spells," and "At the beginning of each of your upkeeps, copy this spell except for its epic ability. If the spell has any targets, you may choose new targets for the copy." See rule 502.44, "Epic."

Equip

Equip is an activated ability. "Equip [cost]" means "[cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery." See rule 502.33, "Equip," and rule 212.2, "Artifacts."

Equip

Equip is an activated ability. "Equip [cost]" means "[Cost]: Attach this Equipment to target creature you control. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery." See rule 502.33, "Equip," and rule 212.2, "Artifacts."

Expansion Symbol

The small icon printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol, indicating in which set the card was published. Cards reprinted in the core set receive its expansion symbol and no longer count as part of their original set. This is important only to spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol. Visit the products section of www.magicthegathering.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=magic/products/cardsets).

Expansion Symbol

The small icon printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol. It indicates the set in which the card was published. Cards reprinted in a core set or another expansion receive its expansion symbol. Spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion only affect cards with that set's expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol. Visit the products section of www.magicthegathering.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=magic/products/cardsets). Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or allowed by the Magic Floor Rules). See the Magic Floor Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home).

Face Down

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allow the card, spell, or permanent to be face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. At any time, you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack, a face-down permanent you control, or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. You can't look at face-down cards in any other zone, face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player, or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. The ability or rules that allow a permanent to be face down may also allow the permanent's controller to turn it face up. Spells normally can't be turned face up. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play, you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," and rule 502.26, "Morph."

Face-Down

Face-down spells on the stack, face-down permanents in play, and face-down cards in the phased-out zone have no characteristics other than those listed by the ability or rules that allow the card, spell, or permanent to be face down. Any listed characteristics are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. At any time, you may look at a face-down spell you control on the stack, a face-down permanent you control, or a face-down card in the phased-out zone you controlled when it phased out. You can't look at face-down cards in any other zone, face-down spells or permanents controlled by another player, or face-down cards in the phased-out zone last controlled by another player. The ability or rules that allow a permanent to be face down may also allow the permanent's controller to turn it face up. Spells normally can't be turned face up. If you control multiple face-down spells on the stack or face-down permanents in play, you must ensure at all times that your face-down spells and permanents can be easily differentiated from each other. See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents," and rule 502.26, "Morph."

Fading

Fading is a keyword ability that causes permanents to stay in play for a limited time. "Fading X" means "This permanent comes into play with X fade counters on it" and "At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from this permanent. If you can't, sacrifice the permanent." See rule 502.20, "Fading."

Fading

Fading is a keyword ability that represents two abilities. "Fading N" means "This permanent comes into play with N fade counters on it" and "At the beginning of your upkeep, remove a fade counter from this permanent. If you can't, sacrifice the permanent." See rule 502.20, "Fading."

Flanking

Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step of the combat phase. The word "flanking" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking, the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn." See rule 502.3, "Flanking."

Flanking

Flanking is a triggered ability that triggers during the declare blockers step of the combat phase. "Flanking" means "Whenever this creature becomes blocked by a creature without flanking, the blocking creature gets -1/-1 until end of turn." See rule 502.3, "Flanking."

Flashback

Flashback is a static ability of some instant and sorcery cards that functions while the card is in its owner's graveyard. The card's owner can play the spell from his or her graveyard by paying its flashback cost. If a spell is played this way, it's removed from the game instead of being put anywhere else any time it would leave the stack. Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.22, "Flashback."

Flashback

Flashback is a static ability of some instant and sorcery cards that functions while the card is in a player's graveyard. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If you do, remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack." Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.22, "Flashback."

Floor Rules

The current DCI Magic: The Gathering Floor Rules can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/utr/intro.

Floor Rules

The current DCI Magic: The Gathering Floor Rules can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home.

General

The player seated in the middle of team in the Emperor multiplayer variant is called the team's emperor. The other players are called generals. See rule 607, "Emperor Variant."

General

The player seated in the middle of a team in the Emperor multiplayer variant is called the team's emperor. The other players are called generals. See rule 607, "Emperor Variant."

Half-Half Mana Symbols

Each of the half-half mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue.

Instant Type

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. The list of instant types, updated through the Ninth Edition core set, is as follows: Arcane.

Instant Type

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. The list of instant types, updated through the Ravnica: City of Guilds set, is as follows: Arcane.

Kicker

Kicker is a keyword ability with a cost and an effect. Paying a spell's kicker cost causes the spell to have an additional or alternative effect. See rule 502.21, "Kicker." A kicker cost is an additional cost to play a spell. You declare whether you intend to pay a spell's kicker cost at the same time you would choose the spell's mode (see rule 409.1b), and you actually pay the cost when you pay the rest of the spell's costs (see rule 409.1f-h). Paying a kicker cost is always optional. A spell's controller chooses targets (see rule 409.1d) for a kicker effect only if he or she declared the intention to pay the kicker cost for that effect. If the spell's controller declared that he or she wouldn't pay a particular kicker cost, he or she doesn't choose the targets for the effect associated with that kicker cost.

Kicker

Kicker is a keyword ability with a cost and an effect. Paying a spell's kicker cost causes the spell to have an additional or alternative effect. See rule 502.21, "Kicker." "Kicker [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell." You declare whether you intend to pay a spell's kicker cost at the same time you would choose the spell's mode (see rule 409.1b), and you actually pay the cost when you pay the rest of the spell's costs (see rule 409.1f-h). Paying a kicker cost is always optional. A spell's controller chooses targets (see rule 409.1d) for a kicker effect only if he or she declared the intention to pay the kicker cost for that effect. If the spell's controller declared that he or she wouldn't pay a particular kicker cost, he or she doesn't choose the targets for the effect associated with that kicker cost.

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Ninth Edition core set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Ravnica: City of Guilds set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Last Known Information

The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. Effects from resolving spells and abilities use last known information if the object they require information from is not in the zone it was expected to be in. See rule 413.2f.

Last Known Information

The last known information about an object is the information that it had just before it left the zone it was in. Effects from resolving spells and abilities use last known information if the object they require information from isn't in the zone it's expected to be in. See rule 413.2f.

Layer

Continuous effects are applied in order, in six layers: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"), (2) control-changing effects, (3) text-changing effects, (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects, (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power or toughness, and (6) power- or toughness-changing effects. See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects."

Layer

Continuous effects are applied in order, in six layers: (1) copy effects (see rule 503, "Copying Objects"); (2) control-changing effects; (3) text-changing effects; (4) type-, subtype-, and supertype-changing effects; (5) all other continuous effects, except those that change power and/or toughness, and (6) power- and/or toughness-changing effects. Inside layer 6, effects are applied in a series of sublayers. See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects."

Leaves Play

A permanent leaves play when it moves from the in-play zone to any other zone. See rule 410.10c. If a token leaves play, it ceases to exist. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a permanent leaves play and later returns to play, it's treated as an entirely new permanent with no "memory" of anything from its former existence. (Phasing is an exception to this; see rule 502.15, "Phasing.")

Leaves Play

A permanent leaves play when it moves from the in-play zone to any other zone (see rule 410.10c) or when its owner leaves the game (see rule 600.4a). If a token leaves play, it ceases to exist. This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a permanent leaves play and later returns to play, it's treated as an entirely new permanent with no "memory" of anything from its former existence. (Phasing is an exception to this; see rule 502.15, "Phasing." Permanents that phase out also don't trigger any comes-into-play or leaves-play abilities.)

Legendary

Legendary is a supertype that may apply to any type ("Legendary Land," "Legendary Artifact," and so on). If two or more permanents with the same name and the supertype legendary are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "legend rule" is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a legendary permanent's types or subtypes change, this doesn't change its supertypes. The permanent will still be legendary.

Legendary

Legendary is a supertype that may apply to any type ("Legendary Land," "Legendary Artifact," and so on). If two or more legendary permanents with the same name are in play, all are put into their owners' graveyards. This "legend rule" is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5. If a legendary permanent's types or subtypes change, this doesn't change its supertypes. The permanent will still be legendary.

Main Game

One card (Shahrazad) allows players to play a Magic subgame. The "main game" is the game in which Shahrazad was played. See rule 506, "Subgames."

Main Game

Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. See rule 506, "Subgames."

Mana Source (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the type "mana source." All mana source cards are now instant cards. Abilities that read "Play this ability as a mana source" are now mana abilities.

Mana Source (Obsolete)

Some older cards were printed with the type "mana source." All mana source cards are now instant cards. Abilities that used to read "Play this ability as a mana source" are now mana abilities.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, {Z} and the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, {Z} and the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on, and the half-half symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the half-half mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. See rule 104.3f.

Match

A match is a series of Magic games and is important only for tournament or league play. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games, or sometimes the best three of five. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game. For more information, consult the DCI Magic Floor Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/utr/intro).

Match

A match is a series of Magic games and is important only for tournament or league play. A two-player match usually consists of the best two of three games, or sometimes the best three of five. A multiplayer match usually consists of only one game. For more information, consult the DCI Magic Floor Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home).

Modular

Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Modular X" means "This permanent comes into play with X +1/+1 counters on it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent." See rule 502.35, "Modular."

Modular

Modular represents both a static ability and a triggered ability. "Modular N" means "This permanent comes into play with N +1/+1 counters on it" and "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may put a +1/+1 counter on target artifact creature for each +1/+1 counter on this permanent." See rule 502.35, "Modular."

Morph

Morph is a static ability that functions any time you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and a mana cost of 0 by paying 3 rather than its mana cost." Any time you could play an instant, you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. This action does not use the stack. See rule 502.26, "Morph."

Morph

Morph is a static ability that functions any time you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and a mana cost of {0} by paying {3} rather than its mana cost." Any time you could play an instant, you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. This action does not use the stack. See rule 502.26, "Morph."

Nonbasic Land

Any land that doesn't have the supertype "basic" is nonbasic. Use the Oracle reference to determine whether a land has the supertype "basic."

Nonbasic Land

Any land that doesn't have the supertype "basic" is nonbasic. Use the Oracle card reference to determine whether a land has the supertype "basic."

Oracle

Use the Oracle card reference when determining a card's wording. It can be found at www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/oracle. See rule 200.2.

Oracle

Use the Oracle card reference when determining a card's wording. A card's Oracle text can be found using the Gatherer card database at http://gatherer.wizards.com. See rule 200.2.

Permanently (Obsolete)

Certain older cards were printed with the term "permanently" to indicate effects with no expiration. In general, cards that were printed with the term "permanently" now instead use reminder text to indicate that the effect lasts past the end of the turn.

Example: An ability that originally read "Gain control of target creature permanently" would now read as follows: "Gain control of target creature. (This effect doesn't end at end of turn.)" This effect grants control of the permanent until something else changes the controller or it leaves play. It doesn't make the permanent immune to other control effects.

Permanently (Obsolete)

Certain older cards were printed with the term "permanently" to indicate effects with no expiration. This term is no longer used.

Example: An ability that originally read "Gain control of target creature permanently" would now read as follows: "Gain control of target creature." This effect grants control of the permanent until something else changes the controller or it leaves play. It doesn't make the permanent immune to other control effects.

Player

A player is people in the game. The active player is the player whose turn it is. The other players are nonactive players. See rule 200.3.

Player

A player is one of the people in the game. The active player is the player whose turn it is. The other players are nonactive players. See rule 200.3.

Priority

The player who has the option to play a spell or ability at any given time has priority. See rule 408, "Timing of Spells and Abilities." Each time a spell, an ability (other than a mana ability), or combat damage resolves, and at the beginning of most phases and steps, the active player receives priority. After a player plays a spell, ability, or land, or takes a special action, he or she again receives priority. When a player passes, his or her opponent receives priority. If all players pass in succession, the spell, ability, or combat damage on top of the stack resolves or, if the stack is empty, the phase or step ends. Each time a player would get priority, all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420). Then, if any new state-based effects have been generated, they resolve as a single event. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410). These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated.

Priority

The player who has the option to play a spell or ability at any given time has priority. See rule 408, "Timing of Spells and Abilities." Each time a spell, an ability (other than a mana ability), or combat damage resolves, and at the beginning of most phases and steps, the active player receives priority. After a player plays a spell, ability, or land, or takes a special action, he or she again receives priority. When a player passes, his or her opponent receives priority. If all players pass in succession, the spell, ability, or combat damage on top of the stack resolves or, if the stack is empty, the phase or step ends. Each time a player would get priority, all applicable state-based effects resolve first as a single event (see rule 420). Then, if any new state-based effects have been generated, they resolve as a single event. This process repeats until no more applicable state-based effects are generated. Then triggered abilities are added to the stack (see rule 410). These steps repeat in order until no further state-based effects or triggered abilities are generated. In the Two-Headed Giant multiplayer variant, teams rather than individual players have priority. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

Protection

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." See rule 502.7, "Protection." A permanent with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. A permanent with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Aura attached to the permanent with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality. Such Equipment becomes unattached from that permanent, but remains in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Any damage that would be dealt by sources that have the stated quality to a permanent that has protection is prevented. Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. If a creature with protection attacks, it can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Protection

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." See rule 502.7, "Protection." A permanent with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. A permanent with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Aura attached to the permanent with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality. Such Equipment becomes unattached from that permanent, but remains in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. If a creature with protection attacks, it can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Rampage

Rampage is a triggered ability. "Rampage X" means "When this creature becomes blocked, it gets +X/+X until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first." See rule 502.12, "Rampage."

Rampage

Rampage is a triggered ability. "Rampage N" means "When this creature becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn for each creature blocking it beyond the first." See rule 502.12, "Rampage."

Scry

Scry is a static ability that functions while a spell or ability is resolving. "Scry X" means "Look at the top X cards of your library. Put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order and the rest on top of your library in any order." See rule 502.36, "Scry."

Scry

Scry is a static ability that functions while a spell or ability is resolving. "Scry N" means "Look at the top N cards of your library. Put any number of them on the bottom of your library in any order and the rest on top of your library in any order." See rule 502.36, "Scry."

Shuffle

To shuffle a deck, library, or pile is to make the order of that deck, library, or pile random. After a player shuffles a deck, library, or pile, he or she owns, each opponent has the option to shuffle or cut that pile. See rule 101.1.

Shuffle

To shuffle a deck, library, or pile is to make the order of that deck, library, or pile random. After a player shuffles a deck, library, or pile he or she owns, each opponent has the option to shuffle or cut that pile. See rule 101.1.

Sorcery Type

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. The list of sorcery types, updated through the Ninth Edition core set, is as follows: Arcane.

Sorcery Type

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. The list of sorcery types, updated through the Ravnica: City of Guilds set, is as follows: Arcane.

Soulshift

Soulshift is a triggered ability. "Soulshift X" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost X or less from your graveyard to your hand."

Soulshift

Soulshift is a triggered ability. "Soulshift N" means "When this permanent is put into a graveyard from play, you may return target Spirit card with converted mana cost N or less from your graveyard to your hand."

Source of an Ability

The source of an ability is the object that generated it. See rule 402, "Abilities."

Source of an Ability

The source of an ability is the object that generated it. See rule 402, "Abilities," and rule 200.7.

Splice

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [type or subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [type or subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409.1c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (e.g. when it's countered, it's removed from the game, or it resolves).

Splice

Splice is a static ability that functions while a card is in your hand. "Splice onto [type or subtype] [cost]" means "You may reveal this card from your hand as you play a [type or subtype] spell. If you do, copy this card's text box onto that spell and pay [cost] as an additional cost to play that spell." Paying a card's splice cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. You can't choose to use a splice ability if you can't make the required choices (targets, etc.) for that card's instructions. You can't splice any one card onto the same spell more than once. If you're splicing more than one card onto a spell, reveal them all at once and choose the order in which their instructions will be followed. The instructions on the main spell have to be followed first. The spell has the characteristics of the main spell, plus the text boxes of each of the spliced cards. The spell doesn't gain any other characteristics (name, mana cost, color, supertypes, types, subtypes, etc.) of the spliced cards. Text copied onto the spell that refers to a card by name refers to the spell on the stack, not the card from which the text was copied. Choose targets for the added text normally (see rule 409.1c). Note that a spell with one or more targets will be countered if all of its targets are illegal on resolution. The spell loses any splice changes once it leaves the stack (for example, when it's countered, it's removed from the game, or it resolves).

State Triggers

State triggers are triggered abilities that watch for a game state rather than an event and trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. Once a state trigger has triggered, it won't trigger again until the ability it created has resolved or been countered. See rule 410.11.

State Triggers

State triggers are triggered abilities that watch for a game state rather than an event and trigger as soon as the game state matches the condition. Once a state trigger has triggered, it won't trigger again until the ability it created has resolved, has been countered, or has otherwise left the stack. See rule 410.11.

Static Ability

Static abilities do something all the time rather than being played at specific times. Static abilities create continuous effects, which are active as long as the permanent with the ability remains in play and has the ability, or as long as the object with the ability remains in the appropriate zone. A spell or ability can also create a continuous effect that doesn't depend on a permanent; these may last a specified length of time or for the rest of the game. See rule 412, "Handling Static Abilities."

Static Ability

Static abilities do something all the time rather than being played at specific times. Static abilities create continuous effects, which are active as long as the permanent with the ability remains in play and has the ability, or as long as the object with the ability remains in the appropriate zone. A spell or ability can also create a continuous effect; these may last a specified length of time or for the rest of the game. See rule 412, "Handling Static Abilities."

Substance

Substance is a static ability with no effect. Certain older cards have received errata that give them substance for a brief period of time.

Sunburst

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this permanent is coming into play from the stack and is a creature, it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost. If this permanent is coming into play from the stack and isn't a creature, it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost." See rule 502.37, "Sunburst."

Sunburst

Sunburst is a static ability that functions as an object is coming into play from the stack. "Sunburst" means "If this object is coming into play from the stack as a creature, it comes into play with a +1/+1 counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost. If this object is coming into play from the stack and isn't coming into play as a creature, it comes into play with a charge counter on it for each color of mana used to pay its cost." See rule 502.37, "Sunburst."

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes."

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updates through the Ravnica: City of Guilds set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow-covered, and world.

Target

Whenever the phrase "target [something]," where [something] is a phrase that describes an object or player, appears in a spell or ability, the controller of the spell or ability chooses something that matches whatever follows that word. The choice of a spell or ability's targets is made when the spell or ability is played. See rule 415, "Targeted Spells and Abilities." An instant or sorcery is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object or player. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target, that ability is targeted, but the spell is not.) An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object or player. Aura spells are targeted, and their target is specified by their "enchant" abilities. They target the permanent or player they will enchant. (See rule 415.3.) An Aura permanent doesn't target anything. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents are targeted. (See rule 415.3.) An Equipment may have abilities which are targeted. A spell or ability on the stack can't target itself. A spell that targets the same object or player more than once isn't a "spell with a single target."

Target

Whenever the phrase "target [something]," where [something] is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone, appears in a spell or ability, the controller of the spell or ability chooses something that matches whatever follows that word. The choice of a spell or ability's targets is made when the spell or ability is played. See rule 415, "Targeted Spells and Abilities." An instant or sorcery is targeted if the text that will be followed when it resolves uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. (If an activated or triggered ability of an instant or sorcery uses the word target, that ability is targeted, but the spell is not.) An activated or triggered ability is targeted if it uses the phrase "target [something]," where the "something" is a phrase that describes an object, player, or zone. Aura spells are targeted, and their target is specified by their "enchant" abilities. They target the permanent or player they will enchant. (See rule 415.3.) An Aura permanent doesn't target anything. Neither Equipment spells nor Equipment permanents are targeted. (See rule 415.3.) An Equipment may have abilities which are targeted. A spell or ability on the stack can't target itself. A spell that targets the same object, player, or zone more than once isn't a "spell with a single target."

Teams

The Teams multiplayer variant involves two or more teams of equal size. Players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out. A player can't attack opponents who aren't seated next to him or her. The Teams variant uses the following default options: (a) The recommended range of influence is 2 (see rule 601) and (b) exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used (see rules 604 and 602). The deploy creatures option isn't normally used in the Teams variant.

Teams

The Teams multiplayer variant involves two or more teams of equal size. Players are seated so that no one is next to a teammate and each team is equally spaced out. A player can't attack opponents who aren't seated next to him or her. The Teams variant uses the following default options: (a) The recommended range of influence is 2 (see rule 601) and (b) exactly one of the attack left, attack right, and attack multiple players options must be used (see rules 604 and 602). The deploy creatures option isn't normally used in the Teams variant. See rule 609, "Teams Variant."

Text-Changing Effect

An effect that changes the text of an object changes only words that are used in the correct way. The effect can't change a proper noun, such as a card name, even if that proper noun contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word, basic land type, or creature type. See rule 418.6, "Text-Changing Effects."

Text-Changing Effect

An effect that changes the text of an object changes only words that are used in the correct way (for example, a Magic color word being used as a color word, a land type word used as a land type, or a creature type word used as a creature type). The effect can't change a proper noun, such as a card name, even if that proper noun contains a word or a series of letters that is the same as a Magic color word, basic land type, or creature type. See rule 418.6, "Text-Changing Effects."

Transmute

Transmute is an activated ability that functions only while the card with transmute is in a player's hand. "Transmute [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a card with the same converted mana cost as the discarded card, reveal that card, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library. Play this ability only any time you could play a sorcery." See rule 502.48, "Transmute."

Turn Marker

The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. Each turn marker represents an active player's turn. See rule 608, Grand Melee.

Turn Marker

The Grand Melee variant allows multiple players to take turns at the same time. Moving turn markers keep track of which players are currently taking turns. Each turn marker represents an active player's turn. See rule 608, "Grand Melee."

Type

The word "type" has two meanings: 1. A card's type (and subtype, if applicable) is printed directly below the illustration on the card, on its type line. Cards, tokens, permanents, and spells all have types. Abilities don't have types. See rule 205, "Type Line," and rule 212, "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." When an effect changes an object's type, the new type replaces all previous types. If the effect is adding a type, or allowing an object to retain its types, it will say so. See rule 212.1c. 2. The "type" of mana is its color, or lack thereof (for colorless mana). See also Mana.

Type

The word "type" has two meanings: 1. A card's type (and subtype and supertype, if applicable) is printed directly below the illustration on the card, on its type line. Cards, tokens, permanents, and spells all have types. Abilities don't have types. See rule 205, "Type Line," and rule 212, "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." When an effect changes an object's type, the new type replaces all previous types. If the effect is adding a type, or allowing an object to retain its types, it will say so. See rule 212.1c. 2. The "type" of mana is its color, or lack thereof (for colorless mana). See also Mana.

Unattach

An Aura or Equipment becomes unattached if it was attached to a creature and then is not. If an Aura or Equipment leaves play while attached to a creature, it becomes unattached. If a creature leaves play while an Aura or Equipment is attached to it, the Aura or Equipment becomes unattached.

Unattach

An Aura or Equipment becomes unattached if it was attached to a permanent and then is not. If an Aura or Equipment leaves play while attached to a permanent, it becomes unattached. If a permanent leaves play (unless it phases out) while an Aura or Equipment is attached to it, the Aura or Equipment becomes unattached.

Universal Tournament Rules

The DCI Universal Tournament Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/utr/intro) cover tournament play for all DCI-sanctioned games, including the Magic game.

Universal Tournament Rules

The DCI Universal Tournament Rules (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home) cover tournament play for all DCI-sanctioned games, including the Magic game.

X

If a cost has an "X" in it, the value of X must be announced as part of playing the spell or ability. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") While the spell or ability is on the stack, the {X} in its mana cost equals the amount announced as part of playing the spell or ability. If a card in any other zone has {X} in its mana cost, the amount is treated as 0. If you're playing a spell that has X in its mana cost and an effect lets you play it without paying any cost that includes X, the only legal choice for X is 0. This does not apply to effects that only reduce a cost, even if they reduce it to zero. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." In triggered abilities, X is defined when the ability resolves. It may be defined by the text of the ability, by a keyword ability of the card, or by the trigger event. See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities." In other cases, X is defined by the text of a spell or ability. If X isn't defined, the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. All Xs on an object have the same value.

X

If a cost has an "{X}" in it, the value of X must be announced as part of playing the spell or ability. (See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities.") While the spell or ability is on the stack, the {X} in its mana cost equals the amount announced as part of playing the spell or ability. If a card in any other zone has {X} in its mana cost, the amount is treated as 0. If you're playing a spell that has {X} in its mana cost and an effect lets you play it without paying any cost that includes X, the only legal choice for X is 0. This does not apply to effects that only reduce a cost, even if they reduce it to zero. See rule 409, "Playing Spells and Activated Abilities." In triggered abilities, X is defined when the ability resolves. It may be defined by the text of the ability, by a keyword ability of the card, or by the trigger event. See rule 410, "Handling Triggered Abilities." In other cases, X is defined by the text of a spell or ability. If X isn't defined, the controller of the spell or ability chooses the value of X. All Xs on an object have the same value.

You, Your

The words "you" and "your" on an object refer to the object's controller (or its owner if it has no controller). For static abilities, this is the current controller of the object it's on. For activated abilities, this is the player who played the ability. For triggered abilities, this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered. See also Controller, Owner.

You, Your

The words "you" and "your" on an object refer to the object's controller (or its owner if it has no controller). For a static ability, this is the current controller of the object it's on. For an activated ability, this is the player who played the ability. For a triggered ability, this is the controller of the object when the ability triggered. See also Controller, Owner.