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Magic: The Gathering Comprehensive Rules Changes

Coldsnap to Time Spiral

General changes

Old rule (Coldsnap) New rule (Time Spiral)

101.4a.

The Two-Headed Giant variant uses the standard mulligan rule, with some modifications. First, the starting team takes any mulligans. For a team to take a mulligan, each player on that team decides whether or not to take a mulligan, then all players who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. The first time a player takes a mulligan, he or she draws a new hand of seven cards. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand, the team repeats the process. (Subsequent hands decrease by one card as normal.) Once a player has decided to keep a hand, those cards become his or her opening hand. That player can't take any more mulligans, but his or her teammate may. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand, the other team may take mulligans.

Example: Bob and Clare are the starting team in a Two-Headed Giant game. They've each draw seven cards. After reviewing each other's hands, both Bob and Clare decide to mulligan. Each shuffles his or her hand into his or her deck and draws seven cards. Clare isn't sure about Bob's new hand, but he decides to keep it. Clare decides to take another mulligan. Bob's hand becomes his opening hand, and Clare shuffles her hand into her deck and draws six cards. Then only Clare has the option to mulligan. She decides to keep her hand of six cards and that becomes her opening hand. After that, the other team decides whether to take mulligans.

101.5b.

In most multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn. The Two-Headed Giant variant is the exception. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

101.5b.

In multiplayer games, no player skips the draw step of his or her first turn. However, the Two-Headed Giant variant has a special rule: Although the starting team's first draw step isn't skipped, only the secondary player on that team draws a card during that step. See rule 606, "Two-Headed Giant Variant."

104.3.

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}; {X}, {Y}, {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}.

104.3.

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, and {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}.

206.1.

The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It's printed below the right edge of the illustration.

206.1.

The expansion symbol indicates which Magic set a card is from. It's normally printed below the right edge of the illustration.

206.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A gold symbol signifies the card is rare; silver, uncommon; and black, common or basic land. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

206.2.

The color of the expansion symbol indicates the rarity of the card within its set. A gold symbol indicates the card is rare. A silver expansion symbol indicates the card is uncommon. A black or white expansion symbol indicates the card is common or is a basic land. A purple expansion symbol signifies a special rarity; to date, only the Time Spiral (tm) "timeshifted" cards, which were rarer than that set's rare cards, have had purple expansion symbols. (Prior to the Exodus (tm) set, all expansion symbols were black, regardless of rarity. Also, prior to the Sixth Edition core set, Magic core sets didn't have expansion symbols at all.)

206.3.

A spell or ability that affects cards from a particular set "looks" only for that set's expansion symbol. A card reprinted in the core set receives the core set's expansion symbol; any reprinted version of the card no longer counts as part of its original set unless it was reprinted with that set's expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol.

206.3.

A spell or ability that affects cards from a particular set "looks" only for that set's expansion symbol. A card reprinted in the core set receives the core set's expansion symbol. Any reprinted version of the card no longer counts as part of its original set unless it was reprinted with that set's expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol.

213.1a.

An object with no mana cost can't be played as a spell.

213.1a.

A nonexistent mana cost can't be paid.

214.3.

A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. Permanents come into play untapped. The term "permanent" is used to refer to a card or token while it's in play. The term "card" isn't used to refer to a card that's in play as a permanent. It's only used to refer to a card that's not in play and not on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. For more information, see rule 217, "Zones."

214.3.

A card or token becomes a permanent when it comes into play and it stops being a permanent when it leaves play. Permanents come into play untapped. The term "permanent" is used to refer to a card or token while it's in play. The term "card" isn't typically used to refer to a card that's in play as a permanent; rather, it's nearly always used to refer to a card that's not in play and not on the stack, such as a creature card in a player's hand. For more information, see rule 217, "Zones."

214.4.

Every permanent has a controller and is either tapped or untapped. By default, a permanent's controller is the player who put it into play.

214.4.

Every permanent has a controller. By default, a permanent's controller is the player who put it into play.

214.5.

Every permanent has a value in each of three status categories: tapped/untapped, flipped/unflipped, and face up/face down. By default, a permanent comes into play untapped, unflipped, and face up. For more information, see rule 510, "Status."

217.1b.

The order of objects in a library, in a graveyard, or on the stack can't be changed except when effects or rules allow it. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish, although who controls those objects, whether they're tapped, and what enchants or equips them must remain clear to all players.

217.1b.

The order of objects in a library, in a graveyard, or on the stack can't be changed except when effects or rules allow it. Objects in other zones can be arranged however their owners wish, although who controls those objects, whether they're tapped or flipped, and what enchants or equips them must remain clear to all players.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are two exceptions to this rule: Effects that edit the characteristics of an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates, and abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered.

217.1c.

An object that moves from one zone to another is treated as a new object. Effects connected with its previous location will no longer affect it. There are three exceptions to this rule: (1) Effects that change the characteristics of an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to the permanent that spell creates. (2) Abilities that trigger when an object moves from one zone to another (for example, "When Rancor is put into a graveyard from play") can find the object in the zone it moved to when the ability triggered. (3) Prevention effects that apply to damage from an artifact, creature, or enchantment spell on the stack will continue to apply to damage from the permanent that spell becomes.

217.7d.

A card may have one ability printed on it that removes one or more cards from the game, and another ability that refers either to "the removed cards" or to cards "removed from the game with [name]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed as a result of the first. If another object copies both abilities, the abilities will be similarly linked on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}: Remove the top ten cards of your library from the game: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Remove from the game target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death into play under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, plays it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, plays the remove-from-game ability, and then plays the return-to-play ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to play. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

217.7d.

A card may have one ability printed on it that removes one or more cards from the game, and another ability that refers either to "the removed cards" or to cards "removed from the game with [name]." These abilities are linked: the second refers only to cards in the removed-from-the-game zone removed as a result of the first. If another object gains a pair of linked abilities, the abilities will be similarly linked on that object. They can't be linked to any other ability, regardless of what other abilities the object may currently have or may have had in the past.

Example: Arc-Slogger has the ability "{R}: Remove the top ten cards of your library from the game: Arc-Slogger deals 2 damage to target creature or player." Sisters of Stone Death has the ability "{B}{G}: Remove from the game target creature blocking or blocked by Sisters of Stone Death" and the ability "{2}{B}: Put a creature card removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death into play under your control." Quicksilver Elemental has the ability "{U}: Quicksilver Elemental gains all activated abilities of target creature until end of turn." If a player has Quicksilver Elemental gain Arc-Slogger's ability, plays it, then has Quicksilver Elemental gain Sisters of Stone Death's abilities, plays the remove-from-game ability, and then plays the return-to-play ability, only the creature card Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Sisters of Stone Death's ability can be returned to play. Creature cards Quicksilver Elemental removed from the game with Arc-Slogger's ability can't be returned.

309.2f.

An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature; one with no blockers becomes an unblocked creature. The creature's state remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. (Some effects can change a creature's state.)

309.2f.

An attacking creature with one or more creatures declared as blockers for it becomes a blocked creature; one with no blockers becomes an unblocked creature. This remains unchanged until the creature is removed from combat or the combat phase ends, whichever comes first. (Some effects can change whether a creature is blocked or unblocked.)

401.1b.

An object with no mana cost can't be played as a spell.

401.1b.

A nonexistent mana cost can't be paid.

402.8g.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to play. Play this ability only during your upkeep." A player may play this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

402.8g.

An ability whose cost or effect specifies that it moves the object it's on out of a particular zone functions only in that zone, unless that ability's trigger condition, or a previous part of that ability's cost or effect, specifies that the object is put into that zone.

Example: Necrosavant says "{3}{B}{B}, Sacrifice a creature: Return Necrosavant from your graveyard to play. Play this ability only during your upkeep." A player may play this ability only if Necrosavant is in his or her graveyard.

408.1i.

Special actions don't use the stack. The special actions are playing a land (see rule 408.2d), turning a face-down creature face up (see rule 408.2h), ending continuous effects or stopping delayed triggered abilities (see rule 408.2i), and ignoring or suspending continuous effects (see rule 408.2j).

408.1i.

Special actions don't use the stack. The special actions are playing a land (see rule 408.2d), turning a face-down creature face up (see rule 408.2h), ending continuous effects or stopping delayed triggered abilities (see rule 408.2i), ignoring continuous effects (see rule 408.2j), and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game (see rule 408.2k).

408.2j.

Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore or suspend the effect from that ability for a duration. This is a special action. A player can take an action to ignore or suspend an effect only when he or she has priority. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action.

408.2j.

Some effects from static abilities allow a player to take an action to ignore the effect from that ability for a duration. This is a special action. A player can take an action to ignore an effect only when he or she has priority. The player who took the action gets priority after this special action.

408.2k.

A player who has a card with suspend in his or her hand may remove that card from the game. This is a special action. (See rule 502.59, "Suspend.") A player can remove a card with suspend in his or her hand from the game only when he or she has priority. That player gets priority after this special action.

410.10d.

Abilities that trigger on one or more permanents leaving play, or on a player losing control of a permanent, must be treated specially because the permanent with the ability may no longer be in play after the event. The game has to "look back in time" to determine what triggered. Each time an event removes from play or changes who controls one or more permanents, all the permanents in play just before the event (with continuous effects that existed at that time) are checked for trigger events that match what just left play or changed control. The same is true for cards with abilities that trigger when they leave a graveyard, as they may move to a zone that is hidden from a player.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

410.10d.

Normally, objects that exist immediately after an event are checked to see if the event matched any trigger conditions. Continuous effects that exist at that time are used to determine what the trigger conditions are and what the objects involved in the event look like. However, some triggered abilities must be treated specially because the object with the ability may no longer be in play, no longer be in a zone visible to all players, or no longer be controlled by the appropriate player. The game has to "look back in time" to determine if these abilities trigger. Abilities that trigger specifically when an object leaves play, when an object leaves any visible zone for a hidden one, or when a player loses control of an object will trigger based on their existence, and the appearance of objects, prior to the event rather than afterward.

Example: Two creatures are in play along with an artifact that has the ability "Whenever a creature is put into a graveyard from play, you gain 1 life." Someone plays a spell that destroys all artifacts, creatures, and enchantments. The artifact's ability triggers twice, even though the artifact goes to its owner's graveyard at the same time as the creatures.

413.2c.

If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible. (For example, a player can't avoid the consequences of not taking an optional action if he or she can't meet all the immediate requirements of that action.)

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

413.2c.

If an effect offers any choices other than choices already made as part of playing the spell or ability, the player announces these while applying the effect. The player can't choose an option that's illegal or impossible. (For example, a player can't avoid the consequences of not taking an optional action if he or she can't meet all the immediate requirements of that action.) Drawing a card is never considered an impossible action, even if there are no cards in the affected player's library.

Example: A spell's instruction reads, "You may sacrifice a creature. If you don't, you lose 4 life." A player who controls no creatures can't choose the sacrifice option.

419.1e.

Effects that read "As [this permanent] is turned face up . . . ," are replacement effects.

419.6h.

Some effects replace card draws. These effects are applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player's library. If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws, all actions required by the replacement are completed, if possible, before resuming the sequence. If an effect would have a player both draw a card and perform an additional action on that card, and the draw is replaced, the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect.

420.5g.

A player who was required to draw more cards than were in his or her library since the last time state-based effects were checked loses the game.

420.5g.

A player who attempted to draw a card from an empty library since the last time state-based effects were checked loses the game.

420.5n.

If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it, N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it, where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 and -1/-1 counters on it.

423.

Drawing a Card

423.1.

A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. This is done as a game action during each player's draw step. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability.

423.2.

Cards may only be drawn one at a time. If a player is instructed to draw multiple cards, that player performs that many individual card draws.

423.2a.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards, the active player performs all of his or her draws first, then each other player in turn order does the same.

423.2b.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player (seated on the right) on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

423.3.

If there are no cards in a player's library and an effect offers that player the choice to draw a card, that player may choose to do so. See rule 413.2c.

423.4.

A player who attempts to draw a card from an empty library loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (This is a state-based effect. See rule 420.5g.)

423.5.

If an effect moves cards from a player's library to that player's hand without using the word "draw," the player has not drawn those cards. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws, as well as if the player's library is empty.

423.6.

Some effects replace card draws.

423.6a.

An effect that replaces a card draw is applied even if no cards could be drawn because there are no cards in the affected player's library.

423.6b.

If an effect replaces a draw within a sequence of card draws, the replacement effect is completed before resuming the sequence.

423.6c.

Some effects perform additional actions on a card after it's drawn. If the draw is replaced, the additional action is not performed on any cards that are drawn as a result of that replacement effect or any subsequent replacement effects.

502.16a.

Buyback is a static ability of some instants and sorceries that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell. If you do, put the spell into your hand instead of into your graveyard as it resolves." Paying a spell's buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

502.16a.

Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell" and "If the buyback cost was paid, put this spell into its owner's hand instead of into that player's graveyard as it resolves." Paying a spell's buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

502.19a.

Echo is a triggered ability. "Echo" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay its mana cost."

502.19a.

Echo is a triggered ability. "Echo [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay [cost]."

502.22a.

Flashback is a static ability of some instant and sorcery cards that functions while the card is in a player's graveyard. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If you do, remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack." Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

502.22a.

Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities: one functions while the card is in a player's graveyard and the other functions while the card is on the stack. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "If the flashback cost was paid, remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack." Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

502.23a.

Threshold is a characteristic-setting ability, written "Threshold — [text]." It alters the rules text of the object it's on, based on a condition. The text can create any kind of ability. "Threshold — [text]" means "As long as you have seven or more cards in your graveyard, [this object] has '[text].'"

502.23a.

Threshold used to be a keyword ability. It is now an ability word and has no rules meaning. All cards printed with the threshold keyword have received errata. Updated wordings are available in the Oracle card reference.

502.23b.

Spells and permanents with threshold have the threshold text only if their controller has seven or more cards in his or her graveyard. Otherwise, the text after "Threshold -" is treated as though it did not appear on the spell or permanent.

502.23c.

An instant or sorcery with threshold has the threshold text only while the spell is on the stack. An artifact, creature, enchantment, or land with threshold has the threshold text only if the permanent is in play.

502.24a.

Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player's hand. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. "Madness [cost]" means "If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard" and "When this card is removed from the game this way, until that player passes next, the player may play it any time he or she could play an instant by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. When the player passes next, he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard."

502.24a.

Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with madness is in a player's hand. The second is a triggered ability that functions when the first ability is applied. "Madness [cost]" means "If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard" and "When this card is removed from the game this way, its owner may play it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesn't, he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard."

502.26a.

Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and a mana cost of {0} by paying {3} rather than its mana cost." Any time you could play an instant, you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. This action does not use the stack. (See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents.")

502.26a.

Morph is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than its mana cost." Any time you could play an instant, you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. This action does not use the stack. (See rule 504, "Face-Down Spells and Permanents.")

502.26b.

To play a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and a mana cost of {0}. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use morph to play a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it comes into play with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

502.26b.

To play a card using its morph ability, turn it face down. It becomes a 2/2 face-down creature card, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") Put it onto the stack (as a face-down spell with the same characteristics), and pay {3} rather than pay its mana cost. This follows the rules for paying alternative costs. You can use morph to play a card from any zone from which you could normally play it. When the spell resolves, it comes into play with the same characteristics the spell had. The morph effect applies to the face-down object wherever it is, and it ends when the permanent is turned face up.

502.26e.

If a face-up permanent with morph is turned face down by a spell or ability, it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and a mana cost of {0}. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") The rules for morph and face-down permanents apply to it normally.

502.26e.

If a face-up permanent is turned face down by a spell or ability, it becomes a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost. These values are the copiable values of that object's characteristics. (See rule 418.5, "Interaction of Continuous Effects," and rule 503, "Copying Objects.") The rules for morph and face-down permanents apply to it normally.

502.38b.

The bushido bonus is calculated only once per combat, when the triggered ability resolves. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won't change the bonus.

502.38b.

If a creature has multiple instances of bushido, each triggers separately.

502.38c.

If a creature has multiple instances of bushido, each triggers separately.

502.46a.

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 4091f-h.

Example: You play Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi, a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}. You announce that you're going to tap a colorless creature, a red creature, and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell's cost by {1}. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell's cost by {1}, {G}, or {W}. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi's cost.

502.46a.

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

Example: You play Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi, a spell with convoke that costs {6}{G}{W}. You announce that you're going to tap a colorless creature, a red creature, and a green-and-white creature to help pay for it. The colorless creature and the red creature each reduce the spell's cost by {1}. You choose whether the green-white creature reduces the spell's cost by {1}, {G}, or {W}. Then the creatures become tapped as you pay Guardian of Vitu-Ghazi's cost.

502.57.

Flash

502.57a.

Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it's on. "Flash" means "You may play this card any time you could play an instant."

502.57b.

Multiple instances of flash on the same object are redundant.

502.58.

Split Second

502.58a.

Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. "Split second" means "As long as this spell is on the stack, players can't play other spells or abilities that aren't mana abilities."

502.58b.

Multiple instances of split second on the same spell are redundant.

502.59.

Suspend

502.59a.

Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player's hand. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the removed-from-the-game zone. "Suspend N-[cost]" means "If you could play this card from your hand, you may pay [cost] and remove it from the game with N time counters on it. This action doesn't use the stack," and "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this card is suspended, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this card, if it's removed from the game, play it without paying its mana cost if able. If you can't, it remains removed from the game. If you play a creature spell this way, it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes."

502.59b.

A card is "suspended" if it's in the removed-from-the-game zone, has suspend, and has a time counter on it.

502.59c.

Playing a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h.

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, "comes into play as" abilities, and abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and a mana cost of {0}. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

503.2.

When copying an object, the copy acquires the copiable values of the original object's characteristics (name, mana cost, color, type, supertype, subtype, expansion symbol, rules text, power, and toughness) and, for an object on the stack, choices made when playing it (mode, targets, the value of X, whether a kicker cost was paid, how it will affect multiple targets, and so on). The "copiable values" are the values that are printed on the object, as modified by other copy effects, "comes into play as" abilities, and abilities that caused the object to be face down. Other effects (including type-changing and text-changing effects), status, and counters are not copied.

Example: Chimeric Staff is an artifact that reads "{X}: Chimeric Staff becomes an X/X artifact creature until end of turn." Clone is a creature that reads, "As Clone comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Clone comes into play as a copy of that creature." After a Staff has become a 5/5 artifact creature, a Clone comes into play as a copy of it. The Clone is an artifact, not a 5/5 artifact creature. (The copy has the Staff's ability, however, and will become a creature if that ability is activated.)

Example: Clone comes into play as a copy of a face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph {2}{B}{B}). The Clone is a colorless 2/2 creature with no name, no types, no abilities, and no mana cost. It will still be face up. Its controller can't pay {2}{B}{B} to turn it face up.

503.3.

The copy's copiable values become the copied information, as modified by the copy's status. Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, "As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains 'At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. If you do, this creature gains this ability.'" A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger's upkeep-triggered ability.

Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Tomoya's characteristics become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious, which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). The Demon's characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. However, since the creature is face down, it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and a mana cost of {0}. It can be turned face up for {G}. If it's turned face up, it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn't have morph). It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and a mana cost of {0}. Its controller can't turn it face up as a special action. If an effect turns it face up, it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.

503.3.

The copy's copiable values become the copied information, as modified by the copy's status. Objects that copy the object will use the new copiable values.

Example: Vesuvan Doppelganger reads, "As Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play, you may choose a creature in play. If you do, Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of that creature except for its color and gains 'At the beginning of your upkeep, you may have this creature become a copy of target creature except for its color. If you do, this creature gains this ability.'" A Vesuvan Doppelganger comes into play as a copy of Grizzly Bears (a 2/2 green creature with no abilities). Then a Clone comes into play as a copy of the Doppelganger. The Clone is a 2/2 blue Bear named Grizzly Bears that has the Doppelganger's upkeep-triggered ability.

Example: Tomoya the Revealer (a flipped flip card) becomes a copy of Nezumi Shortfang (an unflipped flip card). Tomoya's characteristics become the characteristics of Stabwhisker the Odious, which is the flipped version of Nezumi Shortfang.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of a face-up Branchsnap Lorian (a 4/1 green creature with trample and morph {G}). The Demon's characteristics become the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian. However, since the creature is face down, it remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. It can be turned face up for {G}. If it's turned face up, it will have the characteristics of Branchsnap Lorian.

Example: A face-down Grinning Demon (a creature with morph) becomes a copy of Wandering Ones (a 1/1 blue Spirit creature that doesn't have morph). It will be a face-down Wandering Ones. It remains a 2/2 colorless creature with no name, types, or abilities, and no mana cost. Its controller can't turn it face up as a special action. If an effect turns it face up, it will have the characteristics of Wandering Ones.

504.1.

One old card (Illusionary Mask) and the morph ability (see rule 502.26) allow spells and permanents to be face down.

504.1.

Two cards (Illusionary Mask and Ixidron) and the morph ability (see rule 502.26) allow spells and permanents to be face down.

504.8.

If a face-down permanent would have an "As [this permanent] is turned face up . . ." ability after it's turned face up, that ability is applied while that permanent is being turned face up, not afterward.

505.6.

An effect that performs a positive comparison (such as asking if a card is red) or a relative comparison (such as asking if a card's converted mana cost is less than 2) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of those split cards would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. An effect that performs a negative comparison (such as asking if cards have different names) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a "no" answer.

Example: Void reads, "Choose a number. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number." If a player plays Void and chooses 1, his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because the game sees its converted mana cost as "1, and 4." The same is true if the player chooses 4. If the player chooses 5, however, Assault/Battery would be unaffected.

505.6.

An effect that performs a positive comparison (such as asking if a card is red) or a relative comparison (such as asking if a card's converted mana cost is less than 2) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if either side of each split card in the comparison would return a "yes" answer if compared individually. An effect that performs a negative comparison (such as asking if cards have different names) involving characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack also gets only one answer. This answer is "yes" if performing the comparable positive comparison would return a "no" answer. If an effect performs a comparison involving multiple characteristics of one or more split cards in any zone other than the stack, each characteristic is compared separately. If each of the individual comparisons would return a "yes" answer, the whole comparison returns a "yes" answer.

Example: Void reads, "Choose a number. Destroy all artifacts and creatures with converted mana cost equal to that number. Then target player reveals his or her hand and discards all nonland cards with converted mana cost equal to the number." If a player plays Void and chooses 1, his or her opponent would discard Assault/Battery because the game sees its converted mana cost as "1, and 4." The same is true if the player chooses 4. If the player chooses 5, however, Assault/Battery would be unaffected.

506.1.

Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. A "subgame" is the game created by the card's effect. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. The main game is suspended while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.

506.1.

Some cards allow players to play a Magic subgame. A "subgame" is the game created by the card's effect. The "main game" is the game in which the spell or ability that created the subgame was played. The main game is temporarily discontinued while the subgame is in progress. It resumes when the subgame ends.

511.1.

To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip, the affected player flips the coin and calls "heads" or "tails" while the coin is in the air. If the call matches the result, that player wins the flip. Otherwise, the player loses the flip. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip; no other players are involved.

511.1.

To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip, the affected player flips the coin and calls "heads" or "tails." If the call matches the result, that player wins the flip. Otherwise, the player loses the flip. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip; no other players are involved.

600.4a.

When a player leaves the game, all objects (see rule 200.8) owned by that player leave the game, all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist, and any change-of-control effects which give that player control of any objects end. Then, if there are any objects still controlled by that player, those objects leave the game. This is not a state-based effect. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. A player leaving the game doesn't affect combat damage on the stack.

Example: Alex plays Control Magic, an Aura that reads, "You control enchanted creature," on Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, so does Control Magic, and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, so does Wall of Wood, and Control Magic is put into Alex's graveyard.

Example: Alex plays Threaten, which reads, in part, "Untap target creature and gain control of it until end of turn," targeting Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, Threaten's change-of-control effect ends and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control.

Example: Alex plays Bribery, which reads, "Search target opponent's library for a creature card and put that card into play under your control. Then that player shuffles his or her library," targeting Bianca. Alex puts Wall of Wood into play from Bianca's library. If Alex leaves the game, Wall of Wood leaves the game. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, Wall of Wood still leaves the game.

Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber, which reads, "Whenever a nontoken creature comes into play, if Genesis Chamber is untapped, that creature's controller puts a 1/1 Myr artifact creature token into play." If Alex leaves the game, all Myr tokens created by Genesis Chamber while it was under Alex's control leave the game as well because Alex owns the tokens.

600.4a.

When a player leaves the game, all objects (see rule 200.8) owned by that player leave the game, all spells and abilities controlled by that player on the stack cease to exist, and any change-of-control effects which give that player control of any objects end. Then, if there are any objects still controlled by that player, those objects leave the game. (Any objects leaving the game this way that aren't owned by the player leaving the game are placed in the removed-from-the-game zone.) This is not a state-based effect. It happens as soon as the player leaves the game. A player leaving the game doesn't affect combat damage on the stack.

Example: Alex plays Control Magic, an Aura that reads, "You control enchanted creature," on Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, so does Control Magic, and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, so does Wall of Wood, and Control Magic is put into Alex's graveyard.

Example: Alex plays Threaten, which reads, in part, "Untap target creature and gain control of it until end of turn," targeting Bianca's Wall of Wood. If Alex leaves the game, Threaten's change-of-control effect ends and Wall of Wood reverts to Bianca's control.

Example: Alex plays Bribery, which reads, "Search target opponent's library for a creature card and put that card into play under your control. Then that player shuffles his or her library," targeting Bianca. Alex puts Wall of Wood into play from Bianca's library. If Alex leaves the game, Wall of Wood leaves the game. If, instead, Bianca leaves the game, Wall of Wood still leaves the game.

Example: Alex controls Genesis Chamber, which reads, "Whenever a nontoken creature comes into play, if Genesis Chamber is untapped, that creature's controller puts a 1/1 Myr artifact creature token into play." If Alex leaves the game, all Myr tokens created by Genesis Chamber while it was under Alex's control leave the game as well because Alex owns the tokens.

606.6a.

The starting team skips the draw step of its first turn (see rule 101.5).

606.6a.

A player who is dissatisfied with his or her initial hand may mulligan. First, the starting team takes any mulligans. For a team to take a mulligan, each player on that team decides whether to shuffle his or her hand back into the deck and then draw a new hand of seven cards. All players on that team who chose to do so take their mulligans at the same time. After each player on that team who took a mulligan looks at his or her new hand, the team repeats the process, resulting in a hand of one fewer card each time, until the hand size reaches zero cards. Teammates may consult during this process, but a player can't see the result of his or her teammate's mulligan before deciding whether to take a mulligan at the same time. Once a player has decided to keep a hand, those cards become his or her opening hand. That player can't take any more mulligans, but his or her teammate may. Once each player on the starting team decides to keep an opening hand, the other team may take mulligans.

606.6b.

Teams have priority, not individual players.

606.6b.

During the draw step of the starting team's first turn, only the secondary player draws a card. The primary player does not (see rule 101.5).

606.6c.

The Active Player, Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 103.4) is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. The team whose turn it is is the active team. The other team is the nonactive team. If both teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first the active team makes any choices required, then the nonactive team makes any choices required. Then the actions happen simultaneously.

606.6c.

Teams have priority, not individual players.

606.6d.

A player may play a spell or activated ability, or take a special action, only when his or her team has priority. If both players on a team want to take an action at the same time, the primary player decides who takes the action. Each player on a team draws a card during that team's draw step. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team's turns.

606.6d.

The Active Player, Nonactive Player order rule (see rule 103.4) is modified for Two-Headed Giant play. The team whose turn it is is the active team. The other team is the nonactive team. If both teams would make choices and/or take actions at the same time, first the active team makes any choices required, then the nonactive team makes any choices required. Then the actions happen simultaneously.

606.6e.

If neither player on a team wishes to do anything, that team passes. If both teams pass in succession (that is, if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing), the top object on the stack resolves, then the active team receives priority. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession, the phase or step ends and the next one begins.

606.6e.

A player may play a spell or activated ability, or take a special action, only when his or her team has priority. If both players on a team want to take an action at the same time, the primary player decides who takes the action. Each player on a team draws a card during that team's draw step. Each player on a team may play a land during each of that team's turns.

606.6f.

If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player's turn, that player's team takes the extra turn, phase, or step. If an effect causes a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, that player's team does so. If an effect causes a player to control another player's turn, the controller of that effect controls the affected player's team's turn.

606.6f.

If neither player on a team wishes to do anything, that team passes. If both teams pass in succession (that is, if both teams pass without any player taking any actions in between passing), the top object on the stack resolves, then the active team receives priority. If the stack is empty when both teams pass in succession, the phase or step ends and the next one begins.

606.6g.

If an effect gives a player an extra turn or adds a phase or step to that player's turn, that player's team takes the extra turn, phase, or step. If an effect causes a player to skip a step, phase, or turn, that player's team does so. If an effect causes a player to control another player's turn, the controller of that effect controls the affected player's team's turn.

606.6h.

If an effect instructs more than one player to draw cards in a Two-Headed Giant game, first the primary player on the active team performs all of his or her draws, then the secondary player on that team performs all of his or her draws, then the nonactive team does the same.

606.7b.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If a creature is unable to attack one of the defending players, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole.

606.7b.

As the declare attackers step begins, the active team declares attackers. If a creature is unable to attack one of the defending players, that creature can't attack the defending team. The active team has one combined attack, and that set of attacking creatures must be legal as a whole.

Example: One player in a Two-Headed Giant game controls Teferi's Moat, which says "As Teferi's Moat comes into play, choose a color.

Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack you." Creatures of the chosen color without flying can't attack that player's team.

606.7c.

As the declare blockers step begins, the defending team declares blockers. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. The defending team has one combined block, and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole.

606.7c.

As the declare blockers step begins, the defending team declares blockers. Creatures controlled by the defending players can block any attacking creatures. The defending team has one combined block, and that set of blocking creatures must be legal as a whole.

Example: If an attacking creature has forestwalk and either player on the defending team controls a Forest, the creature can't be blocked.

606.9.

Damage, loss of life, and gaining life happens to each player individually. The result is applied to the team's shared life total.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player plays Flame Rift, which reads, "Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player." Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage.

606.9.

Damage, loss of life, and gaining life happen to each player individually. The result is applied to the team's shared life total.

Example: In a Two-Headed Giant game, a player plays Flame Rift, which reads, "Flame Rift deals 4 damage to each player." Each team is dealt a total of 8 damage.

Active Player, Nonactive Player Order

Whenever players are instructed to make choices at the same time, the active player makes all his or her choices first, then the nonactive players do so in turn order. This is called the "Active Player, Nonactive Player order" rule, or "APNAP order" rule. See rule 103.4. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play; see rule 606.6c.

Active Player, Nonactive Player Order

Whenever players are instructed to make choices at the same time, the active player makes all his or her choices first, then the nonactive players do so in turn order. This is called the "Active Player, Nonactive Player order" rule, or "APNAP order" rule. See rule 103.4. This rule is modified for Two-Headed Giant play; see rule 606.6d.

Active Team

In the Two-Headed Giant variant, the active team is the team whose turn it is. The active team gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps), after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves, and after combat damage resolves. See rule 200.3 and rule 606.6c.

Active Team

In the Two-Headed Giant variant, the active team is the team whose turn it is. The active team gets priority at the start of each phase or step (except for the untap and cleanup steps), after any spell or ability (except a mana ability) resolves, and after combat damage resolves. See rule 200.3 and rule 606.6d.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. However, if an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Coldsnap (tm) set, is as follows: Equipment.

Artifact Type

Artifact subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Artifact — Equipment." Artifact subtypes are also called artifact types. However, if an artifact creature card has subtypes printed on its type line, those subtypes are creature types. If an artifact land card has subtypes printed on its type line, those types are land types. The list of artifact types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Equipment.

Bushido

Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido N" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn." The bushido bonus is calculated only once per combat, when the triggered ability resolves. Adding or removing blockers later in combat won't change the bonus. (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

Bushido

Bushido is a triggered ability. "Bushido N" means "Whenever this creature blocks or becomes blocked, it gets +N/+N until end of turn." (See rule 309, "Declare Blockers Step.")

Buyback

Buyback is a static ability of some instants and sorceries that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell. If you do, put the spell into your hand instead of into your graveyard as it resolves." Paying a spell's buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. If the spell goes to some zone other than its owner's graveyard as it resolves, buyback's effect "loses track" of it, and it isn't returned to its owner's hand. See rule 502.16, "Buyback."

Buyback

Buyback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities that function while the spell is on the stack. "Buyback [cost]" means "You may pay an additional [cost] as you play this spell" and "If the buyback cost was paid, put this spell into its owner's hand instead of into that player's graveyard as it resolves." Paying a spell's buyback cost follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.16, "Buyback."

Convoke

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 4091f-h. It can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0. See rule 502.46, "Convoke."

Convoke

Convoke is a static ability that functions while the spell is on the stack. "Convoke" means "As an additional cost to play this spell, you may tap any number of untapped creatures you control. Each creature tapped this way reduces the cost to play this spell by {1} or by one mana of any of that creature's colors." Using the convoke ability follows the rules for paying additional costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. It can't reduce the cost to play a spell to less than 0. See rule 502.46, "Convoke."

Counter

Counter has two meanings in the Magic game. 1. To counter a spell or ability is to cancel it, removing it from the stack. It doesn't resolve and none of its effects occur. A countered spell is put into its owner's graveyard. See rule 414, "Countering Spells and Abilities." 2. A counter is a marker placed on an object, either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an effect. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. These bonuses are added after permanent-type changing effects and after most other power and toughness changing effects. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. See rule 418.5a. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. Counters may also be given to players. For information about poison counters, see rule 102.3d.

Counter

Counter has two meanings in the Magic game. 1. To counter a spell or ability is to cancel it, removing it from the stack. It doesn't resolve and none of its effects occur. A countered spell is put into its owner's graveyard. See rule 414, "Countering Spells and Abilities." 2. A counter is a marker placed on an object, either modifying its characteristics or interacting with an effect. A +X/+Y counter on a permanent, where X and Y are numbers, adds X to that permanent's power and Y to that permanent's toughness. These bonuses are added after permanent-type changing effects and after most other power and toughness changing effects. Similarly, -X/-Y counters subtract from power and toughness. See rule 418.5a. Counters with the same name or description are interchangeable. Counters may also be given to players. For information about poison counters, see rule 102.3d. If a permanent has both a +1/+1 counter and a -1/-1 counter on it, N +1/+1 and N -1/-1 counters are removed from it, where N is the smaller of the number of +1/+1 and -1/-1 counters on it. This is a state-based effect; see rule 420.5n.

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Coldsnap set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cavalry, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dandan , Demon, Dervish, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Flying-Men, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gaea's-Liege, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hunter, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mosquito, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Sindbad, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Sponge, Sprite, Spuzzem, Spy, Squire, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Taskmaster, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Uncle-Istvan, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Creature Type

Creature subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Creature — Human Soldier," "Artifact Creature — Golem," and so on. Creature subtypes are also called creature types. Creatures may have multiple subtypes. The list of creature types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Abomination, Aboroth, Advisor, Aladdin, Albatross, Alchemist, Ali-Baba, Ali-from-Cairo, Alligator, Ambush-Party, Angel, Ant, Antelope, Ape, Archaeologist, Archer, Archon, Artificer, Asp, Assassin, Assembly-Worker, Atog, Aurochs, Avatar, Avenger, Avizoa, Badger, Ball-Lightning, Bandit, Banshee, Barbarian, Barishi, Basilisk, Bat, Bear, Beast, Bee, Beeble, Being, Berserker, Bird, Blinkmoth, Boar, Bodyguard, Bringer, Brother, Brownie, Brushwagg, Bull, Bureaucrat, Camarid, Camel, Caravan, Caribou, Carnivore, Carriage, Carrier, Cat, Cave-People, Centaur, Cephalid, Cheetah, Chicken, Child, Chimera, Citizen, Clamfolk, Cleric, Cobra, Cockatrice, Constable, Construct, Cow, Crab, Crocodile, Crusader, Cyclops, Dauthi, Demon, Deserter, Designer, Devil, Devouring-Deep, Dinosaur, Djinn, Dog, Donkey, Doppelganger, Dragon, Dragonfly, Drake, Dreadnought, Drill-Sergeant, Drone, Druid, Dryad, Dwarf, Eater, Eel, Effigy, Efreet, Egg, Elder, Elemental, Elephant, Elf, El-Hajjaj, Enchantress, Entity, Erne, Essence, Exorcist, Expansion-Symbol, Eye, Faerie, Fallen, Farmer, Ferret, Fiend, Fish, Flagbearer, Fox, Frog, Frostbeast, Fungus, Fungusaur, Gaea's-Avenger, Gamer, Gargoyle, Gatekeeper, General, Ghost, Ghoul, Giant, Gnome, Goat, Goblin, Golem, Gorgon, Graveborn, Gremlin, Griffin, Guardian, Gus, Gypsy, Hag, Harlequin, Heretic, Hero, Hipparion, Hippo, Homarid, Hornet, Horror, Horse, Horseman, Hound, Human, Hydra, Hyena, Illusion, Imp, Incarnation, Infernal-Denizen, Inquisitor, Insect, Island-Fish, Jackal, Jellyfish, Juggernaut, Kavu, Keeper, Kelp, King, Kirin, Kithkin, Knight, Kobold, Kor, Kraken, Lady-of-Proper-Etiquette, Lammasu, Leech, Legionnaire, Lemure, Leper, Leviathan, Lhurgoyf, Licid, Lizard, Lord, Lurker, Lycanthrope, Mage, Maiden, Mammoth, Manticore, Marid, Martyr, Master, Medusa, Mercenary, Merchant, Merfolk, Mime, Minion, Minor, Minotaur, Miracle-Worker, Mist, Mob, Mold-Demon, Monger, Mongoose, Monk, Monster, Moonfolk, Mummy, Murk-Dwellers, Mutant, Myr, Mystic, Nameless-Race, Narwhal, Nephilim, Niall-Silvain, Nightmare, Nightstalker, Ninja, Noble, Nomad, Octopus, Ogre, Ooze, Orb, Orc, Orgg, Ouphe, Ox, Oyster, Paladin, Paratrooper, Peacekeeper, Pegasus, Penguin, Pentavite, People-of-the-Woods, Pest, Phantasm, Phelddagrif, Phoenix, Pig, Pikemen, Pincher, Pirate, Pixie-Queen, Plant, Poison-Snake, Poltergeist, Pony, Preacher, Priest, Prism, Pyknite, Rabbit, Raider, Ranger, Rat, Rebel, Reflection, Rhino, Robber, Roc, Rock-Sled, Rogue, Sage, Salamander, Samurai, Sand, Saproling, Satyr, Scavenger, Scorpion, Scout, Serf, Serpent, Shade, Shaman, Shapeshifter, Shark, Sheep, Ship, Shyft, Singing-Tree, Sister, Skeleton, Slith, Sliver, Slug, Smith, Snake, Soldier, Soltari, Sorceress, Spawn, Speaker, Specter, Spellshaper, Sphinx, Spider, Spike, Spirit, Splinter, Sponge, Spuzzem, Spy, Squirrel, Stangg-Twin, Starfish, Strider, Survivor, Swarm, Tactician, Tarpan, Teddy, Tetravite, Thief, The-Biggest-Baddest-Nastiest-Scariest-Creature-You'll-Ever-See, Thopter, Thrull, Thundermare, Tiger, Titan, Toad, Tortoise, Townsfolk, Tracker, Treefolk, Triskelavite, Troll, Turtle, Twin, Undead, Unicorn, Vampire, Vedalken, Viashino, Villain, Viper, Volver, Vulture, Waiter, Walking-Dead, Wall, War-Rider, Warrior, Wasp, Weird, Whale, Whippoorwill, Wight, Wiitigo, Wirefly, Witch, Wizard, Wolf, Wolverine, Wolverine-Pack, Wolves-of-the-Hunt, Wombat, Worm, Wraith, Wretched, Wurm, Yeti, Zombie, Zubera

Draw

Draw has two meanings in the Magic game. 1. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. If an instruction tells a player to draw more than one card, the cards are drawn one at a time. An effect may move cards from a player's library to that player's hand without the player "drawing" them; this makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws. 2. A drawn game is a game where the game ends and there is no winner. See rule 102.4.

Draw

Draw has two meanings in the Magic game. 1. A player draws a card by putting the top card of his or her library into his or her hand. This is done as a game action during each player's draw step. It may also be done as part of a cost or effect of a spell or ability. If an effect moves cards from a player's library to that player's hand without using the word "draw," the player has not drawn those cards. This makes a difference for abilities that trigger on drawing cards or that replace card draws, as well as if the player's library is empty. See rule 423, "Drawing a Card." 2. A drawn game is a game where the game ends and there is no winner. See rule 102.4.

Echo

Echo is a triggered ability. "Echo" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay its mana cost." See rule 502.19, "Echo."

Echo

Echo is a triggered ability. "Echo [cost]" means "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this permanent came under your control since the beginning of your last upkeep, sacrifice it unless you pay its echo cost." Urza block cards with the echo ability were printed without an echo cost; these cards have been given errata to have an echo cost equal to their mana cost. See rule 502.19, "Echo."

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Coldsnap set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Enchantment Type

Enchantment subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Enchantment — Shrine." Enchantment subtypes are also called enchantment types. The list of enchantment types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Aura, Shrine.

Expansion Symbol

The small icon printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol. It indicates the set in which the card was published. Cards reprinted in a core set or another expansion receive its expansion symbol. Spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion only affect cards with that set's expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol. Visit the products section of www.magicthegathering.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=magic/products/cardsets). Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or allowed by the Magic Floor Rules). See the Magic Floor Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home).

Expansion Symbol

The small icon normally printed below the right edge of the illustration on a Magic card is the expansion symbol. It indicates the set in which the card was published. Cards reprinted in a core set or another expansion receive its expansion symbol. Spells and abilities that affect cards from a particular expansion only affect cards with that set's expansion symbol. The first five editions of the core set had no expansion symbol. See rule 206, "Expansion Symbol. Visit the products section of www.magicthegathering.com for the full list of expansions and expansion symbols (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=magic/products/cardsets). Players may include cards from any printing in their constructed decks if those cards appear in sets allowed in that format (or allowed by the Magic Floor Rules). See the Magic Floor Rules for the current definitions of the constructed formats (www.wizards.com/default.asp?x=dci/doccenter/home).

Flash

Flash is a static ability that functions in any zone from which you could play the card it's on. "Flash" means "You may play this card any time you could play an instant." See rule 502.57, "Flash."

Flashback

Flashback is a static ability of some instant and sorcery cards that functions while the card is in a player's graveyard. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If you do, remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack." Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.22, "Flashback."

Flashback

Flashback appears on some instants and sorceries. It represents two static abilities: one functions while the card is in a player's graveyard and the other functions while the card is on the stack. "Flashback [cost]" means "You may play this card from your graveyard by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost" and "If the flashback cost was paid, remove this card from the game instead of putting it anywhere else any time it would leave the stack." Playing a spell using its flashback ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.22, "Flashback."

Flip Cards

Flip cards, such as the "heroes" from the Champions of Kamigawa (tm) set, have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card's normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. See rule 508, "Flip Cards." The top half of a flip card contains the card's normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to "flip" if certain conditions are met. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply. In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it's impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if flipped permanent leaves play, it retains no memory of its status.

Flip Cards

Flip cards have a two-part card frame on a single card. The text that appears right side up on the card defines the card's normal characteristics. Additional alternative characteristics appear upside down on the card. The back of a flip card is the normal Magic: The Gathering card back. See rule 508, "Flip Cards." The top half of a flip card contains the card's normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. The text box usually contains an ability that causes the permanent to "flip" if certain conditions are met. The bottom half of a flip card contains an alternative name, text box, type line, power, and toughness. These characteristics are used only if the permanent is in play and only if the permanent is flipped. A flip card's color, mana cost, expansion symbol, illustration credit, and legal text don't change if the permanent is flipped. Also, any changes to it by external effects will still apply. In every zone other than the in-play zone, and also in the in-play zone before the permanent flips, a flip card has only the normal characteristics of the permanent. Once the flip permanent in the in-play zone is flipped, the normal name, text box, type line, power, and toughness of the flip permanent don't apply and the alternative versions of those characteristics apply instead. If you control a flip permanent, you must ensure that it's clear at all times whether the permanent is flipped or not, both when it's untapped and when it's tapped. Common methods for distinguishing between flipped and unflipped permanents include using coins or dice to mark flipped objects. Flipping a permanent is a one-way process. Once a permanent is flipped, it's impossible for it to become unflipped. However, if flipped permanent leaves play, it retains no memory of its status.

Flip a Coin

To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip, the affected player flips the coin and calls "heads" or "tails" while the coin is in the air. If the call matches the result, that player wins the flip. Otherwise, the player loses the flip. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip; no other players are involved. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails, each affected player flips a coin without making a call. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. If the coin that's being flipped doesn't have an obvious "heads" or "tails," designate one side to be "heads," and the other side to be "tails." Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution.

Flip a Coin

To flip a coin for an object that cares whether a player wins or loses the flip, the affected player flips the coin and calls "heads" or "tails." If the call matches the result, that player wins the flip. Otherwise, the player loses the flip. Only the player who flips the coin wins or loses the flip; no other players are involved. To flip a coin for an object that cares whether the coin comes up heads or tails, each affected player flips a coin without making a call. No player wins or loses this kind of flip. If the coin that's being flipped doesn't have an obvious "heads" or "tails," designate one side to be "heads," and the other side to be "tails." Other methods of randomization may be substituted for flipping a coin as long as there are two possible outcomes of equal likelihood and all players agree to the substitution.

Instant Type

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. The list of instant types, updated through the Coldsnap set, is as follows: Arcane.

Instant Type

Instant subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Instant — Arcane." Instant subtypes are also called instant types. An instant subtype that's also a sorcery subtype is also called a spell type. The list of instant types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Arcane.

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Coldsnap set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Land Type

Land subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Land — Locus, Land — Urza's Mine," etc. Land subtypes are also called land types. Lands may have multiple subtypes. Note that "basic," "legendary," and "nonbasic" aren't land types. See rule 212.6, "Lands." See also Basic Land Type. The list of land types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Desert, Forest, Island, Lair, Locus, Mine, Mountain, Plains, Power-Plant, Swamp, Tower, Urza's

Landcycling

"Landcycling" is a generic term; a card's rules text usually names a specific type of land, such as "plainscycling." Landcycling is an activated ability. "Plainscycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a plains card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." See rule 502.18, "Cycling."

Landcycling

"Landcycling" is a generic term; a card's rules text usually names a specific type of land, such as "plainscycling." Landcycling is an activated ability. "Plainscycling [cost]" means "[Cost], Discard this card: Search your library for a Plains card, reveal it, and put it into your hand. Then shuffle your library." See rule 502.18, "Cycling."

Lose the Game

There are several ways to lose the game. A player can concede the game at any time; a player who concedes loses the game immediately. If a player's life total is 0 or less, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). When a player is required to draw more cards than are left in his or her library, he or she draws the remaining cards, and then loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player would both win and lose simultaneously, he or she loses. In a multiplayer game between teams, a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost. See rule 102, "Winning and Losing."

Lose the Game

There are several ways to lose the game. A player can concede the game at any time; a player who concedes loses the game immediately. If a player's life total is 0 or less, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player attempts to draw a card from an empty library, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player has ten or more poison counters, he or she loses the game the next time a player would receive priority. (this is a state-based effect; see rule 420). If a player would both win and lose simultaneously, he or she loses. In a multiplayer game between teams, a team loses the game if all players on that team have lost. See rule 102, "Winning and Losing."

Madness

Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. "Madness [cost]" means "If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard" and "When this card is removed from the game this way, until that player passes next, the player may play it any time he or she could play an instant by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. When the player passes next, he or she puts it into his or her graveyard." See rule 502.24, "Madness."

Madness

Madness is a keyword that represents two abilities. "Madness [cost]" means "If a player would discard this card, that player discards it, but may remove it from the game instead of putting it into his or her graveyard" and "When this card is removed from the game this way, its owner may play it by paying [cost] rather than paying its mana cost. If that player doesn't, he or she puts this card into his or her graveyard." See rule 502.24, "Madness."

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}; {X}, {Y}, {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. See rule 104.3f. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. See rule 104.3h.

Mana Symbol

The mana symbols are {W}, {U}, {B}, {R}, {G}, {X}, {Y}, and {Z}; the numerals {0}, {1}, {2}, {3}, {4}, and so on; the hybrid symbols {W/U}, {W/B}, {U/B}, {U/R}, {B/R}, {B/G}, {R/G}, {R/W}, {G/W}, and {G/U}; and the snow symbol {S}. See rule 104.3. Each of the colored mana symbols represents one colored mana: {W} white, {U} blue, {B} black, {R} red, and {G} green. See rule 104.3a. Numeral symbols (such as {1}) are generic mana costs and represent an amount of mana that can be paid with any color of, or colorless, mana. See rule 104.3b. The symbols {X}, {Y} and {Z} represent unspecified amounts of mana; when playing a spell or activated ability with {X}, {Y}, or {Z} in its cost, its controller decides the value of that variable. See rule 104.3c. Numeral symbols and variable symbols can also represent colorless mana if they appear in the effect of a spell or of a mana ability that reads "add [mana symbol] to your mana pool" or something similar. See rule 104.3d. The symbol {0} represents zero mana and is used as a placeholder when a spell or activated ability costs nothing to play. A spell or ability whose cost is {0} must still be played the same way as one with a cost greater than zero; it won't play itself automatically. See rule 104.3e. Each of the hybrid mana symbols represents a cost which can be paid with one of two colors: {W/U} in a cost can be paid with either white or blue mana, {W/B} white or black, {U/B} blue or black, {U/R} blue or red, {B/R} black or red, {B/G} black or green, {R/G} red or green, {R/W} red or white, {G/W} green or white, and {G/U} green or blue. See rule 104.3f. The symbol {S} represents a cost that can be paid with one mana produced by a snow permanent. See rule 104.3h.

Morph

Morph is a static ability that functions any time you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and a mana cost of {0} by paying {3} rather than its mana cost." Any time you could play an instant, you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. This action does not use the stack. See rule 502.26, "Morph."

Morph

Morph is a static ability that functions any time you could play the card it's on, and the morph effect works any time the card is face down. "Morph [cost]" means "You may play this card as a 2/2 face-down creature, with no text, no name, no subtypes, no expansion symbol, and no mana cost by paying {3} rather than its mana cost." Any time you could play an instant, you may show all players the morph cost for any face-down permanent you control, pay that cost, then turn the permanent face up. This action doesn't use the stack. See rule 502.26, "Morph."

Mulligan

A player can "mulligan" by shuffling his or her hand back into his or her library and drawing a new hand with one fewer card before taking the first turn. Any player dissatisfied with his or her starting hand may mulligan as often as he or she wishes, drawing one fewer card each time. See rule 101.4.

Mulligan

A player can "mulligan" by shuffling his or her hand back into his or her library and drawing a new hand with one fewer card before taking the first turn. Any player dissatisfied with his or her starting hand may mulligan as often as he or she wishes, drawing one fewer card each time. See rule 101.4. The Two-Headed Giant variant uses a modified mulligan rule; see rule 606.6a.

Protection

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." See rule 502.7, "Protection." A permanent with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. A permanent with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Aura attached to the permanent with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality. Such Equipment becomes unattached from that permanent, but remains in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. If a creature with protection attacks, it can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Protection

Protection is a static ability, written "Protection from [quality]." See rule 502.7, "Protection." A permanent with protection can't be targeted by spells with the stated quality and can't be targeted by abilities from a source with the stated quality. A permanent with protection can't be enchanted by Auras that have the stated quality. Such Auras attached to the permanent with protection will be put into their owners' graveyards as a state-based effect. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") A permanent with protection can't be equipped by Equipment that has the stated quality. Such Equipment becomes unattached from that permanent, but remains in play. (See rule 420, "State-Based Effects.") Any damage that would be dealt to a permanent with protection from sources having that quality is prevented. If a creature with protection attacks, it can't be blocked by creatures that have the stated quality.

Recover

Recover is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with recover is in a player's graveyard. "Recover [cost]" means "When a creature is put into your graveyard from play, you may pay [cost]. If you do, return this card from your graveyard to your hand. Otherwise, remove this card from the game." See rule 502.55, "Recover."

Ripple

Ripple is a triggered ability that functions only while the card with ripple is on the stack. "Ripple N" means "When you play this spell, you may reveal the top N cards of your library, or, if there are fewer than N cards in your library, you may reveal all the cards in your library. If you reveal cards from your library this way, you may play any of those cards with the same name as this spell without paying their mana costs, then put all revealed cards not played this way on the bottom of your library in any order." See rule 502.56, "Ripple."

Sorcery Type

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. The list of sorcery types, updated through the Coldsnap set, is as follows: Arcane.

Sorcery Type

Sorcery subtypes are always a single word and are listed after a long dash: "Sorcery — Arcane." Sorcery subtypes are also called sorcery types. A sorcery subtype that's also an instant subtype is also called a spell type. The list of sorcery types, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: Arcane.

Special Action

Special actions don't use the stack. The special actions are playing a land, turning a face-down creature face up, ending continuous effects or stopping delayed triggered abilities, and ignoring or suspending continuous effects. See rule 408.1i and rule 408.2, "Actions That Don't Use the Stack."

Special Action

Special actions don't use the stack. The special actions are playing a land, turning a face-down creature face up, ending continuous effects or stopping delayed triggered abilities, ignoring continuous effects, and removing a card with suspend in your hand from the game. See rule 408.1i and rule 408.2, "Actions That Don't Use the Stack."

Split Second

Split second is a static ability that functions only while the spell with split second is on the stack. "Split second" means "As long as this spell is on the stack, players can't play other spells or abilities that aren't mana abilities." See rule 502.58, "Split Second."

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Coldsnap set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Supertype

A card can have one or more "supertypes." These are printed directly before the card's types. If an object's types or subtypes change, any supertypes it has are kept, although they may not be relevant to the new type. See rule 205.4, "Supertypes." An object's supertype is independent of its type and subtype. Changing an object's type or subtype won't change its supertype. Changing an object's supertype won't change its type or subtype. When an object gains or loses a supertype, it retains any other supertypes it had. See rule 212. "Type, Supertype, and Subtype." The list of supertypes, updated through the Time Spiral set, is as follows: basic, legendary, snow, and world.

Suspend

Suspend is a keyword that represents three abilities. The first is a static ability that functions while the card with suspend is in a player's hand. The second and third are triggered abilities that function in the removed-from-the-game zone. "Suspend N-[cost]" means "If you could play this card from your hand, you may pay [cost] and remove it from the game with N time counters on it. This action doesn't use the stack," and "At the beginning of your upkeep, if this card is suspended, remove a time counter from it," and "When the last time counter is removed from this card, if it's removed from the game, play it without paying its mana cost if able. If you can't, it remains removed from the game. If you play a creature spell this way, it gains haste until you lose control of the spell or the permanent it becomes." Playing a spell as an effect of its suspend ability follows the rules for paying alternative costs in rules 409.1b and 409.1f-h. See rule 502.59, "Suspend."

Suspended

A card is "suspended" if it's in the removed-from-the-game zone, has suspend, and has a time counter on it.

Threshold

Threshold is a characteristic-setting ability. An object with threshold has the text after "Threshold -" if its controller has seven or more cards in his or her graveyard. Otherwise, the text after "Threshold -" is treated as though it did not appear on the object. An instant or sorcery with threshold has the threshold text only if it's on the stack. An artifact, creature, enchantment, or land with threshold has the threshold text only if it's in play. See rule 502.23, "Threshold."

Threshold

Threshold used to be a keyword ability. It is now an ability word and has no rules meaning. All cards printed with the threshold keyword have received errata. Updated wordings are available in the Oracle card reference.